Developmental Psychology PSY 376
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lucie Larkin on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 376 at North Carolina State University taught by Daniel Gruehn in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/223879/psy-376-north-carolina-state-university in Psychlogy at North Carolina State University.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
PSY 376 Developmental Psychology Study Guide I 1 History Theory and Research Strategies Human development is an interdisciplinary field of study devoted to understanding human constancy and change throughout the lifespan Although great diversity exists among investigators who study human development all have a single goal in common the desire to describe and identify those factors that in uence consistencies and transformations in people from conception to death Theories of human development take a stance on three basic issues 1 Is development a continuous or discontinuous process 215 there one course of J 1 or many I 39L 7 3 Is J determined primarily by nature or nurture and is it stable or open to change Many modern theories include elements from both sides of these debates The lifespan perspective recognizes that great complexity exists in human change and the factors that underlie it This perspective assumes 1 that development is lifelong 2 that it is multidimensional and multidirectional 3 that it is plastic or exible at all ages and 4 that it is in uenced by multiple interacting forces Contemporary theories of human development can be traced back to in uences that preceded scienti c study After Charles Darwin constructed his theory of evolution in the nineteenth century the scienti c study of development evolved quickly Sigmund Freud39s psychosexual theory and Erik Erikson39s psychosocial theory viewed development as discontinuous occurring in stages but Erikson added three adult stages to Freud39s ve stages of childhood The behaviorist perspective rejecting the psychoanalytic concern with the unseen workings of the mind focused on directly observable events stimuli and responses Albert Bandura39s social learning theory which expanded on the principles of conditioning emphasizes modeling as a powerful source of development and is still in uential today Swiss cognitive theorist Jean Piaget disagreeing with the behaviorists developed his cognitive developmental theory based on the idea that children actively construct knowledge Recent theoretical perspectives include information processing which examines the human mind as a symbol manipulating system ethology and evolutionary developmental psychology which are concerned with the adaptive value of behavior Lev Vygotsky39s sociocultural theory which looks at the role of culture and Urie Bronfenbrenner s ecological systems theory which examines development in the context of a complex system of relationships Research in human development like all scientific research begins with a hypothesis or prediction about behavior drawn from a theory Research methods commonly used to study development include systematic observation selfreports clinical or case studies of single individuals and ethnographies of the life circumstances of specific groups of people Investigators of human development generally choose either a correlational research design which looks at relationships but cannot determine causality or an experimental design which uses dependent and independent variables to determine cause and effect To study how individuals change over time 39 39g use 39 J39 u s 1 ml and 39 J39 s n utiu designs Each method and design has both strengths and limitations Finally conducting research with human subjects poses special ethical dilemmas particularly for children and elderly people You sho uld be able to 11 Explain the importance of the terms interdisciplinary and applied as they help to de ne the field of human development 12 Explain the role of theories in understanding human development and describe three basic issues on which major theories take a stand 13 Describe factors that sparked the emergence of the lifespan perspective and explain at least four assumptions that make up this point of view 14 Trace historical in uences on modern theories of human development from medieval times through the early twentieth century PSY 376 Developmental Psychology Study Guide I 2 15 Describe theoretical perspectives that in uenced human development research in the midtwentieth century and cite the contributions and limitations of eac 16 Describe recent theoretical perspectives on human development noting the contributions of major theorists 17 Identify the stand that each contemporary theory takes on the three basic issues presented earlier in this chapter 18 Describe the research methods commonly used to study human development citing the strengths and limitations of each 19 Contrast correlational and experimental research designs and cite the strengths and limitations of each 110 Describe three research designs for studying development and cite the strengths and limitations of each 111 Discuss ethical issues related to lifespan research Biological and Environmental Foundations Lifespan developmental psychology examines the foundations of development heredity and environment The discussion begins at the moment of conception an event that establishes the new individual39s hereditary makeup At conception chromosomes containing genetic information from each parent combine to determine characteristics that make us human and also contribute to individual differences in appearance and behavior Several different patterns of inheritance are possible ensuring that each individual will be unique Serious developmental problems often result from the inheritance of harmful recessive genes and by chromosomal abnormalities Fortunately genetic counseling and prenatal diagnostic methods make early detection of genetic problems possible just as complex as heredity are the environments in which human development takes place The family has an especially powerful impact on development operating as a network of interdependent relationships in which members exert direct indirect and thirdparty in uences on one another Family functioning and individual wellbeing are in uenced considerably by childrearing practices as well as by SE S Poverty and homelessness can pose serious threats to development while children in af uent families may suffer from overscheduling and lack of emotional closeness The availability of education of women in particular promotes a better quality of life for both parents and children Beyond the immediate family quality of community life in neighborhoods schools towns and cities also affects children39s and adults39 development Cultural values for example the degree to which a society I 39 39 39 versus 39 quot 39 quot ubiu with laws and government programs to shape experiences in all of these contexts Public policies are needed to support the economic and social wellbeing of both children and the elderly Some researchers believe it is useful and possible to determine how muchquot heredity and environment contribute to individual differences Others think that the effects of heredity and environment cannot be clearly separated Instead they want to discover how these two major determinants of development work together in a complex dynamic interplay You sho uld be able to 21 Explain the role and function of genes and how they are transmitted from one generation to the next 22 Describe the genetic events that determine the sex of the new organism 23 Identify two types of twins and explain how each is created 24 Describe various patterns of genetic inheritance 25 Describe major chromosomal abnormalities and explain how they occur PSY 376 Developmental Psychology Study Guide I 3 J J 26 Explain how r r can assist I I 39 parents in having healthy children 27 Summarize research on adoption 28 Describe the social systems perspective on family functioning along with aspects of the environment that support family wellbeing and development 29 Discuss the impact of socioeconomic status and poverty on family functioning 210 Summarize the roles of neighborhoods towns and cities in the lives of children and adults 211 Explain how cultural values and practices public policies and political and economic conditions affect human development 212 Explain the various ways heredity and environment can in uence complex traits 213 Describe and evaluate methods researchers use to determine how muchquot heredity and environment in uence complex human characteristics 214 Describe concepts that indicate how heredity and environment work together to in uence complex human characteristic 5 Prenatal Development Birth and the Newborn Baby With conception the story of prenatal development begins to unfold The vast changes that take place during the 38 weeks of pregnancy are usually divided into three phases 1 the period of the zygote 2 the period of the embryo and 3 the period of the fetus Although the prenatal environment is far more constant than the world outside the womb many factors can affect the developing embryo and fetus Various environmental agents or teratogens and other maternal factors can damage the developing organism making the prenatal period a vulnerable time For this reason early and regular prenatal health care is vitally important to ensure the health of mother and baby Childbirth takes place in three stages 1 dilation and effacement of the cervix 2 delivery of the baby and 3 birth of the placenta Production of stress hormones during labor helps infants withstand oxygen deprivation clear the lungs for breathing and arouse them into alertness at birth Doctors and nurses use the Apgar Scale to assess the infant39s physical condition quickly after birth Childbirth practices are molded by the society of which the mother and baby are a part Alternatives to traditional hospital childbirth include natural childbirth and delivery in a freestanding birth center or at home When pregnancy and birth complications are likely medical interventions help save the lives of many babies but when used routinely they may inaccurately identify infants as being in danger when they are not Preterm and lowbirthweight infants are at risk for many problems Interventions for preterm babies such as special infant stimulation can help these infants develop favorably Infants begin life with remarkable skills relating to their physical and social worlds Re exes are the newborn baby39s most obvious organized patterns of behavior Throughout the day and night newborns move in and out of ve different states of arousal Rapideyemovement REM sleep seems to be especially critical providing young infants with stimulation essential for central nervous system development Crying is the rst way babies communicate letting parents know that they need food comfort and stimulation The senses of touch taste smell and sound are well developed at birth while vision is the least mature of the newborn39s senses After childbirth all family members need to meet the challenges of living in the new family unit that has been created but when parents support each other 5 needs the stress remains manageable You sbo uld be able to 31 List the three periods of prenatal development and describe the major milestones of each PSY 376 Developmental Psychology Study Guide I 4 32 Define the term teratogen and summarize the factors that affect the impact of teratogens on prenatal development 33 List agents known or suspected of being teratogens and discuss evidence supporting the harmful impact of each 34 Discuss maternal factors other than exposure to teratogens that can affect the developing embryo or fetus 35 Explain the importance of early and regular health care during the prenatal period 36 Describe the three stages of childbirth 37 Discuss the baby39s adaptation to labor and delivery and describe the appearance of the newborn baby 38 Describe natural childbirth and home delivery noting any bene ts and concerns associated with each 39 List common medical interventions during childbirth circumstances that justify their use and any dangers associatedwith eac 310 Describe the risks associatedwith preterm and smallfordate births along with factors that help infants who survive a traumatic birth recover 311 Describe the newborn baby39s re exes and states of arousal including sleep characteristics and ways to soothe a crying baby 312 Describe the newborn baby39s sensory capacities 313 Explain the usefulness of neonatal behavioral assessment 314 Describe typical changes in the family after the birth of a new baby Physical Development in Infamy and Toddlerhaad During the first 2 years children39s body sizes increase dramatically faster than at any other time after birth Rather than steady gains infants and toddlers grow in little spurts Body fat is laid down quickly in the rst 9 months whereas muscle development is slow and gradual As in all aspects of development individual children differ in body size and muscle fat makeup The best way to estimate a child39s physical maturity is by using skeletal age Two growth patterns cephalocaudal and proximodistal trends describe changes in the child39s body proportions At birth the brain is nearer than any other physical structure to its adult size and it continues to develop at an astounding pace throughout infancy and toddlerhood Neurons or nerve cells that store and transmit information develop and form an elaborate communication system in the brain As neurons form connections stimulation becomes necessary for their survival The cerebral cortex is the largest most complex brain structure accounting for 85 percent of the brain39s weight containing the greatest number of neurons and synapses and responsible for the unique intelligence of our species At birth the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex have already begun to specialize a process called lateralization However the brain retains considerable plasticity during the first few years of life Researchers have identi ed intermittent brain growth spurts from infancy to early adulthood that provide evidence for sensitive periods in brain development Appropriate stimulation is key to promoting experience expectant brain growth the young brain39s rapidly developing organization which depends on ordinary experiences Experience dependent brain growth in contrast occurs throughout our lives as a result of speci c learning experiences there is no sensitive period for mastering such skills Finally rapid brain growth means that the organization of sleep and wakefulness changes substantially between birth and 2 years and fussiness and crying also decline Physical growth like other aspects of development results from the continuous and complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors Heredity nutrition and emotional wellbeing all affect early physical growth Dietary diseases caused by malnutrition affect many children in developing countries If allowed to continue body growth and brain development can be permanently stunted Breastfeeding PSY 376 Developmental Psychology Study Guide I 5 provides many benefits to infants in the rst year especially for those in the developing world where safe nutritious alternatives are not widely available Breastfeeding also helps protect against later obesity which is a growing problem in the developed world Babies who do not receive affection and stimulation may suffer from nonorganic failure to thrive which has symptoms resembling those of malnutrition but has no physical cause Babies come into the world with builtin learning capacities that permit them to pro t from experience immediately Classical and operant conditioning habituation and recovery and imitation are all important mechanisms through which infants learn about their physical and social worlds Like physical J I motor J 1 follows 39L r J andr 39 J39 trends Babies39 motor achievements have a powerful effect on their social relationships According to dynamic systems theory of motor development each new motor skill is a joint product of central nervous system development movement capacities of the body goals the child has in mind and environmental supports for the skill Cultural differences in infantrearing practices affect the timing of motor development Perception changes remarkably over the rst year of life Hearing and vision undergo major advances during the first 2 years as infants organize stimuli into complex patterns improve their perception of depth and objects and combine information across sensory modalities From extensive everyday experience babies gradually figure out how to use depth cues to detect the danger of falling According to Eleanor and Iames Gibson39s differentiation theory perceptual development is a matter of detecting invariant features in a constantly changing perceptual world You sho uId be able to 41 Describe major changes inbody growth over the first 2 years 42 Describe changes in brain development during infancy and toddlerhood both at the level of individual brain cells and at the level of the cerebral cortex 43 Describe the development and functions of neurons and glial cells 44 Describe the development of the cerebral cortex and explain the concepts of brain lateralization and brain plasticity 45 Describe how both heredity and early experience contribute to brain organization 46 Discuss changes in the organization of sleep and wakefulness over the rst 2 years 47 Cite evidence that heredity affection and stimulation contribute to early physical growth 48 Discuss the nutritional needs of infants and toddlers the advantages of breastfeeding and the extent to which chubby babies are at risk for later overweight and obesity 49 Discuss the impact of severe malnutrition on the development of infants and toddlers and cite two dietary diseases associated with this condition 410 Describe the growth disorder known as nonorganic failure to thrive noting common symptoms and family circumstances surrounding the disorder 411 Describe four infant learning capacities the conditions under which they occur and the unique value of eac 412 Describe the general course of motor development during the first 2 years along with factors that in uence it 413 Explain dynamic systems theory of motor development and discuss support for this approach stemming from crosscultural research 414 Discuss changes in hearing depth and pattern perception and intermodal perception that occur during infancy 415 Explain differentiation theory of perceptual development PSY 376 Developmental Psychology Study Guide I 6 Cognitive Development in Infamy and Toddlerhaad According to Piaget by acting directly on the environment children move through four stages of cognitive development in which psychological structures or schemes achieve a better fit with external reality The rst stage called the sensorimotor stage spans the rst two years of life and is divided into six substages In this stage infants make strides in intentional behavior and understanding of object permanence until by the end of the second year they become capable of mental representation as seen in their sudden solutions to sensorimotor problems mastery of object permanence problems involving hidden displacement deferred imitation and makebelieve play Recent research suggests that some sensorimotor capacities emerge earlier than Piaget believed raising questions about the accuracy of his account of sensorimotor development Informationprocessing theorists using computerlike owcharts to describe the human cognitive system focus on many aspects of thinking from attention memory and categorization skills to complex problem solving With age infants attend to more aspects of the environment and take information in more rapidly In the second year as children become increasingly capable of intentional behavior attention to nove ty declines and sustained attention improves As infants get older they remember experiences longer and group stimuli into increasingly complex categories Also categorization shifts from a perceptual to conceptual basis Information processing has contributed greatly to our view of young babies as sophisticated cognitive beings However its greatest drawback stems from its central strength by analyzing cognition into its components information processing has had dif culty putting them back together into a broad comprehensive theory Vygotsky believed that complex mental activities have their origins in social interaction Through joint activities with more mature members of their society children come to master activities and think in ways that have meaning in their culture Infant intelligence tests primarily measure perceptual and motor responses and predict later intelligence poorly Speed of habituation and recovery to visual stimuli which tap basic cognitive processes are better predictors of future performance Home and childcare environments as well as early intervention for atrisk infants and toddlers exert powerful in uences on mental development As perception and cognition improve during infancy they pave the way for an extraordinary human achievement language The behaviorist perspective regards language development as entirely due to environmental in uences whereas nativism assumes that children are prewired with an innate language acquisition device to master the intricate rules of their language The interactionist perspective maintains that language development results from interactions between inner capacities and environmental in uences such as social exchanges Babies begin cooing around 2 months followed by babbling which gradually re ects the sound and intonation patterns of the child39s language community First words appear around 12 months and twoword utterances between 18 and 24 months However substantial individual differences exist in rate and style of early language progress As toddlers learn words they may apply them too narrowly underextension or too broadly overextension in part because their language comprehension develops ahead of their ability to produce language Adults in many cultures speak to young children using child directed speech a simpli ed form of language that is wellsuited to their learning needs Deaf parents use a similar style of communication when signing to their deaf babies Conversational give and take between adults and toddlers is one of the best predictors of early language development and academic competence during the school years After reading this chapter you should be able to 51 Describe how schemes change over the course of development 52 Identify Piaget39s six sensorimotor substages and describe the major cognitive achievements of the sensorimotor stage PSY 376 Developmental Psychology Study Guide I 7 53 Discuss recent research on sensorimotor development noting its implications for the accuracy of Piaget39s sensorimotor stage 54 Describe the infor 39 p Hing view of g quot39 r and the general structure ofthe informationprocessing system 55 Cite changes in attention memory and categorization during the rst 2 years 56 Describe contributions and limitations of the informationprocessing approach and explain how it contributes to our understanding of early cognitive development 57 Explain how Vygotsky39s concept of the zone of proximal development expands our understanding of early cognitive development 58 Describe the mental testing approach the meaning of intelligence test scores and the extent to which infant tests predict later performance 59 Discuss environmental in uences on early mental development including home child care and early intervention for atrisk infants and toddlers 510 Describe theories of language development and indicate how much emphasis each places on innate abilities and environmental in uences 511 Describe major milestones of language development in the rst 2 years noting individual differences and discuss ways in which adults can support infants39 and toddlers39 emerging capacities Emotional and Social Development in Infamy and Toddlerhood Although Freud39s psychoanalytic theory is no longer in the mainstream of human development research his emphasis on the importance of the parent child relationship was accepted and elaborated by other theorists notably Erik Erikson Erikson believed that the psychological con ict of the first year of life is basic trust versus mistrust and that a healthy outcome depends on the quality of the parent child relationship During toddlerhood the con ict of autonomy versus shame and doubt is resolved favorably when parents provide appropriate guidance and reasonable choices If children emerge from the rst few years without sufficient trust in caregivers and without a healthy sense of individuality the seeds are sown for adjustment problems All humans and other primates experience basic emotions happiness interest surprise fear anger sadness and disgust that have an evolutionary history of promoting survival Emotions play powerful roles in organizing social relationships exploration of the environment and discovery of the self Cognitive and motor development caregiver infant communication and cultural factors all affect the development an expression of emotions Infants39 emotional expressions are closely tied to their ability to interpret the emotional cues of others As toddlers become aware of the self as a separate unique individual selfconscious emotions guilt shame embarrassment envy and pride appear Toddlers also begin to use emotional selfregulation strategies to manage their emotions Rapid J I of 39L L cortex quot39 g39 39 an growt in representation and language contribute to the development of effortful control which is necessary for self regulation Infants vary widely in temperament including both reactivity quickness and intensity of emotional arousal attention and motor activity and self regulation strategies for modifying reactivity Research findings have inspired a growing body of research on temperament examining its stability biological roots and interaction with childrearing experiences The goodnessof t model explains how temperament and environment can together produce favorable outcomes when child rearing environments recognize each child39s temperament while encouraging more adaptive functioning PSY 376 Developmental Psychology Study Guide I 8 Attachment refers to the strong affectionate tie we have with special people in our lives that leads us to feel pleasure when we interact with them and to be comforted by their nearness in times of stress By the second half of the first year infants have become attached to familiar people who have responded to their needs Today ethological theory of attachment which recognizes the infant39s emotional tie to the caregiver as an evolved response that promotes survival is the most widely accepted view By the end of the second year children develop an enduring affectionate tie to the caregiver that serves as an internal working model a guide for future close relationships Attachment security is in uenced by opportunity for attachment quality of caregiving infant characteristics and family circumstances Babies form attachments to a variety 0 familiar people in addition to mothers fathers siblings grandparents and professional caregivers Mounting evidence indicates that continuity of caregiving determines whether attachment security in early life is linked to later development the effects of early attachment security depend on the quality of the baby39s future relationships During the first two years knowledge of the self as a separate permanent identity emerges beginning with selfrecognition awareness of the self 5 physical features Selfawareness is associated with the beginnings of empathy the ability to understand another person39s emotional state and to respond emotionally in a similar way Selfawareness also contributes to effortful control the extent to which children can inhibit impulses manage negative emotion and behave in socially acceptable ways Selfcontrol begins with compliance including the ability to delay grati cation After reading this chapter you should be able to 61 Discuss personality changes in the rst two stages of Erikson39s psychosocial theory basic trust versus mistrust and autonomy versus shame and dou t 62 Describe changes in the expression of happiness sadness and fear over the rst year noting the adaptive function of each 63 Summarize changes during the first 2 years in understanding others39 emotions and expression of self conscious emotions 64 Trace the development of emotional selfregulation during the first 2 years 65 Describe temperament and identify the three temperamental styles elaborated by Thomas and Chess 66 Compare Thomas and Chess39s model of temperament with that of Rothbart 67 Explain how temperament is assessed and distinguish inhibited or shy children from uninhibited or sociable children 68 Discuss the stability of temperament and the role of heredity and environment in the development of temperament 69 Summarize the goodnessof t model 610 Describe Bowlby39s ethological theory of attachment and trace the development of attachment during the rst 2 years 611 Describe the Strange Situation and Attachment Q Sort procedures for measuring attachment along with the four patterns of attachment that have been identi ed using the Strange Situation 612 Discuss the factors that affect attachment security including opportunity for attachment quality of caregiving infant characteristics family circumstances and parents39 internal working models 613 Discuss fathers39 attachment relationships with their infants and explain the role of early attachment quality in later development 614 Describe and interpret the relationship between secure attachment in infancy and later development 615 Trace the emergence of selfawareness and explain how it in uences early emotional and social development categorization of the self and development of selfcontrol
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