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Design of Solar Thermal Systems

by: Rowan Spinka DVM

Design of Solar Thermal Systems MAE 421

Rowan Spinka DVM
GPA 3.62

Herbert Eckerlin

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Herbert Eckerlin
Class Notes
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Popular in Aerospace Engineering (AE)

This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rowan Spinka DVM on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MAE 421 at North Carolina State University taught by Herbert Eckerlin in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see /class/224016/mae-421-north-carolina-state-university in Aerospace Engineering (AE) at North Carolina State University.


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Date Created: 10/15/15
Msma uwusiry town9l F FF9E ENERG Yin 2009 and how solar ts in Acknowledgements to PatnnaM Dehrner OttrceotSmerrce US Depanrnentot Energy and Dr Santord Ktern Protessor Unrversrty othconsrnr Madrson a au mm Duharmy tweezersSQIaTEWEE Energy Issues What is energy 39 Why do we need energy What are the sources of energy 39 What do we use energy for How much energy do we use What are side effects of energy use Petro eum B Quadrllllon Btu ntemontmenta Ra System mwd 1amp305 450 E E 300 E C 9 E 390 3 mm Enargy Energy 0 150 pman Consumphan United States n Russia 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1939 2000 2001 2002 2003 1 were SohrCenter Chrna and India are reading our way Top Consuming Countries 19602006 I 24 UrIIied SIaIes MIIIIon Barres per Day I I I I I I I I I I 1960 1965 V970 1975 1900 1985 1390 1995 2000 2005 III par nc sn Umverxllv v IWCa39I39TQPIaECEFEF World Energy Needs mil Grow Signi can y in me 2731 Century 1286 PraJ mIans n 2025 arr ham m Enzrgy 1mm man Admmmmn ImmImIEnzrgyomm 004 Thu IP55 2m 3 quota 5 I9 WIqu 6 A39LIE Advancing Renewable Energy for a U 5 Overall Energy lVeeo s Grovv Even as 39Energy Intensifyquot Decreases nun mum H1 r r r N133 unununnnur cm mum1x 92 M WWW TaraU 5 Energy Produomn and Consunpmn Quads 0 198a w w 39 39 Imm mg m u 5 Energy Use per Caprra ndper Dollar reap Dr Mrgr GDP yummy nun HHHr Deals 2025 7 mm Wu 2003 Energy Demano Grows with Economic Development Energy demand and GDP per capna 198020CQ Prim ary Energy per capita 51 a 5mm m uuu 15mm zu uuu 25mm au uuu 35mm GDP per capita PPP 1995 r epumnaxngpnwer amy mmmme up mm imam mmnusiunsswumusihm mzmnnni wm mars mama man mwmes w Sm Umvanny NuheuinaSolarCenter Electricity Consumption per Person 19602001 15000 North Carolina 1100 kWhmonth FL US Average 800 kWhmonth GA 13000 39 39 11000 W M 9000 1quot r US aVQ annual kilowatt hours per person 1955 1965 1975 1985 1995 2005 Year Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy Total energy consumption for the United States 19501999 tn gJ exaioules I Coal Petroleum Hydropower geothermai and other I Natural gas I Nuctear power 2003 John aney and Sons Publishers US Energy Flow 2004 Quads 33 was pnmag energy5 WIpr Producuon 70 Consumpuon woo Enjer gy some QJdds mports 33 Adjustments 1 Energ yrcnnsumprmn Seems US Energy Flow 2004 Quads 95 oprmary energy 5 from mm mas Wm 59 oft19 permsum Impaired Mn US Energy HOW 2002 Quads Emmm mEu 39 mus V Nuc unr m Biomass mum 32 am nn09 nc sn Umverxllv m gun Sqlay elatng Energy Use In US Total Energy Use 10011013Bm yl OG AIO GJ 94 of world energy use Annual Eusrg Dullaok 1003 U DOE TJble L 1006 Advancing Renewable Energy for a m 9 Umvelsitv WWSF IaICenter US Residential Energy Demand by End Use EIA Annual Energy Outlook US DOE 2005 Fig 47 IqmuIrilIion BIuI N Hum Hymn V pnw hm lh rg LIgvlmg All lmnng Llr hllL39 luvmg vmrum nIm Advancing Renewable Energy for a n quot quotquot9399quot 9lafc 9tef a U 5 Power Panrs are Predominatey F 055 v Fue Fired and Located in the East q l o quot Mumman I ml 0 Nuch I on I Hymn O Nwmmlms Ar Renewable1mm Three Largey Separate Grids Distribute the POW639f Eastern Interconnection Interconnection I 23mm volts I 345000 volts I 50mm volts I meant volts I Highvoltage direct current Telres Interconnection Highvoltage electrical Transmission lines in the United States are divided into three separate grids that make up the national power grid The grids operate independently but are connected in a few places by directcurrent lines rCllladrillion Btu What is the Future at Our F essi Fue Supplies 50 an 30 N C 1 0 US Energy Consumption by Source Petroleum Hydroelectric o pnwer Natural Gas Mu Clear 7 Electric J Power 1 325 1350 137395 190D 1925 1950 11975 2000 Were is a Signi cant Dislocation Between Fossil Fuel Supply and Demand Reglonai snare ol 2004 Consumpiion vs Reserves Oil Consumption Reserves Consumption Resenes 39Consumption Resenes Resi oi World I N Ameilca Europe and Asia Peeiiic iniee laigesi energy markeis nc sun universny Proven world oil reserves in 1998 North America Lalin America sziaem Europe 64 0mm reservesl Middle East Eastern Euro 6 Asia and Australasia ZUEIK Juhn Wiley and Suns Publishers Advancing Pannwzhla anrnv for a 39 Economy When Will Fossil Fuels Run Out This depends on SUPPI 5 CONSUMPTION and ECONOMICS These are MIMI ned Advancing Renewable Eneryyfara 39 quot39 E SUPP Yand ECONOMICS De ne 39Resenes 39Resources and the 39Resource Base Decreasing degree or economic feasibility ECONOMICS well mm exeman m Enewanvlnn Additional Occurrences No economic symmequ Suhvcnnomm so pmmm Economic Pram Pinbanieinuicaieu nlemsd Hypoe SpecmaUve manuai Measured Damonshated U dv d denlmed quot 39SCOVEVE SUPPLY US Energy Price Projections Annual Energy Outlook 2005 EIADOE httpww 39 welacloelgovoraflaeol r Emruv mm 7702025 1200 unnun Murm plvr mum mm r u n u 1qu m m 311 mm Mum 35ban39el at 609 MMBTU 1 barrel US Energy Price Projections Annual Energy ht l Figun L Enn39gy prin n ummzuuu 42mm dullm39n m mile mm r u Outlook 2007 EIADOE wwweladoegovolafaeol ra KHZbarrel mm l v mm m l Prajecllons are uncertainquot U 8 Energy Price Projections Annual Energy Outlook 2008 EIADOE httpjwww ela doegovorafaeo released In June 2008 quotigurr 1 Energy privvs MILLWJU mum lullum nr million mm L 2 Ilrhrn I39ll ulInru Iz39ln In m SQOban el 39ulr1 U r w mm mm 2w guzn mm m A 222ulumrimu Estimates nfResnurces Reserves and Additional Occurrences 137 5 5 E Addmmna Occurrences i I Resuumes a w 7 i I Reserves 3 I Used E Cnal uncamnxiam on Cnrwnmmrul m Unconvenuonil we Mummc Hymns grim may CONSUMPTION is Related 0 he ReservesrtorProdLction IQP Rat3905 24 3 S 39 The RP ra rio is The number of years 139ha139 proved reserves would Ias r 200 7 a139 curren r produc rion ra res 164 yrs World RP ra rios are Oil 2 405 years Na rural Gas 667 Proven World ReservestoProduction Ratio g 100 7 years V Coal 164 years 8 66 7yrs N E US RP ra rios are 5 OII 111 years Na rural Gas 9 8 years 0 Coal 245 years Oil Gas Coal 39 I US RP ra rios shown by do r red lines o a mew w WW NC sn Urumshy 7 7 7 7 gang qua Visiolarrwcenterl Peak Oil THE GROWING VBAP of 30 50 I Past Discovery 40 Fauna memory PM 30 7 D Past sma InaBad on EmailHo ZWZL 20 Revisions backdabd 1 0 ll lllmlrllll lll l l l quot IImjrr uJuum 1931 195a 1570 990 20 10 2030 2050 Advancing Renewable Energy for a 14 19w I JSw IEuro E IWUSR B lhel EMEa51 IHHavyelt IEIEenwaler DFGVHI INCL Quadrillion Btu c We live in the mdde 0f the FOSS7 Fues Age 0 1 K su Umversny Effect of Combustion on Global Warming Global warming concerns usually related to 002 Consider the effect of the heat release from Coal 5400x105tons 490gt10l2 kg 3 140109 GJ Gas 90 trillion 13913 9040 therms 3 952109 GJ Oil 80 million barrelsday 40407 m2 2190x109 GJ Mass of air in atmosphere 5gtlt1039l8 kg just the air Specific heat of air 10 kJkgK Resulting temperature Rise 0085 K independent of the greenhouse effect The energy release in itself is not a concem Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy uc su Umvevsny A T M O S P H E R E Some aoha39 radlatlon is Sam at Ihu Intramd re ected by in atmosphere radiation passes through nd Earth39s surtace m imnsphare Ind is 5915 muiauon pass mm 0mgqu solm iudvrulon lost in 5p m 513339 mos mm 03 Win 114 Inquot Hot olilgomg initiated mnlnlmn 24 Wait per rrr xnnammg somr mummn 34 Walt an m W 39 E NHouss GASES S me nl Ihl MGM tuttilion is absorbed um veemllhd m the me gas malenun The gymquot am men is In wauuingot me Earm sswtnce mm m quotoomphn GR um incoming Sula iaumhon 240 Wnu Wt m39 Suriana gaiiu mm heal and Imam radiallon Is alum main 5qu energy ls Ihsnrbed by It nm suncl and mum n and II soan we run coming 15 w PE m on Imlnlun a longwlve Wand E A R T H naialion back In the Ilmwspnore QIW R d 39 quot 39 39 Energy for a 39 39 39 Economy 33 Planets Atmospheres and Climate ME A planet39s climate is determined by its mass its Thlnelmos here distance from the sun and the composition of its quot 5 3quot 2iquot WWW M atmosphere Earth39s atmosphere is 78 nitrogen Avaragelsmparalura50C5o F 217 o d 17 Th C b d d o xygen an o 0 er gases ar on IOXI e accounts for 003 004 Water vapor carbon Ea dioxide and other minor gases absorb thermal v radiation leaving the surface These greenhouse gases act as a partial blanket for the thermal radiation from the surface and enable it to be substantially warmer than it would otherwise be Without the greenhouse gases Earth39s average temperature would be roughly 20 C 4 F Carbon Continuoush Cycles between the Atmosphere and the and Oceans There are Two primary anthmpogenlc effects on The carbon cyc e Slow exchange w surface ocean carbon Storage in Gt 0 Fluxes in Gt Clyear l 1 Glen 109tons Modern C07 Concentrations in the Atmosphere are Increasino e F e v vvvvvvvvv vvvvvvv ERF The concenTraTion of C02 in The aTmosphere has been measured conTinuously since 1958 and follows an oscillaTing line known as The quotKeelin Curvequot name Charles Keeling who discovered The annual flucTuaTions and reporTed ThaT CO2 concenTraTions were increasing The seasonal change in CO2 concenTraTion abouT 3 is due To land planTs Every spring when Trees leaf ouT and grasslands and farmlands green The COZin The air decreases reflecTing The upTake from phoTosynThesis There is an Historic Correlation between C 02 Concentration and Temperature C wenliation mm M aun Loa Observana amp Amen 39 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 Thousands of years BP before present 02 No re Tha r ToTal Tempera rure change across several ymwmmnmwm e ice ages was only abou r 12 C or abou r 22 F Carbon Diox1de ppmn recenf years Natural Variations in the Earth 5 Orbitmeat Climate and Greenhouse Gas Concenuations zuu min Thousands of Years Ago thr mum Mlhine E lt Solar Radimlon wins pnr5quare mam un q d sued 5103 a mEmA u antmam DI ISO I39m 50 Thwsandsu eir gu w r Rudmmzn Smemmc Amenczn um Z 5p ta Past and Future C 02 Atmospheric Concentrations for Marious iPC C Scenarios C 02 concentrations are predicted to increase by a actor of two to three Direct measurements The CO2 concentration has increased 93 We a l Pmiemim ppm i i Scenarios MB 1000 parts permillion Constant Emissions of C02 00 ot Lead to Stabilization ofA trnospnenc C02 Concentrations 12 C02 emlsslonsiGtCyr39 NI 39 39 39 39r L t v gt quot2600 21m 2200 2300 20m 21m 22m 23m 1 Constant CO2 emisslons at year 2000 evel TWO Scenarios 2 Emissions path to stabilize C01 concentration at 550 ppm 20 Yumvuniluus nnumuiin In 1 1 a um t Climate Modes C02 Concentrations and o s Temperature Change for Past Data no Recorded global temperature chan e can be compared on With computer modeis that predict temperature change nder different quotforc ng scenarios With quotforclngsquot u u n o a budget of the pianet 7 greenhouse gases aerosois increased soiar radiation and other agents The charts compare observed temperature anomaites from the W historic mean red line Wl39h the results of computer V models that attempt to predict temperature based on w i oo 39 other quot iquot Y gray itne madam o s imnmwnetto The top two charts illustrate that models using natural quot quotquot t l quot and anthropogenic n uences alone Natural causes amp tsoo 1 75 2 39 Manymadz causes fall to match the obse vzd recor f mmwmn m um quot4 temperature anomalies since 1866 But the comb nation of natu ai and ant ro mc deis Natural n7 n 5 made causes produces a ciose match to the measured Li d ta Th I aclear quotthumbprintquot of human wm39tv vi39ivMWilv m impacts on climate g 393 Based on results such as these the Intergmernmental whmqummgg a 3 mm 5 Panel on climate change IPCC 2001 report stated that mewm m m anemia quotconcentrations of atmospher c greenhouse gases and 85 Dan 95 0 mzll luulull z to Increase as a result of human OLIIVII 25quot W FI PF CU2 Concentrations Temperature and Sea Level Rise Longliter Emissions are Reduced Magnitude oi response C02 emissions peak 0 to 100 years Time taken to reach 39I39brium equi i Sealevelijseque severalrntllenia lo we melting EeaJevel rise due to thermal expansio a few CEnlIHIES CO stabilization 100 to 300 years C02 emissions I I Today 100 ysets I woo years n centuries to millenia Temperature stabilization 602 Emissions from Energy Consumption 2002 Fienewables 3 Electricity power sector 2249 million metric 2 tons 002 Natural Gas 1203 39 Residential 39 y commercial 2206 r Industrial Coal coke imports 6 1 674 Petroleu m 2453 Transportation 1 850 Source Energy lnionnation Administration Emissions of Greenhouse Gases In the United States 2002 Tables 4 10 39in cludee adjustments of 429 million metric tons of carbon dioxide from US territories less 902 Mrcoz from international and mll ary bunker fuels quotPrevious versions at this chart shamed emissions in metric tona at carbon not at 002 Municipal solid waste and geothermal energy Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory May 2004 Note Numbers may not equal sum oi components because of independent rounding httheedJlnLQDleowi If We Can t Rely on F 055 F ues then What The options are nuclear and rene webe5 together only 75 of today s primary energy 50 US Energy Consumption by Source 4 0 Petroleum 3 on 3D 5 Hydroelectric 3 Natural Gas E ower 39D g 20 3 CD3 Nucleer 7 Electric m i Power 3 1 325 135D 157395 1903 1925 1 950 1975 EUDU 22 Nuclear Energy Provides 20 of U5 Electricy Russla United Kingdom Unllud sure 5 aln Fin and ar Share in 13 an Cleth wepulluc Emmy ucl n Republic or 53 Electricity Generation Slovenia 7 40 Percent Corrs uctiorr Permits for US Power Reactors were lssueo Orry Until 7979 823 quads of Nuclear Electric Power is produced by 104 operable nuclear ower plan139s in The US ie average nuclear power plan139 008 quads mm Cancu u m Unrls Ordered um mm mm m B o Fullrpcnrer Operalrng Licenses z y Number of Unns Q 8 o shutdowns Year 1960 1966 1970 1975 1911 1985 1990 1996 2000 23 Global Nuclear Reactors U5 genereactors are among Ine nelrl selrlen nieslnieielnan ereais ell GlobalNumberof Reactors by Age V r O U N v m U 0 L W 0 E 3 Z 20 25 Age years Technical longterm Potential for Renewable Energy in the 15 Hydroelectric 2004 tarsume an 275 Quad Technical scrim pawn anrnms Z hansrnnprian 00mm 5 lunarnrund salur pmr runmrmmpnmr Geothermal Z ncmumpm 03mm Wm runmrmpnmr Z mnsump an 01mm runmr mm parznrrul sure Z mnsumpwn Nl Tnlrntulswmpmnrrul Where are Seler Wind and the Others 50 USEmgMbmmmmnWSwme 4 3 Petroleum 3 I 3D 5 Hydroelectric P Natural Gas E ower 39D a 2D 339 Nuclear Electric 1U l Power Wood 0 1325 1350 1375 man 1925 1950 1975 EQDU Renewable Energy C ensumplien by Majer Seurces 2004 39 Solar 1 Nuclizzfgsctric WOOd 33 3 R bl Waste 9 enewa e Pezrglium i Energy 6 Wlnd Natural Gas Conventional Hydroelectric Power 45 Alcohol Fuels 5 Geothermal 6 A Recent DOE Analysis Articulated Four Broad National Energy Policy Goals Lquot 1 Diversity our energy mix and reduce dependence on foreign petroleum thereby reducing vulnerability to disruption and increasin the exibilit39 ofthe market to meet us needs Mammal hum Punk 2 Reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental impacts water use land use criteria pollutants from our energy production 3 Create a more flexible more reliable and higher capacity US energy infrastructure thereby improving energy services throughout the economy enabling use of diverse sources and improving robustness against disruption 4 Improve the energy productivity or energy ef ciency of the us economy uc Sun Llnlvelshty m Solar Center Direct Use of Solar Energy What is the best use for solar energy Transportation Electrical energy production Space and water heating What is meant by best Advancing Renewable Energy for a Sustainable Economy 26 Kmmm mww 919r em r Use of Solar for Transportation The solar constant is GSC1367 Wm2 Converting units 65515 hpyd2 On a horizontal surface on air Gmax10 hpyd2 Consider using solar energy for your car Surface area 5 yd x 2 yd 10 yd2 Maximum solar energy 10 hp at noon on a sunny day With realistic conversion efficiencies 1 hp Kalilurlvmy m fof esidential Electrical Energy Production Average residential electrical demand is 1 to 5 kW average 15 kW Clear sky radiation on a surface tracking the sun is 1000 Wim2 With 100 conversion efficiency the energy demand can be met with a 1 5 m2 collector Achievable conversion efficiency 10 A 10 50 m2 collector is required on a sunny day with tracking Roof of typical house gt 100 m2 Technically feasible What is the true performance and cost Advandngn u z a u L renewa afucen l


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