Introduction to Public Relations
Introduction to Public Relations COM 226
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Dr. Dasia Brekke
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Dasia Brekke on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COM 226 at North Carolina State University taught by Edward Funkhouser in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see /class/223883/com-226-north-carolina-state-university in Communication at North Carolina State University.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
Test 1 Study Guide Reading Assignment Chapters 1 2 and 3 What is public relations What are publics Public Relations is the management function that identifies maintains and establishes mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and its publics Publics are the people who are important to a company like media clients employees etc August 20 What is marketing What is advertising What is publicity Identify a variety of Public Relations functions What skills are required to be a Public Relations Professional The Chicago Tylenol Murders mentioned in class Marketing is the management function that identifies the needs and wants of humans It offers products and services that satisfy their demands and causes transactions in exchange for something of value to the provider Advertising is information placed in the media that is paid for by an organization It s a controlled method of placing messages into the media Publicity is an uncontrolled method of placing messages into the media because it s not paid for It s used by the media because it has news value PRPs must be excellent writers have great small group communication skills have specific knowledge depending on the nature of the business and have broad knowledge of human behavior and social processes August 23 Who were the Sophists What is meant by the term llpropaganda of the deedquot and how did Martin Luther and Samuel Adams employ this tactic Who were the Muckrakers Identify three muckrakers and what they wrote about What impact did the muckrakers have Be able to explain the careers and accomplishments of Ivy L Lee and Edward Bernays Sophists were Greek writers circa 4003C that were paid to give news and information to the public They didn t always base what they knew on truth They were despised by Plato and Aristotle Propaganda of the deed is when someone does something that causes a lot of attention in order to make a point Martin Luther did this by his 95 theories that he posted on church doors and Samuel Adams when he led the Boston Tea Party that caused people to rebel Muckrakers were people who wrote articles that usually bashed the government and wanted change for society They were given their name by Teddy Roosevelt They were very liberal and ideological Three Muckrakers Ida Baker Wells Barnett wrote about lynching and how bad it was Ida Tarbell wrote about the standard oil company and Rockefeller in a negative aspect Upton Sinclair wrote about the meatpacking industry and how it was unsanitary and how bad the employees were treated Ivy L Lee was the quotfather of public relationsquot and he was hired to recreate the image ofJohn D Rockefeller He turned him into a friendly old man who gave nickels to children as opposed to the public originally thinking he was a rich asshole Edward Bernays wrote the first book on public relations and taught the first public relations course His famous campaigns were those which included Light s Golden Jubilee and women smoking in public August 25 What two factors are given much of the credit for bringing about the Age of Mass Communication around 1830 Are fear appeals likely to be effective Who are stakeholders Compare the characteristics of closed systems vs open systems as the concept applies to public relations Who are boundry spanners and what is their task From our discussion of Situational Theory and your reading in Chapter 3 explain three variables which affect whether a public will be active or not Lots of evidence shows that fear appeals aren t effective Stakeholders are publics that have a lot at quotstakequot in an organization and have consequences with eachother They create problems Cosed systems don t care about what the public thinks and they do whatever they want It s 1way communication Open systems communicate with the public and try to please them by getting their opinion via polls surveys etc Open systems are 2way and mutually beneficial Boundary Spanners are the quotgobetweens and give stakeholders information and interpret the environment about the organization Situational Theory Problem recognition some publics recognize problems easier than others Constraint recognition some publics see obstacles more clearly than others Level of involvement some people are more involved than others August 27 Be able to list functions of the media and explain how some may be both functional and dysfunctional and how some may be either manifest or latent What is newswhat factors are used by editors and news directors to determine ifa news item is worthy of inclusion in their program magazine or newspaper What is the central notion of Agenda Setting Media functions surveillance of an environment news Correation of parts of society editorials commentary etc Socialization education provides something that s useful functional no so great things as well causes problemsdysfunctiona News is any information about recent or important events Gatekeepers see if news is worthy to include in programs Dysfunctional Inappropriate Socializations such as violence Debasement of our Culture lowers our culture Educational system plays a part Manifest vs Latent Latent means secondary or possibly unintended intended vs unintended Stated vs Unstated All in the family latent functions Menopause never been brought up in the past ever This was a situation comedy August 30 Reading Assignment Chapter 4 What are the ways people encounter the media What are the llFive Theories of the Pressll and what are the characteristics of each What restrictions on freedom of expression exist in our society People encounter the media by demographics psychographics and their social relations Different media systems that existed in the world Authoritarian Society Media controlled by ruling elite Public dissent and criticism not tolerated Licensing prior restraint punishment Our freedom of expression is restricted by censorship FCC September 1 What is defamation Explain the difference between the two types of defamation fyou are sued for defamation what is likely the most successful defense you could make Privacy laws are complex and some may vary from state to statebut there are also important Federal privacy laws links below What are some general guidelines for avoiding privacy law problems Defamation is anything that harms a person s reputation whether by quotslandei or libel The ultimate defense for slander is proving that it isn t true and also that the person saidwrote it with intent to harm your reputation Basic rules obtain written permission for photos don t ridicule anything and don t release personal information about anyone Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 HIPAA Health Information Privacy Familv quot 39 39 39 Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 FERPA What is the purpose of music licensing firmswhat do they do Name two music licensing firms Broadcast Music Incorporated BMI American Society of Composers Authors and Publishers ASCAP They make sure that people can t play their music without having permission Muzak Music for Businesses September 3 What is intellectual property How does copyright law protect intellectual property How long does a copyright last Intellectual property is when a company owns a specific title to something proper noun copyright laws protect the work from being copied or published without the permission of the creator they also protect it by not allowing anyone else to use it and it lasts the life of the creator plus 70 years United States Copyright Office Copyright Law Primer From Minneapolis Law Firm Beck and Tysver What is a trademark A trademark is a work slogan or phrase that is associated with a company and is protected from being used by anyone but the organization United States Patent and Trademark Office Harvard Law School Overview of Trademark Law What are some of the federal regulatory agencies public relations practitioners may deal with United States Securities and Exchange Commission United States Federal Trade Commission United States Food and Drug Administration United States Federal Communications Commission September 6 No class today Labor Day September 8 Reading Assignment Chapters 5 through 8 How might general liability laws affect the public relations function in an organization By suing PR people because they are using their name without consent What is ethics The study or analysis of moral conductWhat does it mean when we say that professional ethics are quotcodifiedquot It just means that they are written into formal rules What is the PRSA and what is its purpose The PRSA is the Public Relations Society of America they help educate other PRPs about things in PR They help them improve their PR skills and they allow them the opportunity to get involved and potentially get a job The first step in the public relations process laid out in chapters 5 through 8 is identification of the public relations problem and research What questions should be asked and answered as part of identifying the problem What is the concern also where and when Who is involved and how are they affected Why is the problem important to this organization and its publics Written statement of problem should be short and to the point perhaps a short paragraph How much will research cost and when does organization need information Need a consultant or outside research firm What goes into a situation analysis Internal and external factors background information and audits of situations that involve PR Identify informal research methods which may be used to gain information about a public relations problem Informal Research Methods Personal contact and observation Focus Groups pp 9293 Advisory Boards and Committees OmbudsmanOmbudswoman receives complaints CallIn Telephone Lines consumer relations Mail Analysis ComplaintSuggestion Box The Internet p 94 Public Relations Society of America PRSA PRSA Code of Ethics Public Relations Student Society of America PRSSA International Association of Business Communicators IABC September 10 Identify formal research methods which may be used to gain information about a public relations problem Primary Methods Surveys pp 9599 Internally Conducted if you re working for a moderate or a fairly large company you may want to design your own survey to see what your employees are thinking You need to measure employee opinions or polling company hired to do this Harris Interactive does this htt wwwharrisinteractivecom htt www allu com Piggyback Survey Content Analysis p 95 Experiments infrequently pp 9697 Secondary Methods Searching for information already coectedibrary research p 94 Example Databases of polling companies What are the types of surveys and what are the strengths and weaknesses of each type What questions does a communication audit seek to answer What types of activities may be included in a communication audit The Communication Audit What are our communication goals with a particular target public What specific communications are we using to reach those goals Which communications are effective in fulfilling those goals which are ineffective Given the answers to the above questions what recommendations do we have for future communication Page 103104 Communication Climate Surveys Network Analysis Readership Surveys Content Analysis Clipping Services Readability Studies The Harris Poll market The Gallup Pol politics
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