Introductory Physical Chemistry
Introductory Physical Chemistry CH 331
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sienna Shields on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CH 331 at North Carolina State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see /class/224003/ch-331-north-carolina-state-university in Chemistry at North Carolina State University.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
Physical Chemistry of Vision and calm The generatlun ptnerve irnpulses The eye The curnea admlts light tn the interieretthe eye and bends the light rays tei that they ean pe bruughttu a tpeus The retina The retina is the inner layeretthe eye ltcurltalrlsthe light recepturs the rods and cones and thus serves as the film etthe eye The retina alsei has rnany lrlterrleururlsthat preeess the signals arising in the reds and caries petere passing thern back tn the prain Overview of the molecular basis for vision The cumplex at l eris Retinal and a prutelrl called e sin terrns the visual pigment rhudupsln visual purple Apserptien at a pheitein etlight eatalyzesthe iseirnenzatiein at l eris retinal tei alltrans retinal and results in its release This lsumer triggers a cascade at events leading tn the generatiun eleetrieal signal tn the uptie nerve The nerve irnpulse generated pythe uptie nerve is cunveyed tn the brain Where it ean pe Recycling of retinal t urnp ete the retlrla vla the clrculatlun Where I epithelial eells There retineil is esteritie tei terrn a retinyl ester that ean pe stared When needed retinyl esters are bruken apart hydrulyzed and lSDmerlZed tei terrn l lrclsretlnul vvhlch ean pe DdelZed tei terrn l eris retinal 3 E Structures of cis and trans of retinal 7 wanting stimulaliun HCiSREINAL l i Ailrill ir39 WNWquot l l C ALLJWAMS REHNAL The Receptors There are We classes Elf recepturs lrl the retlrla reds and caries These reeepturs are curlrlected tn the p tie nerve cenes are individually curlrlecttu individual uptie nerve fibers Multiple reds eenverge untu single signals by the epnvergenee at W rnultiple recepturs mm a single uptie nerve p r Detailed photocycle for vision Rnpdppstn nastwp epmppnents 1 39 muiEty 2 11cisretinaI a earptene derivative 9 o 3 5 Energy trpm iight excites tne eieetrpns in iircisrretinai resuiting in an isumerizatiun in the Excited state El farm iietranseretinai Because iietranseretin ii unfurmatiunaiiy i n tne Scutupsin metety itbeginstu detach andtne rnedepstn cumugate beginstu break up intu its entparts Tne isintegratiun pt rhudupsin intu retinai and scutupsin s seepnd mempraneppund prutein inthe rud transducm Transducin is in itstum an enzyme aettyattng rudrresident phos hodiesterase a tmrd enzyme in tne cascade eapapie uf hydruiyzing Eycii 3MP Cycii GMFquot rate is tn keep sudium enanneis in tne memprane pttne rpd d any Snthatsudium uxisfaciiitated in dark Eundmuns enanneis are upen sudium uxfrum tne extraceiiuiar spaee is appruximateiy eguai tn sudium ipss Via tne ump s stem pttne innerrud segment and tne rpd membraneis nut nyper pianzed Under Eundmuns uf impinging iight vynen tne Etarhudupsin iiwtransducinwphusphudies terase e seade E sipyyed ur stppped Tms eauses ittu peepme mpre negative is nyperppianzed in tne presenee uf iight New Cunsider tne red in tne diagram at ieft quotquot me nun n er WW mbranerb d pumps in tne i n M red segment peieyytne Wais t are activeiy pumping Sudium iEIriS nut m Astast as tney re pumped Duty tne puterr s gmentpnngstnem back my cumpieting tne circuit pruvided tne i esenee uf iight ts d Four photopigments in human vision quot N Tnere are fuurciasses uf phutupigments as snpyyn in tne appye grapn Tne epiprs pttne euryes du nut representtne euiurs uf tne pnutuptgments feaen curve e tsfurtne s an wayeiengtn curves tne4BE tqu tsfurtne ruds nd tn 534 and NE are furthe iddi d i wayeiengtn Sensitive eenes respectiveiy Spectral Sensitivity of Rods and Cones EinvvmakerStDannaii198Dpruiemed a knuvvn amuunt uf iight dtreetiy tnrpugn tne puter segments uf pnptpreeeptprs and measured huvv muen iightwas apsprped pytne phutur pigment mpieeuies Tnere are tnree types at epnes re i 3 E Eewaveiength iight green snprtyayeiengtn iight piue How can one pigment give different colors The spectmm ofcarotene is similar to that of polyenes 4 7r electrons 6 7r electrons a n electrons A model carotene would have 10 7c electrons W Particleinabox model A model alltrans retinal has 10 7c electrons W AE quotzznsx nmw i i m 6626X103934Js 62 52 B931 039 kg1265X1039gm 9 J Mixing of states in quantum mechanics 777777 ch mquot if 77777 W CT n mm cch gtgt2 Particleinabox model A model cisretinal has 8 7r electrons MM A5 3sz n3 ram 2 6626x10393 Us 52 42 B931X1039 kg982x10quot m 5 5 103919 J Av f 27770 our1 tttll that Charge transfer states in polyenes he charge transfer state shown below is a resonance structure The dipole moment for the full charge separated state can be estimated based on the length ofthe polyene Forthe decapentaene shown it is 982 A u ezd e1982 A 982 eA 47 D W In the presence ofan applied electric eld these two states can mix The environment ofa protein can provide such a eld and can change the optical properties ofthe molecu e Potential energy of a dipole in a field The interaction of an electric eld with a dipole results in a change energy39 chose Considertwo cases forthe polyene shovm 1 Aligned in a eld of 107 Vm W 39 e OD cose 1 AU 47 D333 x1039an CmD107 Vm 15 x103921 J c 79 cm391 2 Perpendicularto a eld of 107 Vm e9ODcose0AU 0 The conversion of light into a nerve impulse Hyperpolarization ofa neuron in response to a signal is rather unusual most neurons depolarize instead But the d does not as other neurons do enerate an action potential Nor does it release neurotransmitters The hyperpolarization response tot e impingement of light is proportional to light intensity and thus the brighter the illumination the greater the hyperpolarization The net change in overall membrane charge is perceived by the integrating neurons ofthe retina speci cally the horizontal and bipolar cells They in turn pass the information with suitable inhibitory andor excitato signals of their own to the ganglion cells Ganglion cells the last intraocular neuronal e ement sen t eir axons out via the optic nerves and into the visual processing centers of the central nervous system The conversion of light into a nerve impulse The conversion of light into a nerve impulse The conversion of light into a nerve impulse The conversion of light into a nerve impulse The conversion of light into a nerve impulse The conversion of light into a nerve impulse igw The conversion of light into a nerve impulse Hyperpolarization problem Hyperpolarization occurs when the sodium ow into the outer rod segment is stopped This causes a s ium gradient to ui d up Assuming that the sodium Concentration outside the cell is 50 mM what concentration Must be reached inside in orderfor the potential to be 50 mV at 37 ElC Hyperpolarization problem Hyperpolarization occurs when the sodium ow into the outer rod segment is stopped This causes a o iu gradient to build up Assuming that the sodium Concentration outside the cell is 50 mM what concentration Must be reached inside in orderfor the potential to be 50 mV at 37 ElC RT Co Twin J c ewe c COM g 50 We w 8 31 JmOiKXIHO K 7 7 mM Phosphodiesterase kinetics problem Phosphodiesterase PDE kinetics were determined both In the presence and absence of an inhibitor rolipram The apparent Km of PDE for cGMP was 53 i10 pM with a competitive inhibition constant for K 06 i 01 pM forthe drug rolipram The maximum rate measured was max 50 s39l Determine the inhibitor concentration that will reduce the Rate by a factor of 10 ifthe cGMP 53 pM Phosphodiesterase kinetics problem mm W akm S lesl 1 v S lter VHS KM ka here Since S KM a lter V 502752 519 a1 I Ka 106 M18 10 MM Chemistry 331 Lecture 6 The Particle in a Box NC State University The particle in a box problem Imagine that a particle is confined to a region of space The only motion possible is translation The particle has only kinetic energy While this problem seems artificial at first glance it works very well to describe translational motion in quantum mechanics 0 Allowed Region 39 The solution to the Schrddinger equation with boundary conditions Suppose a particle is confined to a space of length L On either sidet ere is a potential that is infinitely large The particle has zero probability of being found at the boundary or outside the boundary OO 0 OO 0 Allowed Region 39 The solution to the Schrddinger equation with boundary conditions The boundary condition is that the wave function will bezeroatx 0 nd tx Me Asink0 Bcosk0 0 From this condition we see that B must be zero This condition does not specify A or k The second condition is kPL AsinkL 0 or kL arcsin0 From this condition we see that kL rm The conditions so far do not say anything about A Thus the solution for the bound state is kPnx Asnn1xL Note that n is a quantum number The probability interpretation The wave function is related to the probability for finding a particle in a given region of space The relationship is given by P 1 1de If we integrate the square of the wave function over a given volume we find the probability that the particle is in that volume In order or this to be true the integral over all space must be one 1 1 qde mm If this equation holds then we say that the wave function is normalized The normalized bound state wave function For the wave function we have been considerin 9 all spaoe is from 0 to L So the normalization constant A can be determined from the integral L z 2 L 2 1 de 1 Azsinquot x dx A2 sirquot x dx n n I n I The solution to the integral is available on the downloadable MAPLE worksheet The solution is just L2 Thus we have 2L 2 1 A2A L A As you can see the socalled normalization constant has been determined Normahzatwon w r the quotwarmer annan Fume me rumquot exP2xmulheum1e fwm n a wimp may c Normahzatwon w r the quotwarmer annan Fume me rumquot exP2xmulheum1e fwm n a wimp eexaewax refuge is The appearance of the Wave rmcnms The appearance of the Wave rmcnms Nate m the me rumquot m We r e the human We they Nate mu e m rumquot are mmmr e are Anathev w m m themleqmed vmduu chmtwo We rumquot a M The propame of ndu39g the Dartwde n a gwen regrm of Space mm a M namuhx m req an awn the namuhxed me Amman gee was m emu egu m my The appearance of the probab ty qZ Where 5 the Damde h the box De ne the ocatwon otthe Damde The ocatwon of a pamde h free some 5 not de ned f Hillllll l llllll llll i 39H l l m I h er a superpoetm of a Wave wt moment bk and hm 1m MW W 1 frequencv at 032 e tag2 ave can speak of a bandmdm Ak posmon m xrspace becomes more de ned The superposmon of Waves n space eads to the descnpnm ofa ocanm quot H mm 5 M 1 x5 2dded mm Re evance of the examp e when mamquot m m the exzmvk a vude u a N s2m SnzemIqwlnvavmnafivzze e my mumquot on bemzde the pmmmwsrmmg n reqmn sum devendem um velehevammn quotwe Dreuxe vwa nd m the mammlum x exx Ham szevzhkwlun m um m WW 1 W 4 Power transform re ated paws a mm m and by mam p aquot a seamen mm E M a n weemxmssm mm mm ma pm we a m a saw m MAESM a we M m be ma by MW m M m mm M m as W a as m was a Gauss an Funct ms AGaumznNudmnhmhefovmuw an 43 mekunevlunxfomaz x as Gauxxunmkivzze szevzhkwai mm Mme m Ea m We haMl vs rehlmnxh v 39 quotL e Fauuevlunxform 0F 6mmquot a m 2 man Question Which of the following represenis the hamiltonian Question Which of the following represenis the hamiltonian Question What is the hamiltonian A it is the energy B it is the momentum C it is the energy operator D it is the momentum operator Question What is the hamiltonian A it is the energy B it is the momentum C it is the energy operator D it is the momentum operator Question Calculate the uncertainty in the velocity of an electron if it is trapped on the xaxis in a box of length 1 A m 931 x 103931 kg A 60 x 103 ms B 56 x 105 ms C 45 x 109 ms D 15 x 1012 ms Question Calculate the uncertainty in the velocity of an electron if it is trapped on the xaxis in a box of length 1 A m 931 x 103931 kg A 60 x 103 ms B 56 x 105 ms C 45 x 109 ms D 15 x 1012 ms Axi A Ap liZAX mAv MAX 6 3 Av nZmAX v P Ame 31x10 kg10 m 56 xio ms
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