New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Interpersonal Communication

by: Dr. Dasia Brekke

Interpersonal Communication COM 112

Dr. Dasia Brekke
GPA 3.73

J. Crump

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

J. Crump
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Communication

This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Dasia Brekke on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COM 112 at North Carolina State University taught by J. Crump in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see /class/223881/com-112-north-carolina-state-university in Communication at North Carolina State University.


Reviews for Interpersonal Communication


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/15/15
Test 3 April 29 Chapter 7 Listening Listening the active process of making meaning out of another person s spoken messages 0 Clapping is considered nonverbal communication Three misconceptions about listening 0 Hearing is the same as listening 0 Listening is natural and effortless o All listeners hear the same thing Hearing the perception of sound it is passive and you do it because you are born with the ability you hear because you are born with working eardrums you listen because you chose to Understanding comprehending the meaning Remembering being able to store information Interpreting paying attention so we can assign meaning to the information Evaluating judging evaluating and considering Responding and indication that you are listening Informational listener listening to learn Critical listening listening to evaluate Empathic listening listening to provide empathy and comfort Pseduolistening using feedback behaviors to give the false impression that you are listening Selective listening listening only to points you want to hear Information overload being overwhelmed by the large amount of information you experience daily Glazing over daydreaming while you should be listening Rebuttal tendency the propensity to argue inwardly with a speaker and formulate your responses prematurely Closemindedness a refusal even to listen to ideas with which you disagree Competitive interrupting interrupting others in order to control the conversation Confirmation bias Chapter 8 Interpersonal Communication in Social Relationships Need to belong theory each of us is born with a drive to seek form maintain and protect strong relationships Attraction theogv why we are attracted to each other Complimentarily we like people who are different than us only when the benefits outweigh the costs Uncertainty reduction theog people are motivated to reduce uncertainty by getting to know people Predicted outcome value theog when we first communicate with others we try to predict whether continued communication with them will be worth the effort 0 Social exchange theog we seek to maintain relationships in which our bene ts outweigh our costs 0 Equity theog we want relationships in which our ratio of bene ts and costs is equal to our partner s ratio 0 Five behaviors to maintain relationships 0 0 000 O O 0 OOO Positivity Openness Assurances Social networks share social networks eX bring your boyfriend to a family reunion Sharing tasks Social validation our friends are our peers because it is social validation Friendships develop in stages Role limited interaction Friendly relations Moves toward friendship start to have challenging talk politics controversial topics Nascent friendship both parties feel the same way about the relationship Stabilized friendship Waning friendshipdecline in friendship we outgrow our relationships 0 Chapter 9 Intimate Relationships 0 Intimate relationships 0 Require deep commitment our desire to stay in a relationship no matter what happens Foster interdependence what happens to one person affects everyone else in the relationship Require continuous investment we invest time energy attention and other resources in our intimate relationships Spark dialectical tensions con icts between two important but opposing needs or desires I Autonomy vs connection staying true to yourself and having your own identity while making connections with others I Openness vs closedness honestydisclosure I Predictability vs novelty comfort something new 0 Intimate relationships involve O O O Emotional commitment Social commitment Legal and financial commitment 0 Romantic relationships form in stages OOOOO Initiating meeting and interacting for the first time EXperimenting more conversations to learn about each other Intensifying developing the relationship getting a key to apartment Integrating deep commitment engagement Bonding public announcement marriage Con ict 3 styles 0 headon and rationally o dramafilled o ignore emotional communication public displays of affection holding hands instrumental communication everyday mundane tasks kissing goodbye when leaving for work Romantic relationships end in stages Differentiating seeing differences as annoying or undesirable Circumscribing decrease in quality and quantity of communication Stagnating when couples barely communicate with each other Avoiding creating physical and emotional distance Terminating ending the relationship Family relationships are characterized by 0 Genetic ties share the same genetic material 0 Legal obligations examples legally you have to go to school or you have to be homeschooled divorce 0 Role behaviors role of the wife verses the role of the husband Nuclear family married partners with biological children Blended family married or unmarried partners raising children who are not the biological offspring of both partners OOOOO Singleparent family single parent raising biological or nonbiological offspring Family roles what role you played in the family golden child screw up first child peace keeper 0 Blamer the individual that blames other members for their shortcoming o Placateer the peacemaker the person that will go any length to reduce con ict 0 Computer person who attempts to use logic rather than emotions o Distracter the person who makes random irrelevant comments to distract Family rituals repetitive behaviors that have special meaning generally tied to holidays Family storiesstories passed on from generations to generations Family secrets a secret in the family Dialectical tensions responding to tensions o Denial respond to only one side of the tension 0 Disorientation become immobilized by the tension 0 Alteration go back and forth between two sides of the tension 0 Segmentation deal with one side in some aspects of relationship and other side in other aspects 0 Balance find a middle ground between two sides of the tension 0 Integrationdevelop behaviors to satisfy both sides of tension at once rules do not go to bed angry do not fight in front of kids 0 Recalibration reframe the tension so the contradiction disappears you realize that you are wrong so you see the situation in another way 0 Reaffirmation embrace dialectical tensions as a normal part of life it is healthy to fight people who do not fight are falsely happy Chapter 10 Interpersonal Con ict Con ict an expressed struggle Interdependent what happens to one person will affect another Scarce resources money and time are the top two Power the ability to in uence or control other people or events Reward power reward in some way allowance for chores Coercive power ability to punish a judge in a courtcase Referent power the power of attraction when someone has a crush on you you know they will do things for you you use it to your advantage Legitimate power status and position gives them power police officer anything dealing with law you adhere to a police officer Expert power give them power because of their knowledge in the area you have cancer you go to your doctor and listen to them because they are the expert Four horsemen of the apocalypse o Criticism small everyday ghts o Contempt when you attack someone s self worth YOU are worthless you are an idiot o Defensiveness deny the validity of all accusations o Stonewalling withdrawing from the conversation or shutting down Strategies for managing con ict 0 Competing you win the other party loses society urges men to be competitive Avoiding ignoring or failing to deal with con ict girls avoid Accommodating giving in to the other parties need girls Compromising both parties give up something Collaborating a winwin situation 0000 Chapter 7 Listening Listening the active process of making meaning out of another person s spoken message 0 Listening is an active process it is not automatic you have to make yourself listen 0 You have to create meaning from what you hear Effective listening listening with the conscious and explicit goal of understanding what the speaker is attempting to communicate Hurier Model describes the six stages of effective listening 0 Hearing physical process of perceiving sound this is wear the listening process begins 0 Understanding to comprehend the meanings of the words and phrases you are hearing if someone is speaking a language that you do not understand you can hear them but you can not listen effectively Remembering being able to store something in your memory and then retrieve it when needed Interpreting two parts I paying attention to all the speakers verbal and nonverbal behaviors so that you can assign meaning to what he said your friend says Oh it s a pretty day outside you have to pay attention to her facial expressions and such in order to figure out if she is being sincere I signaling your interpretation of the message to the speaker you think your friend was being sincere so you reply with a smile evaluating three events I you are judging whether the speaker s statements are accurate and true I you are separating facts from opinions and trying to determine why the speaker is saying what he or she is saying I you are considering the speaker s words in the context of other information you have received from that speaker or other sources responding indicating to the speaker that you are listening I stonewalling responding with silence and a lack of expression on your face often signals a lack of interest I backchanneling nodding your head or using facial expressions uh huh this lets the speaker know that you are paying attention I paraphrasing restating in your own words what the speaker has said to show you understand I empathizing conveying to the speaker that you understand and share his or her feelings on the topic being discussed I supporting expressing your agreement with the speaker s opinion or point of view I analyzing providing your own perspective on what the speaker has said I advising communicating advice to the speaker about what he or she should think feel or do Informational listening listening to learn something listening in class or at work Critical listening listening with the goal of evaluating or analyzing what we hear Empathic listening listening to experience what another person is thinking or feeling Obstacles to effective listening 0 O 0 Noise Pseudolistening using feedback behaviors to give the false impression that one is listening when I tell you about my day and you just nod your head to make it seem like you are listening Selective listening listening only to what you want to hear 0 Information overload that state of being overwhelmed by the amount of information one takes in o Glazing over daydreaming with the time not spent listening you allow your mind to wander o Rebuttal tendency the tendency to debate a speaker s point and formulate a reply while the person is still speaking debating you have to think about a point to make while the person is making a point 0 Closedmindedness the tendency not to listen to anything with which you disagree 0 Competitive interrupting using interruptions to take control of a conversation to ensure that you get to speak more than the other person does and that your ideas take priority Con rmation bias the tendency to seek information that supports our values and beliefs while discounting or ignoring information that doesn t your friend tells you his problems with his girlfriend and only says negative things so when the girlfriend tries to talk to you you don t listen because you have already made up your mind that the boy is right Vividness effect the tendency for dramatic shocking events to distort our perception of reality two days after the Columbine shooting Americans thought it was more likely for a shooting to occur at schools Skepticism the practice of evaluating the evidence for a claim setting aside your biases and being willing to be persuaded by the merits of the argument and the quality of the evidence your friend asks you to invest in his business if you are a bad critical listener you will base your decision on what you think of your friend but if you are good critical listener you will think about the business and ask questions Chapter 8 Interpersonal Communication in Social Relationships Need to belong a hypothesis that says each of us is born with a fundamental drive to seek form maintain and protect strong social relationships Interpersonal attraction any force that draws people together to form a relationship Physical attraction attraction to someone s physical appearance Social attraction attraction to someone s personality Task attraction attraction to someone s ability and dependability Predicted outcome value theory a theory predicting that we form relationships when we think the effort will be worth it if we like what we learn about someone from initial conversations we predict positive outcomes for future communication with that person meaning we will want to get to know the person better Approach behaviors communication behaviors that signal your interest in getting to know someone verbal behaviors such as introducing yourself nonverbal behaviors such as smiling or maintaining eye contact Avoidance behaviors communication behaviors that signal your lack of interest in getting to know someone verbal leave me alone nonverbal avoiding eye contact Social exchange theory a theory predicting that people seek to form and maintain relationships in which the bene ts outweigh the costs Comparison level for altematives your assessment of how good your current relationship is compared with your other options Equity theory a theory predicting that a good relationship is one in which your ratio of costs and rewards is equal to your partners 0 Overbenefited that state in which your relationship rewards exceed your relational costs 0 Underbenefited the state in which your relational costs exceed your relational rewards Relational maintenance behaviors behaviors used to maintain and strengthen personal relationships 0 Positivity acting friendly refraining from criticism 0 Openness being willing to discuss your relationship 0 Assurances expressing and stressing your faithfulness and commitment 0 Social networks introducing on person to your other friends family members and coworkers 0 Sharing tasks performing your fair share of the work in your relationship Peer someone of similar power or status Friendships have a life span 0 Rolelimited interaction strangers you are civil and polite9friendly relations having conversations sharing stories9moves toward friendship invite the other person to go somewhere9nascent friendship consider each other friends9stabilized friendship fully established friendship trust9waning friendship decline of friendship Chapter 9 Intimate Relationships Interdependence a state in which each person s behaviors affect everyone else in the relationship parents and children Commitment a desire to stay in a relationship Investment the resources we put into our relationships Dialectical tensions con icts between two important but opposing needs or desires you want to be close to someone but you still want to be your own person Connection being close to others Autonomy being your own person Monogamy being in only one romantic relationship at a time and avoiding romantic or sexual involvement with others outside the relationship Infidelity sexual involvement with someone other than your spouse Polygamy a practice in which one person is married to two or more spouses at once Forming romantic relationships is a process 0 Initiating experimenting intensifying integrating bonding Initiating meeting and interacting with each other for the first time Having conversations to learn more about the other person Intensifying moving from being acquaintances to being close friends Integrating forming a deep commitment and developing a relationship with its own identity Bonding making a public announcement of commitment to each other Communication privacy management theory explains how people manage the tension between privacy and disclosure information belongs to you you must decide if you want to keep it to yourself or share it with others Ending relationships 0 DifT quot quot circumscribiug ta natiu avoiding teruriuatiu Differentiating finding differences with your partner to be unpleasant and annoying Circumscribing decreasing the quality and the quantity of communication with the partner Stagnating going through the motions of a relationship that is no longer satisfying Avoiding creating physical and emotional separation from the partner Terminating formally ending the relationship Families are families because of 0 Genetic ties legal obligation role behaviors you act like a family Types of family 0 Family of origin the family in which you grew up parents and siblings 0 Family of procreation the family you start as an adult spouse and children System an arrangement of people who interact with one another in complex interdependent ways 0 Many families have subsystems I Marital subsystem mother s family I Parental subsystem I Sibling subsystem Rituals repetitive behaviors that have special meaning for a group or relationship decorating the house supporting the same sports team Confirming messages behaviors that indicate how much we values another person verbal parents telling children that they love them nonverbal focusing your attention on a person and listening to them Managing tensions o Denial responding only to one side of the tension and ignoring the other 0 Alternation going back and fourth between the two sides of a tension o Segmentation dealing with one side of a tension in some aspects or segments and the other side of the tension in other segments 0 Balance to compromise or nd a middle ground between the two opposing forces ofa tension 0 Integration develop behaviors that will satisfy both sides of a tension simultaneously 0 Recalibration reframing a tension so that the contradiction between two opposing needs disappears o Reaffirmation embracing dialectical tensions as a normal part of life Chapter 10 Interpersonal Con ict Interpersonal con ict an expressed struggle between interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals scarce resources and interference Metacon ict con ict about con ict Content dimensions the specific topics from which the con ict arose Relational dimensions the implications the con ict has for the relationship I have a gambling problem you are more mad that I stole from you than that Ihave a problem Procedural dimensions the rules or expectations we follow for how to engage in con ict one person wants to talk about it one wants to avoid it Passive aggression a pattern of behaving vengefully while denying that one has aggressive feelings you get annoyed that I answer my phone while I am talking to you but instead of telling me that you try to get back at me by ignoring my phone calls Demand withdraw pattem a pattern of behavior wherein one party makes demands and the other party withdraws from the conversation one persons says we need to talk and the other person says I don t want to talk about it Disinhibition effect the tendency to say or do things in one environment such as online that one would not normally do or say Power the ability to manipulate in uence or control other people or events Symmetrical relationship a relationship between parties of equal power Complementary relationship a relationship between parties of unequal power Oneup message a verbal message through which the speaker attempts to exert dominance or gain control over the listener commands such as do the dishes Onedown message a verbal message that re ects acceptance of or submission to another person s power where you you like to go to dinner I don t care anywhere is fine Oneacross message a verbal message that seeks to neutralize relational control and power there are many to choose from Reward power power that derives from the ability to reward your boss pays you so he has power over you Coercive power based on the ability to punish for noncompliance when you go to court the judge can punish you Referent power power that derives from one s attraction to or admiration for another we tend to comply with requests made by people we like Legitimate power power based on one s legitimate status or position police officer Expert power power that derives from one s expertise talent training specialized knowledge or experience we follow the advice of doctors Criticism the expression of complaints about another party Contempt the expression of insults and attacks on another s self worth Gunnysacking remembering past grievances and then bringing them all up at once Defensiveness the tendency to deny the validity of criticisms directed at the self It s not my fault Stonewalling the behavior of from a stop speaking stop looking at who is talking to you Competing a strategy for managing con ict wherein your goal is to win while the other party loses I try to convince my parents to give all of their money to me and none to Dip Compromising a strategy for managing con ict in which both parties give up something they want to that both can receive something they want I do not say anything about the money and wait for my parents to decide Collaborating a strategy for managing con ict that involves working toward a solution that meets both parties needs I tell my parents to give the money to Dip instead of me Avoiding a strategy for managing con ict that involves or ignoring or failing to deal with the con ict 1 suggest that we all put our money in together Accommodating a strategy for managing con ict that involves giving in the to the other party s needs and desires while subordinating one s own I talk to Dip and my parents about the money 39I 1 39 oran39 THE END Chapter 1 About Communication Stigma a characteristic that discredits a person making him or her be seen as abnormal or undesirable Instrumental needs practical everyday needs Five Needs Served by Communication 0 Physical needs communication helps us maintain physical and mental wellbeing o Relational needs communication helps us form social and personal relationships 0 Identity needs communication helps us gure out who we are and who we want to be 0 Spiritual needs communication lets us share our beliefs and values with others 0 Instrumental needs communication helps us accomplish many daytoday tasks Model a formal description of a process Source the originator of a thought or idea Encode to put an idea into language or gesture Message verbal and nonverbal elements of communication to which people give meaning The action model a sender encodes a message and conveys it through a communication channel for a receiver to decode Example leaving someone a voicemail The interaction model explains that our messages are shaped by the feedback we receive from others and by the context in which we are interacting The transaction model recognizes that both people in a conversation are simultaneously senders and receivers Example a doctor encodes messages that her patient decodes but the patient also encodes messages for the doctor to decode Channel a pathway through which messages are conveyed Decode to interpret or give meaning to a message Receiver the party who interprets a message Noise anything that interferes with the encoding or decoding of a message Feedback verbal and nonverbal responses to a message Context the physical or Y J 39 39 39 39 39 in which occurs Six characteristics of communication 0 Relies on multiple channels 0 Passes through perceptual filters 0 People give communication meaning 0 Has literal meanings and relational implications u mu o Sends messages whether intentional or unintentional o Governed by rules Channelrich context a communication context involving many channels at once Channel lea1n contexts a communication context involving few channels at once Symbol a representation of an idea Context dimension literal information that is communicated by a message Relational dimension signals about the relationship in which a message is being communicated Metacommunication communication about communication Explicit rule a rule about behavior that has been clearly articulated Implicit rule a rule about behavior that has not been clearly articulated but is nonetheless understood Interpersonal communication communication that occurs between two people within the context of their relationship and that as it evolves helps them to negotiate and de ne their relationship Intrapersonal communication communication with oneself Small group communication communication occurring within groups of three or more people Mass communication communication from one source to a large audience Dyad a pair of people Communication competence communicating in ways that are effective and appropriate for a given situation Selfmonitoring awareness of one s behavior and how it affects others Empathy the ability to think and feel as others do Cognitive complexity the ability to understand a given situation in multiple ways Ethics a code of mortality or a set of ideas about what is right Characteristics of competent communication 0 Selfawareness awareness of how your behavior is affecting others 0 Adaptability ability to modify your behaviors as the situation demands 0 Empathy skill at identifying and feeling what others around you are feeling 0 Cognitive complexity ability to understand a given situation in multiple ways 0 Ethics tendency to behave in morally correct ways Chapter 2 Culture and Gender Culture the learned shared symbols language values and norms that distinguish one group of people from another Societies groups of people who share symbols language values and norms Ingroups groups of people with whom one identi es Cocultures groups of people who share values customs and norms related to a mutual interest or characteristic Individualistic culture a culture that emphasizes individuality and responsibility to oneself Collectivistic culture a culture that places greater emphasis on loyalty to the family workplace or community than on the needs of the individual Lowcontext culture a culture in which verbal communication is expected to be explicit and is often interpreted literally Highcontext culturea culture in which verbal communication is often ambiguous and meaning is drawn from contextual cues such as facial expressions and tone of voice Highpower distance culture a culture in which much or most of the power is concentrated in a few people such as royalty or a ruling political party Lowpowerdistance culture a culture in which power is not highly concentrated in specific groups ofpeople Monochromic a concept that treats time as a finite commodity that can be earned saved spent and wasted Polychromic a concept that treats time as an infinite resource rather than a finite commodity Uncertainty avoidance the degree to which people find novel unfamiliar situations problematic Communication codes verbal and nonverbal behaviors such as idioms and gestures that characterize a culture and distinguish it from other cultures Components of Gender 0 Gender role psychological orientation toward masculinity femininity or androgyny 0 Biological sex genetic characteristics that distinguish females from males 0 Sexual orientation sexual attraction toward members of the other sex the same sex both sexes or neither sex Gender role a set of expectations for appropriate behavior that a culture typically assigns to an individual based on his or her biological sex Masculinity a gender role typically assigned to men that emphasizes strength dominance competition and logical thinking Femininity a gender role typically assigned to women that emphasizes expressive nurturing behavior Androgyny a gender role characterized by a combination of masculine and feminine traits Sexual orientation a characteristic determining the sex or sexes to which someone is sexually attracted homosexual heterosexual bisexual Asexuality a sexual orientation characterized by a general lack of interest in sex Expressive talk verbal communication whose purpose is to express emotions and build relationships Instrumental talk verbal communication whose purpose is to convey information Chapter 3 Communication and the Self Selfconcept the set of perceptions a person has about who he or she is also known as identity Identity selfconcept Johari Window a visual representation of components of the self that are known or unknown to the self and to others Personality the pattern of behaviors and ways of thinking that characterize a person Re ected appraisal the process whereby people s selfconcept is in uenced by their beliefs concerning what other people think of them Social comparison the process of comparing oneself with others Reference groups the groups of people with whom one compares oneself in the process of social comparison Selffulfilling prophecy an expectation that gives rise to behaviors that cause the expectation to come true Selfesteem one s subjective evaluation of one s value and worth as a person Need for control one s need to maintain a degree of in uence in one s relationships Need for inclusion one s need to belong to a social group and be included in the activities of others Need for affection one s need to give and receive expressions of love and appreciation Image the way one wishes to be seen or perceived by others Image management the process of proj ecting one s desired public image Types of Face 0 Our need to have others like and accept us 0 Our need not to be imposed upon by others 0 Our need to be respected for our intelligence and abilities Face needs components of one s desired public image Fellowship face the need to have others like and accept you Face a person s desired public image Facework the behaviors we use to maintain our desired public image to others Autonomy face the need to avoid being imposed upon by others Competence face the need to be respected and viewed as competent and intelligent Facethreatening act any behavior that threatens one or more face needs Selfdisclosure the act of giving others information about oneself that believes they do not already have Social penetration theory a theory developed by Irwin Altman and Dalmas Taylor that as relationships develop communication increases in breadth and depth Depth the intimacy of the topics about which one person selfdiscloses to another Breadth the range of topics about which one person selfdiscloses to another Norm of reciprocity a social expectation articulated by Alvin Gouldner that resources and favors provided to one person in a relationship should be reciprocated by that person Risks of SelfDisclosure o Rejection o Chance of obligating others 0 Hurt to others 0 Violation of other people s privacy 0 Risks of disclosing online Bene ts of Disclosure o Enhancement of relationships and trust 0 Reciprocity o Emotional release 0 Assistance to others Gossip the sharing of an individual s personal information with a third party without the individual s consent Chapter 4 Interpersonal Perception Perception the process of making meaning from the things we experience in the environment Selection the process of attending to a stimulus Organization the process of categorizing information that has been selected for attention Interpretation the process of assigning meaning to information that has been selected for attention and organized Stages of the Perception Process 0 Selection we select certain sensory information for attention 0 Organization we categorize each piece of information to determine how it is similar to and different from other pieces of information 0 Interpretation we assign meaning to each piece of information Stereotyping generalizations about groups of people that are applied to individual members of those groups Primary effect the tendency to emphasize the first impression over later impressions when forming a perception Recency effect the tendency to emphasize the most recent impression over earlier impressions when forming a perception Perceptual set a predisposition to perceive only what we want or expect to perceive Egocentric unable to take another person s perspective Negativity bias the tendency to focus heavily on a person s negative attributes when forming a perception Positivity bias the tendency to focus heavily on a person s positive attributes when forming a perception Attribution an explanation for an observed behavior Locus where the cause of a behavior is located 0 Internal locus caused by a characteristic of ourselves o Caused by something outside of ourselves Selfserving bias the tendency to attribute one s successes to internal causes and one s failures to external causes Fundamental attribution error the tendency to attribute other s behaviors to internal rather than external causes Overattribution the tendency to attribute a range of behaviors to a single characteristic of a person Common Attribution Errors 0 Selfserving bias we attribute our successes to internal causes and our failures to external causes 0 Fundamental attribution error we attribute other people s behaviors to internal causes more often than to external causes 0 Over attribution we focus on one characteristic of a person and attribute a wide variety of behaviors to that characteristic


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.