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ECE592492S Soft Electronics Organic Electronics amp LCDs Lecture 11 Mr Brandon Conover blconovencsuedu MRC Bldg rm 412 PhD Student Dept ECE httpcoursesncsu eduece5923 Agenda of Topics MISFET Review OTFT Structure and Operation Materials Mobility SelfAssembled Monolayers SAMs Contact Resistance Charge Distribution Fabnca on Intrinsic l Extrinsic conducmn band condumion band mnducnun mpumy Ieve valeno band mpurity levex nsu ator and n ype ptype metal mmnsm semlmmmm semmnductor semwconduclor Fig 11 Energy dlagram ofa mmal an msulamr and an cxmnslz Semlmndunor Wank 2006 nChannel MISFET uuvce 932a mm L quot My illbsvule N Hadzuoannou 2007 nChannel MISFET 3 2 5 L mes regme Dram Lunenl mm Dram vmlage V Fig In 31mmij mum muuemnc Dr stm I M pup 5 5m slrs39e w a domng evel a w W 5 mm m maspams e w rm hum we lmca39 and me Axum rig mes Hadziioannou 2007 OTFT L Z W semmondugur drain insulator subsirale Three Electrodes with Gate separated by an Insulator Semiconductor is not a bulk solid a Thin Layer on a Neutral Material Gate is olten on the Bottom No pn ju s nction Current Enhancement occurs in Accumulation not Inversion Doping Charge Gamers Hadziioannou 2007 Pentacene TFTs NC STATE 39 SD arrangement J Classical crosssection v lnterdigitated for effectively higher currents by increasing W semiconductor Accumulation device 39 Solid line eld effect current M Dashed line bulk current insulator gate OTFT Characteristics energy eV 2 3 LUMO 4 i 5 HOMO g s v Au enlacene 5 b p E e 39c 2 3 A drain voltage V dram currern w L 5 E 4 Klauk 2006 gate vokage v OT FT Vt 106 g 10 E 1039 What is This w gm v w py 1c 0 A 5 gas vokage v Hadziioannou 2007 MindCalibration Sum immImrm qunrrmriw chemical le uclmv UnIul Iy cm 1 V l 37 l source Shaw et al IBM J Res amp Dev 45 3 2001 l Silicon crystal 300 900 Silicoquot PU39S11COI 50 100 Amorphous Silicon 1 typical 1 Penmccnc l more recent gt5 7 IONOFF l0 Rcuiorcuular Q 5 l g l polytJllcxylthioplicnc 39 39 Iypicnl0l T S 7 S ONOFF 10 and textbook Ch 4 r I Note comparison of mobilities in the two leading OTFT candidates One small molecule pentacene and one polymer polythiophene family Note high OnOff current ratios within the TFT design demonstrated with low 1000s of transistors These mobilities are good enough for circuits running at few MHz and Polythiophenes Polymer Semiconductors Solvent spin castable Currently lower mobilities but close O1 cmZNs and repeatable l Pentacene TFTs ampA l Current modulation by field induced charge buildup at the interface between the organic semiconductor and insulator Interesting question he pentacene illustration look like Ans SmC is close but note that it actually forms a true crystal with domains Why are they organized in this manner7 Pentacene 4 CLva source Shaw etal IBMJ Res ampDev 45 3 2001 Pentacene TFTs ffffifffffgf w 5W gg if ff ff f zgsmggz w mm cnr 1 source Dwmmakopou os e1aBMJ Res ampDev 45 3 2001 Critical Interfaces Source amp Drain 39 Au MNB BC electrodes can be patterned TC electrodes show lower contact resistance Grain changes when a step is encountered A Notice how SelfAssembled Monolayer can affect morphology on Gold contact B What are SAMs in general anknmmd unlazl l l 92mm organiz naive mm swassenmrm Alkylsilanes are most popular Long flexible hydrocarbon tail Attached to a Si atom that bonds to surface Improve the crystalline formation of pentacene What are SAMs in general assembly of SAMs Spin coating of SAMs Spin coating of polymers 01 wt solution quot Organic solvent Spin coat 500 rpm 20 sec 2000 rpm 40 sec Bake 1001300 30 min Rinse fresh solvent Blow dry N2 I Self 011 wt solution Organic solvent Soak 1 hour to overnight Rinsesoak lresh solvent Bake to dry 01 wt polymer quotgoodquotorganic solvent Spin coat 500 rpm 20 sec 2000 rpm 40 sec Bake 1001300 530 min Tab 2 Results from three groups using a Wide variety of SAMs as Surface treatments 7c 33d 52 Several authors have shown loose correlations between improved OTFi performance Fig 26 Some representative methods for elTective surface treatment preparation of both SAMs and polymers to improve the Derformance of pemaceno TFT5 and higher contact angle ofthe SAM Varying results in similar surface treatments indicate that many mechanisms are at work including contact angle but probably also involving deposition 0 conditions surFace roughness and chemistry ways and many materials sAM Mommy mm1 s4 are 0 ti p OctadecyltrichlorosilaneVapor 156 tButyldiphenylchloros ane 161 Can be either put onto lawnmower 017 39 Octadecyltrichlorosilane solution 096 Butyltrichlorosilane 061 3 Cthropropyltrichlorosilanc 071 Bromo ropylt ric orosiane 074 Trishloroltri uoropropylsilane 003 Per uorooctyltrichlorosi lane 01 S Pheny ethyltrichlorosilane 0 7 i Chlorom ethylphenyltrichl orosilane Chlorosulfonylphenylethyltrichlorosilane 036 m mi 2 Untreated dielectrics versus SAM treated dielectrics 4um2 Improved nucleation density Smaller grain sizes Effect of SAM on Morphology Carrier Mobility 3 m 10 N E 3 10 g g 104 5 3 10 2 I 8 E 103 k X 5 r 104 n w39 wwweinkcompress mageslucentdemo2smjpg 1 3 1 0a 1 986 1990 1 994 1 998 2002 2006 Year Pentacene eclipsing Amophous Silicon Early reports of low mobility in single crystals Work progressed on other organics Jackson group breakthrough to 1 cm2Vs Continued improvement gt Limit Contact Resistance A 1 05 v 5390 1 5 EW 45 1 5 4 av 40 30 Ta 2J1 H W Qcm x 10 w I n in 4O 60 80 Gate vo age V Wank 2006 Order Crystallinity Herringbone crystal arrangement is preferred Because large rrrrorbitals conjugated bonds overlap leads to best transfer of charges within crystal Size of domains matter and can be described across the entire device with respect to the same order parameter from LCs Charge Carrier Distribution VG V C 10 nFcm 7 5 E 04 39 2 layers 10 layers 02 110W 210W 31W 410 5ml2 51m ma Fig la CalculatLd mm mm charge m m rst layer in the mlal charge m i e on umng channel as a unmon of EB volmge mumplmd by msulamr capacitance The ratio 5 n calmlmd or twnrlayer and lenlaymm lms Charge density quotlZHMCXP C 1 Va Distance ans V d is one monolayer Klauk 2006 Fabrication oCan be built Conventionaly oThermally grown Oxides oLithographically patterned Source and Drain oMicrocontact Printing oPrint SAM patterns that direct material deposition oAllows for Solution Casting and ReelToReel oGold gt SAM gt Etch for SampD gt Remove SAM gt Semiconductor P3HT gt Insulator PMMA gt Gate olnkjet Printing oLimited by resolution droplets spread oUses Hydrophobic regions olnkjet SampD PEDOTPSS gt Apply Semicon amp Insulator Klauk 2006 OTFTs At Work Top Elecimde T 39 v r i Esala39i OLED Display Active Layer w 4 7 Iamanl q g i UlFl m Backulane quaiiir Semko39idxmv F Dielectric J C39mmh 5 5mm 53 Flora et al 2005 Figure 3 Pixel archilectm e for vertically integated OIF I pixels in AMOLED displays Mizukami et aL 2006 featuring dualgate OTFI39 Pholograph ofAM OLED panel driving YI39F39E 0 Displaying chamc and b panel bent In R 20 mm PIasticLogic 200 CurrentFuture Issue Polymer Vision achievements Main future Challenge is not high mobilities but rather r high stability over 39 Source Internets time f 39 ECE592492S Soft Electronics Organic Electronics amp LCDs Lecture 4 Mr Brandon Conover blconovencsuedu 7405130 MRC Bldg rm 302 PhD Student Dept ECE httpcoursesncsu eduece5923 Poincar Sphere 3D Representation of the Stokes Parameters Point 81 82 S3 is on the Unit Sphere Representing a Polarization State 0 Two diametrically opposed points correspond to orthogonal polarization states Poincar Sphere 0 For any point on a circle with fixed longitude orientation of polarization is the same 0 For any point on a circle with fixed fixed latitude ellipticity is the same but orientation may change httpMAMNinrrpq39 139 quot I I 9mm v L Poincar Sphere Nonh pole 00 l South pol 004 A poinl on the equator righthanded polarizcd lefthanded polarized linearly polarized linearly polarizcd along the x axis linearly polarized along the y axis linearly polarized along 45 V A 45 U ECE592492S Soft Electronics Organic Electronics amp LCDs Lecture 2 Mr Brandon Conover blconovencsuedu MRC Bldg rm 412 PhD Student Dept ECE httpcoursesncsued uece5923 Agenda Fundamentals of Semiconductor Doping amp Band Structure Review of PN junction Solid Types Metals Partially filled conduction band Overlapping bands Insulators Do electrons move Semiconductors What is different Doping Process of adding specific impurities to a semiconductor to change its resistivity Resistivity of a semiconductor can be varied Orders of magnitude Unique property of semiconductors Metals or insulators have fixed resistivities What concentration of dopants must we add for charge carriers to become available Impurity Types Two impurity types Donor Acceptor Donor impurities provide free electrons Also called Ntype impurities Acceptor impurities provide holes Also called Ptype impurities Electrons and Holes provided by the impurities are loosely attached to the atoms Example Silicon Doping Donor impurities come from group V of the periodic table Group V Five electrons in the outer most shell Acceptor impurities come from group III of the periodic table Group III Three electrons in the outermost shell Per 1 Periodic Table 14 15 16 Accep39ror pType Donor39 nType 3 IIIB IVE VB VIB VIIB B 3B 4B 5B GB 7 Doping Si with a Donor Impurity A group V atom replaces a Si atom in the crystal Four electrons of the 5th Electron 0 O O O GroupVatomformsfour O O O O covalent bonds with the neighboring silicon atoms O O O O O The fifth electron is e N roup v loosely attached to the o 0 0 0 Mom GroupVatom 00ooo O O O O Vl th little thermal energy it can be made 0 O O 0 free to move under an 0 O O O 0 applied electric field 2 e e 2 An electron is added without adding a hole Ptype Doping eg Boron A group III atom replaces a Si atom in the crystal Three electrons of the Group III atom forms three covalent bonds with the neighboring silicon atoms We are one electron short to form the fourth covalent bond We have a hole A hole is added without adding an electron Missing Electron Hole 0 o o o 000 00 o o o o o o o 0000030o Group 0 o o m o o o 0 Memo oooooo o o o o Electron and Hole Concentrations In an intrinsic semiconductor no dopants for every electron there exists a hole n p ni intrinsic carrier concentration In an ntype semiconductor n gt p n ND density of donor atoms In a ptype semiconductor P NA density of acceptor atoms Resistivity of Doped Silicon RESISTIVITY SIcm 39013 E 3 39 u a I nnn I1II u it i iifi i ii uni ginquot nidm u I a w 39 Ium Illll III II ll quotIfI ll I t I 5 Iquot III i igi ig39lll igglm 7 E a Hillquot 014 1015 016 01 1018 10B IMPURITY CONCENTRATION cm3 Resis rivi ry of a Semiconductor can be varied in a wide range Band structure Semiconductor band structure bands of allowed energy levels separated by forbidden zones bandgaps determined by Valence band highest filled band Conduction band lowest empty band Doping intentionally applied energy levels in the forbidden zone FermiDirac statistics Valence band not fully filled presence of holes Conduction band contains electrons Electrical properties of semiconductors are A E Conduc onband IIIIIIIIIIIII Bandgap Energy band diagram Energy band diagram of an intrinsic semiconductor material Conduction band A gt electron states bandgap EgEcEV 7 L hole states Doping with donors Extrinsic material doping with impurities Donors a donor level is created just below the conduction band ntype material current is carried by negative electrons electron states EgEcEV 7 L hole states Doping with acceptors impurities Acceptors positive holes Conduction band C I I Q I I Q A Extrinsic material doping with an acceptor level is created just above the valence band ptype material current is carried by acceptor bandgap E 391 electron states EgEcEV V Cw 6 p hole states Direct and Indirect Bandstructure Indirect semiconductor recombination must involve a change in momentum Si Ge What must occur indirect semiconductor electrons hoes vquot Energy bands depend on k momentum Direct semiconductor electron and hole can easily recombine GaAs lnP direct semiconductor E holes Recombination in a pn junction ptype semiconductor High hole concentration p ntype semiconductor High electron concentration n ntype semiconductor O pnjunction Holes and electrons recombine A depletion region is formed with electric field E Recombination rate R depletion layer EB 69 EB 69 69 69696696969699 e 99 e e ptype semiconductor P R Bnp l l where B is a constant 10 10 cm3sec Reverse bias Reverse bias widens the depletion region Used in photodetectors PIN Diodes and APDs Forward bias injection Forward bias allows majority carriers to diffuse across the junction Optical radiation 9 used in light sources Emission and absorption Transition between atomic or molecular levels emission or absorption of a photon Absorption Photon enters system System to higher energy level Spontaneous emission System drops to lower level Generation of a photon Stimulated emission Photon enters system System to lower energy level Generation of identical photon Energy state ECE592492S Soft Electronics Organic Electronics amp LCDs Lecture 1 Mr Brandon Conover blconovencsuedu MRC Bldg rm 412 PhD Student Dept ECE httpcoursesncsueduece5923 Agenda Basic Optics Reflection Refraction Light as a Wave Wave Equations Polarization Basic Optics Transmission Refractive Index Speed of Light Ray Optics Reflection From a Mirror Total Internal Reflection Refraction Snell s Law Multiple lncidences Problem Group Problem Plexiglass Water Plexiglass 25 1m 73 25cm 4 500cm 10mm 10mm At what height from the floor will the beam be incident on the mirror Will the box capture any of the reflected beam Not To Scale Light as a Wave Light is a transverse electromagnetic wave composed of an electric field and a magnetic field As a vector description my I Z As a scalar equation E ZJ but does not mathematically capture the direction Polarization xzt ExEOx cosat kz Electric field points in the X direction Wave is propagating in the Z direction a is angular Frequency and found by a 23f 2 fis frequency Hz k is propagation constant and found by k2n 9 A C C Polarization Has an Orientation Examine the curve that the E field traces in the XY plane This case is called Linear Polarization Using the Right Hand Rule Fxzt EXEOX cosat kz figure from Keiser Optical Fiber Communications p28 2000 Insightful Polarization Movies w r 7 httpwwwenzimhusziacddemoedem00htm See this link for many good visual examples Group Problems 1 Use the following wave equations to find the wavelength A the propagation axis and propagation direction Exzt ax cos29 x1015t 967 x106z w23t 29x1015 2 967x106 A s A m A mi 650nm A 2 650nm a k 967 X106Z equates to propagation along the axis 15 6 Eyxt ey cos145 x 10 z 483 x 10 x 015 w23t145x1 k27 483x106 S m 2n A2n 13Mm 13Mm a k 483 x106x equates to propagation along theaxis Combination of Waves Consider a slightly Now add Ex and Ey more general EY to get a new wave wave Ezt Exzt Eyzt Eyzt EyEOy cosat kz 6 phase difference with respect to the EX wave General Linear Polarization Ezt EXEOX cosat kz Q Eoy cosat kz 0 When Sis ora multiple of rr then this is always linear Has an angle with respect to the Xaxis under this condition given by me EoyEOX This is called the orientation of The magnitude polarization of this wave is E figure from Keiser Optical Fiber Communications p29 2000 General Elliptical Polarization 2 zt onC cosat kz EyEOy cosat kz 3 When 6 is an arbitrary value then we call this most general case elliptically polarized Traces an ellipse in the XY plane Still has an orientation 2E E 3 angle now called a tanza But now also has 0x 0y property called This ellipse can be left or right elligticitx handed gure from Keiser Optical Fiber Communications p30 2000 Circular Polarization Ezt EXEOX cosat kz EyEOy cosat kz i 712 0 When 5 is i39TlZ 2fTITl where m is an integer then we call this circularly polarized Traces a circle in the XY plane Has NO orientation angle 0 Has a handedness Ieft or right figure from Keiser Optical Fiber Communications p31 2000 Insightful Polarization Movies httpwwwenzimhusziacddemoedem00htm See this link for many good visual examples Group Problems Describe the Polarization State of the Following by putting equation in our standard form comparing amplitudes noting leadinglagging and by how much giving type linear circular etc Ezt EXEOC cosat kz EyEOy cosat kz Ezt ExEOx cosat kz EyEOy cosat kz 717 Ey lags Ex by 717 Linear Polarization I Orientation is 45 Ezt EXEOC cosat kz Ey Eoy sinat kz Ezt ExEOX cosat kz EyEOy cosat kz 312 lEy leads ExbyJ39EZ Right Circular Polarization Orientation is Clockwise I Final Comments on Polzn Light from many sources is unpolarized incandescent lamp sun LEDs This means random E field Polarized light has the E field pointing in same direction for all photons Note that light can be partially polarized in between the above extremes Polarization describes two things a the direction of the electric field orientation b the rotation of the electric field ellipticity Any polarization state can be broken down into two ORTHOGONAL polarizations ECE592492S Soft Electronics Organic Electronics amp LCDs Lecture 3 Mr Brandon Conover blconovencsuedu 7405130 MRC Bldg rm 302 PhD Student Dept ECE httpcoursesncsueduece5923 Light as a Wave Light is a transverse electromagnetic wave composed of an electric field and a magnetic field As a vector description Exzt ExEOx cosat kz I Z 3 As a scalar equation same as above Ezt EO cosat kz but does not mathematically capture the direction N Polarization Exzt exEOx cosat kz Electric field points in the X direction Wave is propagating in the Z direction a is angular Frequency and found by a 237 2 fis frequency Hz k is propagation constant and found by k2 2 A C C Polarization Has an Orientation Examine the curve that the E field traces in the XY plane This case is called Linear Polarization 115 EXEOX cosat kz figure from Keiser Optical Fiber Communications p28 2000 Combination of Waves Consider a slightly Now add Ex and Ey more general EY to get a new wave wave Ezt Exzt Eyzt Ey ZJ EyEoy 0050M kZ 5 ExEOx cosat kz where S is rela ve EyEOy 0050 I 5 phase difference with respect to the EX wave General Linear Polarization Ezt EXEOX cosat kz Q Eoy cosat kz 0 When Sis ora multiple of n then this is always linear Has an angle with respect to the Xaxis under this condition given by tan6E0 E This is called the y W orientation of The magnitude polarization of this wave is E 4ng Egy figure from Keiser Optical Fiber Communications p29 2000 General Linear Polarization Check out Example Webghysics Davidson Circular Polarization Ezt EXEOX cosat kz EyEOy cosat kz i 712 When Amplitudes are equal and 6 is irriz 2mrr where m is an integer then we call this circularly polarized Traces a C39rCle in the XY plane Has NO orientation angle Has a handedness figure from Keiser Optical Fiber Communications p31 2000 Circular Polarization Check out Example Webghysics Davidson General Elliptical Polarization 2 zt onC cosat kz EyEOy cosat kz 3 When Amplitudes and 3 are arbitrary values then we call this most general case elliptically polarized Traces an ellipse in the XY plane Still has an orientation angle now called a 2E0xE0y 0036 But now also has property E315 Egy called ellipticity tan2a This ellipse can be left or right handed gure from Keiser Optical Fiber Communications p30 2000 General E ptical Polarization Check out Example Webgh chs Q Davwdson 27 7m wz 5m W m 142 m n 0 14 2 3m v 514 w m 2 ngure from Hecm OpNCS p335 2002 Final Comments on Polzn Light from many sources is unpolarized incandescent lamp sun LEDs This means random E field Polarized light has the E field pointing in same direction for all photons Note that light can be partially polarized in between the above extremes Polarization describes two things a the direction of the electric field orientation b the rotation of the electric field ellipticity Any polarization state can be broken down into two ORTHOGONAL polarizations How To Polarize Light By Transmission Polarizer Polaroid Filter By Refraction 39BY Scattering Birefringence 39By Retard39ng Wavepates By Reflection Fresne Equations Brewster s Angle Polarization by Transmission Polaroid Film Made from a polymer polyvinyl alcohol PVA with an iodine doping electrons Chains align in one particular direction Light parallel to 39 39 n travel gt Allows transmission through one plane of vibration Dichroism Preferential absorption of light polarized in a certain direction gure from Hecht 0pm p335 2002 Polarization by Transmission Malus s Law When a perfect polarizer is placed in a polarized beam of light the intensity of the transmitted light is given by I I0 cos2 61 Where 0 is the initial intensity and 91 is the angle between polarizer axis and the plane of polarization of the incident light So for our Polaroid Film with Unpolarized input light there is a uniform mixture of all possible angles 1 cos2 6i gt Nli ONIN gt Light emerges POLARIZED and with ONEHALF INTENSITY Polarization by Refraction Birefringence Refractive index varies with crystal direction Diohroic materials are a subgroup figure Tum Hendersun 2mm 3 as iur cm i riurr mammals camel aud sodium Sail Orly ire cal induces a Goube image that I F i said r m39 birelriiigm 1 m uyEF i gure from Hecht Optics p342 2002 Polarization by Refraction om When Unpolarized light enters a V Birefringent material 5 oThe ordinary or oray follows spherical wavefronts and obeys Snell s law J 1 1 f j g 39 oThe extraordinary or eray follows m4 39 my elliptical wavefronts 9 n0cvij nzcvH Where Viis the velocity normal to the optic axis Dunc m TABLE 81 Retractive inclines of Some Uniaxial Birefringent Crystals A0 5893 nml mm quotvi quotquot 2 0 I uumidmr J jig Measure of the Birefringence V54 504nm mimir Hm LC 1 3H XI Ri1iicii0n hlb Jinn from Hecht Optics p340 343 2002 Polarization by Reflection Wavelength Shortens Snell s Law Shortest Path Principle Fermat Reflection Refraction Angle of Light Normal Wavelength in Glass J Hecht Understanding Fiber Optics p25 2002 Polarization by Reflection The relative intensities of the transmitted and reflected wavesrays at dielectric interface are polarization dependent Consider here two linear polarization conventions TE and TM TE polarization TM polarization Efield out of page Efield within page l El E 1l 1 will n1Wr HZ gt124 EVE l lt1 I l gb r 2 2 l l TE Transverse Electric TM Transverse Ma netic These are defined with respect to the plane containing the normal direction of the surface and the propagation vector ray direction Polarization by Reflection TE polarization TM polarization A Waits pctpen E eld out of page E eld within page W 1quot 0 DMM 9 EM E 1 I l E l r l from Hecht Optics p349 2002 Reflection at interface is determined by reflection coefficients ErTM nz2 0S1 n inzz nl2 sin39q1 Snell s Law etc tell us r TM TM E n 0S1 fin7122 nl2 Sln2 1 direction of the rays TE 2 2 2 Et n1 COS 1 1122 n1 Sln 11 Reflection Coeffncnents r rTE ETE 2 2 2 tell us the ratio offield i quot1COS 1 2 quot1 51 P1 magnitudes Polarization by Reflection NC STATE Reflectance amp 1 n lt n TE polarization TM polarization 39 0399 1 2 E eld out of page E eld within page Transmlttance 08 E 1 E l E are the ratios of of 2 39 I l la 421 l 1 IntenSIty go39s g 05 l l gm 1 452 1 2 I 03 02 I d These look awful but only or pom depend on angles and refractive no 20 40 60 R 2 lncldentAngledegBrewster39s r I Anglwa These are related to the W I W quot12 reflectivity Rand R Ir 392 399 quot115 08 transmittance Twhch describe TE TE 07 quot2quot CriticalAnglwc how much intensity or power in T 1 R 05 terms of or efficiency gas 0A 2 m 03 n n R R 1 2 w TE R l RTM RTE TM TE quot1 n22 oorlpolanzed TM Brews ers unpa Angle 1 Normal Incidence 0o 0 40 66 80 Incident Angle deg Polarization by Reflection 1 TE polarization TM polarization 09 quot1 lt quot2 E eld out of page Efleld within page 71 10 E l E l E 0398 nz 15 91 l 1 I pt I 07 mwr NA 06 Hz l l 8 l E l E E 05 l 4 1 2 04 I D At one partlcular angle the 03 reflectIVIty of the TM wave 02 unpolarized becomes zero and the wave ls 01 transmitted 100 0 TM 0 20 40 60 80 Incident Angle deg Brewster s This is called Brewster s Angle Angle B nght leftecllng oil a puddle IS partially palatizec A the water s surface most of the glare vanlshes Photo cnonasy lanln Saymnurll from Heoht Optics p350 2002