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Interpersonal Communication

by: Dr. Dasia Brekke

Interpersonal Communication COM 112

Dr. Dasia Brekke
GPA 3.73

J. Crump

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J. Crump
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Dasia Brekke on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COM 112 at North Carolina State University taught by J. Crump in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see /class/223881/com-112-north-carolina-state-university in Communication at North Carolina State University.


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Date Created: 10/15/15
Chapter 5 Language Language a structured system of symbols used for communicating meaning Onomatopoeia a word formed by imitating the sound associated with its meaning Phonological rules deal with the correct pronunciation of words Syntactic rules dictate the proper order of words for the intended meaning Semantic rules govern the meanings of individual words Pragmatic rules deal with the implications or interpretations of statements when someone says nice to meet you are they really happy to meet you Denotative meaning a word s literal meaning or dictionary de nition denotative de nition of home is a shelter however our own de nition might be safe place Connotative meaning a word s implied or secondary meaing in addition to its literal meaning home is a place where I am free to do whatever I want Loaded language terms that carry strongly positive or negative connotations the word cancer Ambiguous language having more than on possible meaning right SapirWhorf hypothesis the idea that language in uences the ways that members of a culture see and think about the world 0 Linguistic determinism suggests that the structure of languagre determines how we think We can only conceive something if we have a word for it in our vocabulary Linguistic relativity suggests that because language determines our perceptions of reality people who speak different languages will see the world differently Ladder of abstraction goes from abstract to concrete living being animal mammal primate male Tom Persuasive strategies 0 Anchorandcontrast a format of persuasion in which you initially make a large request that is rejected and then follow it with a smaller more reasonable request 0 0 Norm of reciprocity suggests that we expect people to repay favors that they have received from others I m so glad I was able to sponsor you last year would you be able to return the favor and sponsor me this time 0 Social validation principle the prediction that people will comply with requests if they believe others are also complying when advertisers say that four out of ve people preferred a certain brand of something Credibility the extent to which others nd our words and actions trustworthy Cliches phrases that were novel at one time but have lost their effect because of overuse making a difference thinking outside the box Dialects variations on a language that are shared by people of a certain region or social class ya ll vs you Equivocation language that disguises the speakers s true intentions through strategic ambiguity when you are asked to give a reference for someone that is your friend but you do not think that they are the best for the job you give a broad answer that can be interpreted different ways Weasel words terms or phrases that are intended to mislead listeners by implying something that they don t actually say when you hear four out of five people approve it implies that 80 approve however what you don t know is that only five people were surveyed Allness statements statement implying that a claim is true without exception when someone says that experts agree you think that all experts agree but the person does not have evidence to back up that claim 0 avoiding weasel words equivocation and allness statements are ways to make your speech more credible Affection an emotional experience that includes feelings of love and appreciation that one person has for another Intimacy a characteristic of close supportive relationships Euphemism a vague mild 39 that 39 quot quot 39 harsh instead of saying have sex you say sleep together Slang informal unconventional words that are often understood only by others in a particular subculture snag is another word for sausage Libel a defamatory statement made in print or some other fixed medium motion picture Slander a defamatory statement made aloud gossiping or spreading rumors Profanity a form of language considered vulgar rude or obscene in the context in which it is used Hate speech a form of profanity meant to degrade intimidate or dehumanize groups of people Shared knowledge error when you presume your listeners have information that they don t have we must consider what people do and don t know about us while speaking Shared opinion error occurs when you incorrectly assume that your listeners share your opinions Monopolization error occurs when one speaker inappropriately dominates the conversation Istatement a statement that claims ownership of one s thoughts or feelings I m mad right now My feelings are hurt Youstatement a statement that shifts responsibility for one s own thoughts or feelings to the listener You re making me mad You hurt my feelings more blunt or Chapter 6 Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal communication those behaviors and characteristics that convey meaning without the use of words pointing o Nonverbal communication is present in most interpersonal communication 0 Nonverbal communication often conveys more information than verbal communication O Nonverbal communication is usually believed over verbal communication Nonverbal communication is the primary means of communicating emotion o Nonverbal communication is metacommunicative behaviors such as when a friend whispers and covers her mouth with her hand convey that what she is telling you is meant to be a secret o Nonverbal communication particularly facial expression is our primary means of conveying emotion Nonverbal channels the various forms that nonverbal communication takes rely on sense of vision facial expressions gestures personal appearance vocal characteristics loudness pitch tone of voice sense of touch and smell 0 Ten channels of nonverbal communication Facial displays the use of facial expression for communication Eye behaviors the eyes communicate more than any other part of the face 0 Osculesicsthe study of eye behaviors Movement and gestures o Gait the way you walk 0 Kinesics the study of movement 0 Gesticulation the use of arm and hand movements to communicate o Emblem any gesture that has a direct verbal translation whenever you see an emblematic gesture you should be able to translate it into words Example wavehello or goodbye o Illustrators gestures that go along with a verbal message to enhance or clarify it hold up your hands a certain distance apart and say that it was this big o Affect displays gestures that communicate emotion cover your mouth when you are surprised o Regulators gestures that control the ow of conversation if you are speaking and someone is trying to interrupt you hold up your finger to indicate you are not finished 0 Adaptors a gesture used to satisfy a personal need self adaptorsscratching an itch otheradaptorsscratching someone else s itch I Touch behaviorsthe only sense we cannot survive without 0 Hapticsthe study of how we use touch to communicate 0 Types of touch 0 Affectionate touch caregiving touch power and control touch aggressive touch ritualistic touch I Vocal behaviors o Vocalics characteristics of the voice 0 Paralinguistic cues that affect how voice conveys meaning 0 Pitch fundamental frequency lower vocal pitch vs higher voice 0 0000 O O O O I Use of smell Olfactics the study of the sense of smell Two phenomena 0 O I Use of space Prxemics the study of spatial use Highcontact culture a culture in which people frequently touch and maintain little personal distance with one another Hispanic European and Middle Eastern cultures Lowcontact culture a culture in which people touch infrequently and maintain relatively high levels of personal distance with one another United States I Physical appearance Halo effect the tendency to attribute positive qualities to physically attractive people when a person LOOKS good we assume that they ARE good I Use of time Chronemics the use of time Messages of value we spend time on things that matter to us you come to visit me but I spend all day working shows that I do not value our relationship as much Messages of power when we are kept waiting to see someone the sue of time can signal or reinforce a power In ection variation in pitch monotone Volumeindex of how loud or quiet your voice is Rate refers to how fast or slowly you speak Filler words nonword sounds such as umm or err that people use to fill silence during pauses while they re speaking Pronunciation re ects how correctly you combine vowel and consonant sounds to say a word vitamin tomato Articulation refers to how clearly you speak enunciation Accent pattern of pronouncing vowel and consonant sounds that is representative of a particular language or geographic area Silence absence of sound Memories smells can affect our communication behavior by in uencing our memories and our moods a particular scent reminds you of a person I Olfactic association the tendency of odors to bring to mind specific memories Sexual attraction your judgments about how sexually attractive someone appears is strongly affected by how they smell difference between us you wait to see the doctor the doctor does not wait to see you I Use of artifacts use artifacts as a nonverbal channel to express yourself 0 Artifact an object or a visual feature of an environment with communicative value Principle of facial primacy the face communicates more information than any other channel of nonverbal behavior Three functions of facial display 0 Identity the face is the most important visual clue that humans use to identify one another 0 Attractiveness I Two properties that are especially important in assessing attractiveness 0 Symmetry the similarity inbetween left and right sides of the face or body 0 Proportionality the size of facial features relative to one another 0 Emotion nonverbal behaviors communicate emotions more effectively than verbal communication Functions of nonverbal communication 0 Managing conversations inviting conversations maintaining conversations I Tumtaking signals nonverbal behaviors that indicates when a person s speaking turn begins and ends eye contact I Ending conversations changes in eye behavior and posture are common strategies for ending a conversation o Expressing emotions interpreting another person s emotions give us clues about how the person is feeling I Facial expression of emotion smiling shows that you are happy I Vocal expression of emotion we can tell how a person is feeling by the way the person s voice sounds pitch rate of speech o Maintaining relationships I Immediacy behavior nonverbal behavior that conveys attraction of affiliation when two people irt they use eye contact to signal attraction I Power potential to affect another person s behavior I Dominance the actual exercise of that potential supervisors touch subordinates more than subordinates touch supervisors I Arousal increase in energy when it is positive it is excitement when it is negative it is anxiety 0 Feeling anxiety leads to fidgeting the use of more gestures and ller words I Relaxation decreased energy negative emotion depression 0 Forming impressions I Demographic impressions on the basis of visual cues such as age sex ethnicity we can accurately classify a person into broad categories I Sociocultural impressions we use characteristics such as wealth and cultures and cocultures to form an idea about people In uencing others how we persuade others I Creating credibility a strategy used by adopting a personal appearance that conveys expertise and authority we consider people in uniform to have more authority such as judge s black robes doctor s white lab coat Promoting affiliationwe are more persuaded by people we like than by people we don t like when we need help we ask people closer to us Maximizing attractiveness we are more in uenced by attractive people than unattractive people advertisers use pretty models to sell their products Concealing information facial behaviors eye behaviors vocal behaviors and kinesic behaviors are most useful Chapter 11 Deceptive Communication Deception the knowing and intentional transmission of information to create a false belief in the hearer The basic elements of deception O O O O O O O The sender must know the information is false The sender must be transmitting the information on purpose The sender must be attempting to make the receiver believe the information You aren t lying if you believe what you re saying is true You aren t lying if you don t intend for others to believe what you are saying You cannot lie to yourself Deception is a common component of politeness Deception is especially common when communicating online Reasons why people deceive O O 0000 0 Some lies benefit the hearer Some lies help you get to know someone Some lies protect your privacy Some lies help you avoid con ict Some lies make you look better Some lies help you avoid punishment Some lies help you protect yourself from distress Acts of simulation forms of deception that involve fabricating information or exaggerating facts for the purpose of misleading others make up an excuse to break a date telling someone they look pretty when they don t Falsification a form of deception that involves presenting false fabricated information as though it were true outright lying saying you are have a masters degree when you don t Exaggeration a form of deception that involves in ating or overstating facts job candidates exaggerate the details of their work history to appear more desireable to employers Acts of dissimulation forms of deception that involve omitting certain details that would change the nature of the story if they were known fail to convey information o Omission a form of deception that involves leaving consequential details out of one s story leaving out particular details of a story to create a false impression the salesperson tells you that it only costs 15 but fails to tell you that it is five payments of 15 Equivocation a form of deception that involves giving vague ambiguous answers to a question to give the false impression that one has answered it when you are asked if you like your teacher you say he s quiet a guy You haven t answered the question Truth bias the tendency to believe what someone says in the absence of a reason not to we want to believe most of what we hear unless we have a reason not to believe what someone is saying we believe it Common behaviors during acts of deception 0 False information is often inconsistent you tell your boss you are sick but when you come back to work you have an obvious sunburn this creates information inconsistency O o Deceivers often commit speech errors filler words such as umm or uh o Deception often increases vocal pitch pitch tends to rise when people are lying 0 Eye behaviors are associated with lying lack of eye contact eye blinking and pupil dilation o Liars often use false smiles smile you wear when you want to look happier than you actually are 0 Many liars use minimal body movement Motivation impairment effect a perspective offering that motivation to succeed in a lie will impair a deceiver s verbal performance making the lie less likely to be believed when people attempt highstake lies their motivation to succeed can backfire causing them to behave nervously and therefore appear dishonest you felt you had to lie but the consequences of getting caught were severe then you would be more motivated to lie successfully Interactive context a context for communicating in which participants can see and or hear each other and react to each other in real time face to face conversation telephone conversation Noninteractive context a context for communicating in which the participants cannot react to each other in real time voice mail email Chapter 12 Emotion Emotion the body s multidimensional response to any event that enhances or inhibits one s goals Mood a feeling often prolonged that has no identi able cause Happiness a state of contentment joy pleasure and cheer Love the emotion of caring for feeling attached to and feeling committed to someone Passion a secondary emotion consisting of joy and surprise plus experiences of excitement and attraction for another Liking a positive overall evaluation of another person Anger an emotional response to being wronged Contempt leads you to tell that you re better than someone else Disgust a feeling of revulsion in reaction to something offensive Jealousy the perception that the existence of the quality of an important relationship is being threatened Envy the desire for something another person has Sadness emotion involving feeling unhappy sorrowful and discouraged usually as a result of some form ofloss Depressiona physical illness involving excessive fatigue insomnia changes in weight feelings of worthlessness and or thoughts of suicide Grief the emotional process of dealing with profound loss Fear the mind and body s reaction to perceived danger Social anxiety fear of not making a good impression on others Action tendencies biologically based motives toward specific behavioral responses to emotions action tendency associated with fear is selfprotection love motivates approach anger motivates attack Components of emotion 0 Physiological emotions cause changes in physiological outcomes such as blood pressure breathing rate and hormone levels 0 Cognitive we cognitively label the physiological outcomes of emotion to identify a particular emotional state Behavioral emotions have action tendencies that cause us to behave in particular ways Social and cultural the emotions we experience and express are partially determined by the social and cultural messages and practices we have learned Valence the positivity or negativity of an emotion joy and love have a positive valence meaning we enjoy experiencing them Primary emotions distinct emotional experiences not consisting of combinations of other emotions joy sadness anger disgust Secondary emotions emotions composed of combinations of primary emotions Qealousy Metaemotion an emotion about emotion you feel embarrassed about your jealousy excited about your love 0 O Display rules unwritten codes that govern the ways people manage and express emotions o Intensification acting as though you re furious when you re mildly annoyed o Deintensification acting as though you re mildly annoyed when you re actually furious 0 Simulation acting as though you re furious when you re really indifferent 0 Inhibition acting as though you re indifferent when you re actually furious o Masking acting as though you re furious when you re actually sad Emotional contagion the tendency to mimic the emotional experience and expressions of others when you re unhappy in a group its not long before everyone is unhappy Emotional intelligence the ability to perceive and understand emotions use emotions to facilitate thought and manage emotions constructively Emotional reappraisal the process of changing how you think about the situation that gave rise to an emotion so that the effect of the emotion is diminished you are upset with your grade on an English paper you feel that you should have gotten an A but your teacher did not going into your teachers office while you are angry may cause you to say or do things that will in ame the situation


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