English Literature II
English Literature II ENG 262
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Date Created: 10/15/15
ENG 262 Final Exam Study Guide Charles Darwin In looking at Nature it is most necessary to keep the foregoing considerations always in mindinever to forget that every single organic being around us may be said to be striving to the utmost to increase in numbers The face of Nature may be compared to a yielding surface with ten thousand sharp wedges packed close together and driven inwards by incessant blows Work The Origin of Species Author Charles Darwin Speaker Charles Darwin Situation In the first part of this passage Darwin states that every organism in our world is always striving to increase in number The second part of the passage is Darwin s metaphor of nature that there is a constant struggle for existence among species which can be related to the action ofwedges being driven into a block In order for a wedge to be driven into a block and not fall out it must displace or remove other wedges that may be in its way This is the type of competition that Darwin describes in the natural world Significance Man may be excused for feeling some pride at having risen though not through his own exertions to the very summit of the organic scale and the fact of his having thus risen instead of having been aboriginally placed there may give him hopes for a still higher destiny in the future Work The Descent of Man Author Charles Darwin Speaker Charles Darwin SituationDarwin is stating that man has risen from a lowly form to what he is today which may give us hope to be able to advance even further in the future Significance Darwin s theory of man advancing from a lowlier form to what he has become goes along with the Victorian ideal ofprogress The Victorians of the time believed that things were continually getting better and that man is making progress which is supported from a scientific standpoint in Darwin s writing William Butler Yeats Where the wave ofmoonlight glosses The dim grey sands with light Far off by furthest Rosses We foot it all the night Weaving olden dances Mingling hands and mingling glances Tell the moon has taken ight Work The Stolen Child Author William Butler Yeats Speakerfaeries Situation faeries are enticing the young child to come with them away from his home and the realities of the world Signi cance Yeats 39 r inn of Irish folklore is concurrent with the Modernist literary techniques of the time Modernist writers often used myth such as this to express a new reality of destruction and disillusionment which resulted from WWI Yeats does this by having the faeries mention that the world is quotmore full ofweeping than he the child can understand Unwearied still lover by lover They paddle in the cold Companionable streams or climb the air Their hearts have not grown old Passion or conquest wander where they will Attend upon them still Work The Wild Swans at Coole Author William Butler Yeats Speaker WB Yeats Situation Yeats is writing about the swans he has witnessed at Coole Park which are supposedly lovers who have been turned to swans Significance The swans in the poem embody characteristics of devoted lovers which also serve as symbols of courage and constancy The use of symbols such as these are very common in Modernist writing somewhere in sands of the desert A shape with lion body and the head of a man A gaze blank and pitiless as the sun Is moving its slow thighs while all about it Reel shadows of the indignant desert birds Work The Second Coming Author William Butler Yeats Speaker WB Yeats SituationYeats is writing about the ironic second coming of the antiChrist In this excerpt he is describing the physical qualities of the antiChrist and the darkness that surrounds it SignificanceThe poem embodies several Modernists characteristics such as the imagery of a broken decayed society which is present in this particular stanza The imagery in this particular stanza details the ironic advent of the new nonChristian dispensation which eXpounds upon the idea ofa destroyed disillusioned postWWI society Wilfred Owen What passingbells for these who die as cattle Only the monstrous anger of the guns Only the stuttering ri es rapid rattle Can patter out their hasty orisons Work Anthem for Doomed Youth Author Wilfred Owen Speaker Wilfred Owen Situation Owen is stating that men are being killed so rapidly in the war that the only thing fast enough to say their funeral prayers is the quotstuttering ri es Significance Irony is all over the place in this poem making it a perfect match for the 20th century and the quotAge of Irony The irony in this passage is that the only thing fast enough to quotpatter out their the soldiers hasty orisons is the guns which kill them DH Lawrence No company came to the house save dealers and coarse men Mabel had no associates ofher own sex after her sister went away But she did not mind She went regularly to church she attended to her father And she lived in the memory ofher mother who had died when she was fourteen and whom she had loved Work The Horse Dealer s Daughter Author DH Lawrence Speaker DH Lawrence SituationLawrence is describing Mabel as an isolated alienated girl who lives a rather treacherous life being the only female in the household SignificanceLawrence establishes Mabel as the prototypic Modernist character in this paragraph He defines her as an isolated character who is unable to communicate and is an alien in an uncaring universe He slowly ventured into the pond The bottom was deep soft clay he sank in and the water clasped dead cold round his legs As he stirred he could smell the cold rotten clay that fouled up into the water It was objectionable in his lungs Still repelled and yet not heeding he moved deeper into the pond Work The Horse Dealer s Daughter Author DH Lawrence SpeakerDH Lawrence Situation Iack Ferguson is venturing out into the cold pond in an attempt to rescue Mabel Significance The pond serves as a symbol in two different ways here To Mabel the pond is a symbol of an escape in death To Iack it is a symbol of Mabel s animal appeal This animal appeal is a way in which Lawrence explores relationships and human sexuality as he often did in his fiction Also the symbols are representative of Modernist writing Thomas Hardy The land s sharp features seemed to be The century s corpse outleant His crypt the cloudy canopy The wind his death lament Work The Darkling Thrush Author Thomas Hardy SpeakerThomas Hardy Situation Hardy is describing the desolate hopeless landscape before him at the conclusion of the century Significance Hardy s poetry was written against the backdrop of the desolation and disillusionment of the late Victorian era and the British disaffection with the Boer War The bleak landscape depicted by Hardy in this stanza re ects the replicated bitter human relationships of that time Gerard Manley Hopkins Where we even when we mean To mend her we end her When we hew and delve Aftercomers cannot guess the beauty been WorkBinsey Poplar Author Gerard Manley Hopkins Speaker Gerard Manley Hopkins Situation Hopkins is writing about poplars which have recently been felled He states that even when men mean well by altering a natural scene they quotendquot it and people who come after the alteration will not be able to imagine the beauty of the original scene Significance This stanza focuses on the environmental anxiety experienced by Hopkins and the celebration of the beauty ofindividual objects in nature Manley s idea ofinstress is seen here in his ability to recognize distinctiveness of an object in natural world I caught this morning morning s minion Kingdom of daylight s dauphin dappledawndrawn Falcon in his riding Of the rolling level underneath him steady air and striding High there how he rung upon the rein of a wimpling wing In his ecstasy Work The Windhover Author Gerard Manley Hopkins Speaker Gerard Manley Hopkins SituationHopkins is expressing his idea of instress here as he celebrates the beauty ofa falcon he witnessed ying that morning Significance This poem demonstrates more clearly than Hopkins other poems his innovative poetic techniques His ideas ofinscape and instressare present in this stanza as well as his unique compounding ofwords such as quotdappledawndrawn falcon Issac Rosenberg The darkness crumbles away It is the same old druid Time as ever Only a live thing leaps my hand A queer sardonic rat As I pull the parapet s poppy To stick behind my ear Work Break of Day in the Trenches Author Isaac Rosenberg Speaker Isaac Rosenberg SituationThe sunrise is shedding light on the horrors of trench warfare in which Rosenberg finds himself Significance The poem not only details the gloom of the war it also embodies the characteristics of the quotAge of Irony The irony in this particular stanza is that it celebrates the arrival of dawn but dawn at the same time is making visible the horrors of trench warfare implication of man keeping the poppy safe when the man himself is vulnerable James Joyce I heard a voice call from one end of the gallery that the light was out The upper part of the hall was now completely dark Gazing up into the darkness I saw myself as a creature driven and derided by vanity and my eyes burned with anguish and anger WorkAraby Author James Joyce SpeakerAn unnamed narrator who is a thirteen year old boy SituationThe young once is at the bazaar and the lights have just been turned out as the event is being closed He has an epiphany a sudden moment of self recognition that he seeks only a vain wish for change and that Mangan s sister will fail his expectation just as Araby did Significance This moment of epiphany is common ofoyce s writing The bazaar and the crushed expectations of the young narrator can be seen as a symbol of the world which once portrays in typical Modernist style as a dark place North Richmond Street being blind was a quiet street except at the hour when the Christian Brothers School set the boys free An uninhabited house of two storeys stood at the blind end detached from its neighbours in a square ground Work Araby Author James Joyce Speaker An unnamed narrator who is a thirteen year old boy Situation The narrator is beginning his story with the description of the street on which he lives with his aunt and uncle SignificanceThe quotblind end street on which the narrator lives is a symbol using the deadend world of Dublin to portray the modern world This realistic symbolism is not only characteristic of once s style it is also very much a Modernist quality as it is used to depict a bleak modern world Edward Thomas And willows willowherb and grass And meadowsweet and haycocks dry No whit less still and lonely fair Than the high cloudlets in the sky Work Adlestrop Author Edward Thomas SpeakerEdward Thomas Situation The train on which Thomas is traveling has made an unexpected stop at a place called Adlestrop Thomas points out the distinct stillness of the moment Significance Tom Stoppard We shed as we pick up like travelers who must carry everything in their arms and what we let fall will be picked up by those behind The procession is very long and life is very short We die on the march But there is nothing outside the march so nothing can be lost to it The missing plays of Sophocles will turn up piece by piece or be written again in another language Ancient cures for diseases will reveal themselves once more Mathematical discoveries glimpsed and lost to view will have their time again Work Arcadia Author Tom Stoppard Speaker Septimus Situation Significance When you stir your rice pudding Septimus the spoonful ofjam spreads itself round making red trails like the picture ofa meteor in my astronomical atlas But ifyou stir backward the jam will not come together again Indeed the pudding does not notice and continues to turn pinkjust as before Work Arcadia Author Tom Stoppard Speaker Thomasina Situation Significance It s what happened to the Enlightenment isn t it A century ofintellectual rigour turned in on itself Amind in chaos suspected of genius In a setting of cheap thrills and false emotion The history of the garden says it all beautifully There s an engraving of Sidley Park in 1730 that makes you want to weep Paradise in the age of reason By 1760 everything had gone Work Arcadia Author Tom Stoppard Speaker Hannah Iarvis Situation Significance quotWell it is odd Heat goes to cold It s a oneway street Your tea will end up at room temperature What s happening to your tea is happening to everything everywhere The sun and the stars It ll take a while but we re all going to end up at room temperature Work Arcadia Author Tom Stoppard Speaker Valentine Situation Valentine is explaining to Hannah the idea of constantly increasing entropy or heat loss of an object which Thomasina had earlier explained Significance The idea of entropy a part of the second law of thermodynamics is a central theme in Stoppard s play Emily Bronte She got downstairs before me and out into the garden where she had seen her cousin performing some easy work and when I sent to bid them come to breakfast I saw she had persuaded him to clear a large space of ground from currant and gooseberry bushes and they were busy planning together an importation of plants from the Grange Work Wuthering Heights Author Emily Bronte Speaker Nelly Situation Nelly is recalling a time when upon announcing that it was time for breakfast she realized that Earnshaw had altered part of the garden SignificanceHere we see a Wordsworthian sensibility to nature which Bronte included in her work alongside Victorian ideals The landscape garden and the focus upon it is essentially Romantic but plays an important role in this 1847 masterpiece quotI cannot express it but surely you and everybody have a notion that there is or should be an existence ofyours beyond you What were the use of my creation ifI were entirely contained here My great miseries in this world have been Heathcliff s miseries and I watched and felt each from the beginning my great thought in living is himself If all else perished and he remained I should still continue to be and if all else remained and he were annihilated the Universe would turn to a mighty stranger Work Author Speaker Catherine Situation Catherine is telling Nelly of her love for Heathcliff and how strong her feelings are for him Significance Love plays a big part throughout the work and here Catherine is explaining her con ict ofloving both Linton and Heathcliff Of the four main elements ofVictorian realism marriage is the one seen here as Catherine despite her words here marries Linton a short time later Well never mind Mr Green as to repenting of my injustices I ve done no injustice and I repent ofnothing No minister need come nor need anything be said over me I tell you I have nearly attained my heaven and that of others is altogether unvalued and uncoveted by me Work Author Speaker Heathcliff Situation Heathcliff on his deathbed is telling Nelly that he wants no one to come pray over him because he nearly attained his heaven in Catherine Significance Here we see the GothicRomantic side of the novel s ending As Heathcliffis dying a unity ofbeing between he Catherine and the natural world is seen
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