Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Industrial and Organizational Psychology PSY 307
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This 48 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lucie Larkin on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 307 at North Carolina State University taught by Natalie Wright in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/223876/psy-307-north-carolina-state-university in Psychlogy at North Carolina State University.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
Exam 1 Study Guide Exam date September 9 2010 The test will consist of 15 multiple choice questions each worth 2 points and 4 short answerminiessay questions each worth 5 points Be prepared for some applicationrelated questions What is 10 Psychology 0 Be able to give a brief explanation of what U0 psychology is 0 Know what the scientistpractitioner model is and be able to explain how it relates to IO 0 Know which topic areas are traditionally considered industrial and which topic areas are traditionally considered organizational History of IO Psychology 0 Know what each of the following individuals did that was relevant to DO andor applied psychology in general 0 Walter Dill Scott 0 James Cattell 0 Hugo Munsterberg o Fredrick Taylor Know when the Aimy Alpha and Beta tests were created and what their purpose was 0 Know what the results of the Hawthome Studies were Be able to name at least 4 factors that are in uencing the future of IO Research Methods 0 Be able to explain the difference between a theory and a hypothesis 0 Be able to compare and contrast the experimental and the quasiexperimental method What characteristics does the experimental method have that the quasiexperimental method does not 0 Know conceptually what a metaanalysis is Be able to explain why the correlational method cannot be used to infer causality Know the difference between positive and negative correlations and between strong and weak correlations 0 Know what it means to operationalize a variable Be comfortable creating a research design to address a problem in the workplace formulate the problem generate a hypothesis choose an experimental design choose data collection method Job Analysis 0 Know the difference between task and personoriented approaches to collecting job analysis data 0 Know what KSAOs are Be able to differentiate between them I promise to use clearcut examples on the test 0 Know and be able to describe the four outcomes of job analysis Know the 6 main ways to collect job analysis data Be able to give a pro and a con for each method Be able to describe the following job analysis methods 0 Job elements method 0 Functional job analysis 0 Position analysis questionnaire FAQ 0 Critical incidents technique CIT Be able to explain how job evaluations are used to prevent pay discrimination Be able to explain what the ADA is and how job analysis plays a role in this law y IO Psychology in general 0 10 is 0 The study of behavior in work settings and the application of psychology principles to change work behavior 0 A mix of business psychology and statistics 0 I O psychologists promote the scientist practitioner model 0 The application of scienti c principles to understanding real world conditions Interplay between real world and practice I I and quotOrganizationa quotIndustria 0 Industrial topics 0 Organizational topics 0 Job analysis 0 Worker attitudes such 0 Selection as job satisfaction 0 Performance appraisal 39 MOtiVation 0 Training 0 Leadership 0 Teams 0 Organizational culture Big names in IO history 0 James Cattell 0 Coined term mental test tried to predict academic success of college freshmen 0 Walter Dill Scott 0 Applied psychology to increasing worker efficiency and productivity 0 Hugo Munsterberg Wrote Psychology and Industrial E iciency 1913 developed selection system for trolley car operators 0 Fredrick Taylor 0 Scienti c management time and motion studies Army Alpha and Beta Tests 0 In WWI needed to select recruits who were fit for military service 0 Robert Yerkes created Army Alpha and Beta Tests 0 Army Beta test for illiterate recruits maze test pictorial completion 0 Army Alpha test for literate recruits analogies disarranged sentences math Hawthorne Studies 0 Conducted by Elton Mayo 1933 study of effects of lighting on workers at General Electric 0 No matter what level of lighting was chosen worker productivity improved 0 Workers knew they were being watched and that the study could improve their work environment 0 Hawthorne Effect changes in behavior occurring as a result of participants knowledge that they are being observed and their expectations about their role as research participants 0 Began human relations movement Hypotheses vs Theories 0 Theory Organization of beliefs about behavior into a formal often general structure 0 Hypothesis Specific statement of prediction of behavior in a specific study in terms of variables Doesn t always explicitly state why you would expect outcome More specific than theory The experimental method 0 Control over environment random assignment to conditions 0 Independent variables vs Dependent variables 0 Treatment Group vs Control Group 0 Experiments can have varying levels of environmental control lO has true experiments but more common are quasi experimental research designs The quasiexperiment 0 Similar to a true experiment but lacks random assignment manipulation of independent variable or both 0 Often done out of necessity especially in eld settings 0 Vary in their degree of rigor Metaanalyses 0 Combines ndings of many studies works well to synthesize large bodies of research Correlational studies 0 Measure the relationship between two variables 0 No manipulation of the variables 0 Cannot determine cause and effect 0 May be third variable that you didn t measure that is causing relationship Days Late per Year r 75 O O O O O O O 6 x x x 1 x x 3 6 9 12 15 18 Miles from Work experience 24 month atjub 12345678910 Waste number ofpiaces rejected per day Negative relationship r 0 68 Strong and weak correlations Correiation coefficient 90 Correlation coefficient 95 Correlation coefficient 80 Doing research 0 Operationalizing Variables define what variables mean Formulate problem p I Generate hypotheses Choosing an experimental design Collect data Statistical analysis of data QWPWquot Interpret results Job analysis approaches 0 Task vs Person oriented approaches 0 Task What gets done look at job duties responsibilities or function Worker How things get done looking at worker requirements to perform task Knowledge what you need to know 0 Skills Proficiencies needed to perform a task Abilities Enduring attributes that are stable over time more innate than skills which can be learned 0 Other characteristics Such as personality Job analysis outcomes 0 Job Description description of job tasks procedures and responsibilities including any tools and equipment used 0 Job Specification characteristics and requirements necessary to perform the job 0 Job Evaluation Assessment of relative value of the job used to determine compensation 0 Performance Criteria what employees are expected to do on the job what constitutes good performance Collecting job analysis data 0 Observation Watching someone perform their job 0 Participation Job analyst actually performs the job 0 Existing Data can use already collected A data 0 Interviews ask employees supervisors what job involves 0 Job Diaries Have incumbents write about what they did at work every day for a period of time 0 Surveys can involve checklists open ended questions closed ended questions or combination Job Analysis Methods 0 Job Elements Method 0 Look at KSAOs Knowledge Skills Abilities and Other characteristics required for the job 0 Often relies on Subject Matter Experts SMEs 0 Focuses on characteristics of individual not the job Job Analysis Methods Functional Job Analysis FJA What tasks are performed 0 How tasks are performed 93 major parts 0 Data information knowledge concepts 0 People how often and with whom interaction is required 0 Things tools and equipment required for job Job Analysis Methods 0 Position Analysis Questionnaire PAQ 0 Standardized questionnaire of 187 questions organized into 6 areas Information input Mental processes 0 Work output Relationships with other persons Job context 0 Other job Characteristics Job Analysis Methods 0 Critical Incidents Technique CIT 0 Gather information about what constitutes very good performance and very bad performance Reliability and validity 0 Reliability Consistency of measurement 0 Degree to which measurement is free of error 0 Content validity Does test accurately sample the entire construct of interest 0 Criterion related validity Does selection test accurately predict job performance 0 Construct validity extent to which test is an accurate measure of a construct Cognitive ability testing 0 Very predictive validity coefficients from 030 060 0 Predictive across all jobs But can t always be used Griggs v Duke Power 1971 0 Even more predictive for upper level jobs than lower level jobs 0 But Sometimes results in adverse impact y Personality testing Big5 0 Extraversion Conscientiousness Openness to experience 0 Neuroticism 0 Agreeableness 0 Extraversion good predictor of performance in very people oriented jobs sales management 0 Conscientiousness good predictor of performance for all occupations and across cultures Interviews o Unstructured No predetermined questions very off the cuff quot interviewers and interviewees alike prefer these They may also be better for determining person organization fit can tailor interview to applicant Fairly low predictive validity Structured Predetermined questions so that all applicants are asked the same questions Have better predictive validity Often use situational questions Tell me about a timequot Imagine thatquot Multiple hurdle approach Start with cheap and valid predictor oweww Make cuts in applicant pool Move towards more expensive predictors Make more cuts Repeat Allows companies to allocate selection budget better don t spend money on unqualified applicants 4 quadrants of selection Predictor Cutoff Criterion False Negatives Co rrect Success Cutoff Score Correct Scatter Plot ofAII Scores False Positives Predictor Adverse impact 0 Members of protected group treated unfairly by selection procedure 0 45 rule EEOC Uniform Guidelines Adverse impact is occurring if selection ratio for protected group is less than 80 that of the non protected group 0 Protected group women ethnic racial minorities and applicants over 40 who have historically been discriminated against in selection procedures Task and contextual performance Task performance Things in job description Technical core Contextual performance Helping behaviors Often noncentral tasks Counter productive performance Objective and subjective measures 0 Objective data parts produced sales numbers electronic performance monitoring absenteeism accidents 0 Subjective data Ratings or judgments of performance 0 From supervisor self peers clients Normative and absolute measures 0 Normative measures Compare individuals performance with that of other employees in similar positions within organization 0 Forced distribution 0 Rankings 0 Paired comparisons 0 Absolute measures Compare individuals performance with a predetermined standard 0 Graphical scales 0 Behaviorally anchored rating scales BARS 0 Behavioral observation scales BOS 0 Checklists 0 Narratives Performance evaluation errors 0 Leniency error III Tendenc to give all workers positive performance appraisa s 0 Severity error I Tendenc to give all workers negative performance appraisa s 0 Central tendency error El Tendency to give all workers the midpoint average in performance appraisals 0 Halo effect 0 Overall positive evaluation of a worker based on one known positive characteristic or action Transfer of training 0 Does the employee actually apply their new knowledge and skills to the job 0 Maintenance Does training actually stick long term Organizational analysis 0 Look at needs of organization as a whole 0 Can discover potential problem areas for training transfer 0 For example do managers encourage new ways of doing things or do they prefer employees to stick to old methods 0 Organizational transfer climate 0 Extent to which organization is supportive of transferring new skills and knowledge to the job Task analysis 0 Develop Task Statements What tasks do employees perform 0 Come from job analysis 0 Translate into KSAOs 0 Use SMEs to determine relevant KSAOs for job 0 Create training program to address KSAOs Onthejob instruction Watch experienced Worker perform task and try to imitate it Often fairly unstructured Experienced worker often not thrilled about providing training Offsite training 0 Seminars lectures 0 Audiovisual material 0 Modeling 0 Simulation 0 Programmed instruction 0 Computer assisted instruction Kirkpatrick s Model 0 Internal 0 Reaction Do applicants like the training 0 Learning How much was learned during the program 0 External 0 Behavioral changes Actual changes in behavior once employee is back on job 0 Measurable results Economic value of training program to company very hard to measure Training evaluation designs Posttest only Training group C Training evaluation designs Pretest posttest Pretest posttest With a control group Training group