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Chapter Four Choice Theory Because They Want To Lockmg your doors won39t keep a burglar ouf of your home39 Rational Decision Making Criminals plan activities buy equipment try to avoid detection and attempt to put profits in a hidden bank account Because of these calculated actions many criminologists suggest that the source of all criminal violations rests upon rational decision making Development of Rational Choice Theory History Roots in classical school of criminology Cesare Beccaria an utilitarian approach Late 19603 Criminologists reembrace classical ideas Becker Except for a few mentally ill people criminals behave in rational ways when deciding to commit crime Wilson offenders value the excitement and thrill of crime have a low stake in conformity and are will to take greater risks than the average person Concepts of Rational Choice A Evaluatinq the Risks of Crime Personal factors money revenge thrills Situational factors target availability security measures police presence Choosing crime Burglars choose targets based on value novelty resale potential Decision to commit enhanced by promise of easy gain with low risk Choosing to forgo crime Stand a good chance of being caught and punished Fear the consequences of punishment Risk losing respect of peers damaging reputation experiencing guilt or shame Risk of apprehension outweighs profitpleasure Concepts of Rational Choice B Crime is Both Offense and OffenderSpecific Offensespecific reacting to characteristics of the criminal act Evaluating the target yield existence of security devices police patrol effectiveness ease of selling stolen merchandise presence of occupants neighbors or guard dogs escape routes etc Offenderspecific reacting to personal factors Possession of necessary skills need for money or valuables resources to commit the crime fear of expected apprehension and punishment option of alternative criminal acts physical ability Concepts of Rational Choice C Structuring Criminality personal factors and conditions are evaluated before choosing criminality Economic needopportunity Prostitution drug trafficking Evaluating personal traits and experience Knowing their limitations impulsiveness and selfcontrol good criminal opportunities Criminal expertise development of techniques to avoid detection learn business manner to deal with crime Concepts of Rational Choice D Structurinq Crime where occurs or the characteristics of the target Choosing the place of crime Criminals choose where to a commit crime Drug dealers evaluate sales area the middle of a long block due to visual advantages Choosing targets Burglars check if dwelling is occupied Burglars track behavior patterns of occupants Burglars prefer working between 900 and 1100 am and in the afternoon when parents are working or transporting children to and from school ls Crime Rational ls theft rational Target selection seems highly rational Burglars choose targets based on value and resale potential Burglars like to work close to home where they blend in and will not get lost when returning home with their loot ls Drug Use Rational At its onset drug use is controlled by rational decision making Drug dealers approach their profession in a businesslike fashion ls Crime Rational Can Violence Be Rational Violent criminals select suitable targets based on vulnerability Robbers Choose targets in familiar areas where they have knowledge of escape routes referred to as quotawareness space Avoid freestanding buildings where they can be surrounded by police Shy away from victims who may be armed and potentially dangerous Target those with quotdirty handsquot such as drug dealers Choose targets in order to send a message Why Do People Commit Crime Edgework Crime is a more attractive alternative than lawabiding behavior Due to the adrenaline rush that comes from the exhilarating momentary integration of danger risk and skill Seductions of crime Katz There are immediate benefits to criminality and seductions precede the commission of crime and draw offenders into law violations Antisocial behavior gives adolescents the opportunity to exert control over their lives Controlling Crime Situational Crime Prevention Criminal acts will be avoided if potential targets are carefully guarded the means to commit crime are controlled potential offenders are carefully monitored Controlling Crime Crime Prevention Strategies Increase the effort needed to commit crime locks owners photo on credit cards alarm systems Increase the risk of committing crime Crime discouragers guardians Reduce rewards of crime Marking property so it is difficult to sell tracking systems LoJack GPS Induce guilt shame Lists of sex offenders Reduce provocation Antibullying programs in schools Remove excuses Electronic roadside speed displays Controlling Crime The Costs and Benefits of Situational Crime Prevention Hidden benefits Diffusion prevent other crimes Discouragement also reduce crime in surrounding areas Hidden costs Displacement move or redirect offenders to less heavily guarded alternative targets EXtil lCtiOl l reduction programs produce a shortterm positive effect but benefits dissipate as criminals adjust to new conditions Replacement criminals try new offenses they previously avoided General Deterrence Increasing the real or perceived threat of criminal punishment Certainty of Punishment Active police strategies Severity of Punishment Speed of Punishment General Deterrence Critique of General Deterrence Rationality some offenders suffer emotional disorders System effectiveness the legal system is not very effective only 10 of all serious crimes result in apprehension Some offenders and some crimes are more deterrable than others Specific Deterrence The view that criminal sanctions should be so powerful that offenders will never repeat their criminal acts Incapac a on Incapacitation Effect Incarceration Recidivism Can Incapacitation Reduce Crime Policy Implications of Choice Theory Highly Visible Police Patrols Three Strikes and You re Out Death Penalty Does Availability of the Death Penalty Discourage Murder Chapter Two The Nature and Extent of Crime Crime data a Helps formulate theories that explain onset of crime a Helps devise social policies that facilitate its control or elimination o Accurate data is necessary to assess the nature and extent of crime to track changes in the crime rate and to measure the individual and social factors influencing criminality Primary Sources of Crime Data 0 Surveys and official records which are collected compiled and analyzed by government agencies a One such source is the Uniform Crime Report UCR which is data collected by the FBI from local law enforcement agencies UCR o This includes both crimes reported to and the number of arrests made by local law enforcement departments o The major unit of analysis involves index or Part crimes 9 Murder and nonnegligent manslaughter o Forcible rape 0 Robbery o Aggravated assault 0 Burglary o Larceny o Arson 9 Motor vehicle thefts UCR o In addition the UCR shows the number and characteristics age race and gender of individuals who have been arrested for these and all other crimes except traffic violations or Part II crimes o htto Widow quotitai a draw The UCR Methods to Express Crime Data 1 the number of crimes reported to the police and arrests made are in raw figures 2 crime rates per 100000 people are computed 3 Rate per 100000 Number of reported crimespopulation statetownX100000 pp26 Why the difference 0 The media it gives more attention to serious violent crimes so police devote more time and resources to these investigations 0 Prior association the victims and attackers of many violent crimes know each other often making investigations simpler Validity of the UCR 0 There are three main areas of concern about the accuracy of the UCR o 1 reporting practices 9 2 law enforcement practices a 3 methodological problems National IncidentBased Reporting System NIBRS o More reliable as this program collects data on each reported crime incident including a brief account of each incident and arrest as well as information about the victim and the o ender o This system involves 46 specific offenses including the eight Part I offenses and 11 lesser offenses o hftpffwvvvvlcpsrumlchedquACJDleBRSf Survey Research a Sampling process of selecting for study a limited number of subjects who are representative of entire groups sharing similar characteristics or the population a Crosssectional survey representative of all members of society Useful and cost effective technique for measuring characteristics of large numbers of people National Crime Victimization Survey NCVS Comprehensive nationwide survey of victimization in the US provides details of crime incidents victims and trends Collects information on crimes suffered by individuals and households whether or not those crimes were reported to law enforcement Estimates the proportion of each crime type reported to law enforcement Summarizes the reasons that victims give for reporting or not reporting National Crime Victimization Survey NCVS o In addition the survey gives information about victims age sex race ethnicity marital status income and educational level offenders sex race approximate age and victimoffender relationship and the crimes time and place of occurrence use of weapon nature of injury and economic consequences National Crime Victimization Survey NCVS o In addition questions cover the experiences of victims with the criminal justice system selfprotective measures used by victims and possible substance abuse by offenders o humWWWicbsraumichiedui NACJi NCVSi Advantages of NCVS a Can estimate the total amount of annual crimes a more accurate assessment of the nation s crime problem a Can help to create an understanding why crimes are not reported to police and whether the type and nature of the crime influences whether the police will ever know it happened Disadvantages of NCVS o Methodological problems include overreporting underreporting inability to record personal criminal activity of those interviewed sampling errors inadequate question format that invalidates responses Secondary Sources of Crime Data 0 Cohort research observing a group of people who share a like characteristic over time o Retrospective cohort study simpler and less expensive an intact cohort from the past and collect data from educational family police and hospital records in order to find trends for that cohort Experimental Research 0 Criminologists manipulate or intervene in the lives of subjects in order to see the outcome or the effect of that intervention 0 Three elements are present random selection of subjects a control or comparison group and an experimental condition 0 These experiments are rare as they are difficult expensive often causing ethical and legal roadblocks and requiring long followup periods to verify results Experimental Research 0 Researchers often use a quasiexperimental design following one group and comparing them to a matched group without random assignment a Observational known as field research and interview research is done indepth and on a small number of subjects MetaAnalysis and Systematic Review a Metaanalysis gathering data from previous studies and grouping it together in order to indicate relationships 0 Systematic review collecting findings from previous scientific studies appraising and synthesizing the evidence and using this collective evidence to address a particular scientific question Crime Mapping 0 Crime maps display crime locations or concentrations and can be used to chart trends in criminal activity 0 A federal program aiding local law enforcement in analyzing crime series and patterns is CATCH Crime Analysis Tactical Clearing House Crime Rate Trends 0 These trends are influenced by social economic personal and demographic factors a Social factors include the age structure of society high crime rates among teens o The influence of the state of the economy is confusing as multiple variables exist making measurement of the link between economy and crime rates difficult Examples of Crime Rate Trends Rate per 100000 population 9 8 EF 5 5 4 3 2 1 0 Trends in Homicide Rates Massachusetts o 1024yrs nunAll Ages 51 E2 43 quotquot n 33 33 GIBW H I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Rates for All Ages are egeedjuded to the standard 2000 population the rates for 1024 yrs age group are agespecific Examples of Crime Trends Comparing Homicides per 100000 in some US Cities Hallimu Delwil I I I Inllul ubu 5aquot Jen s Su nll Ca quotas Ifll 12 FElhhx En Comparing Homicides per 100000 in some US Cities Examples of Crime Mapping Visit I1 Cr39rril Rates 2030 P M l 0130 I 37016291393i57 I man an 951 1531 290612 I enio 150 45 I 010 an 58 This map uses 2000 crime data collected by the Massachusetts Crime Reporting Unit to show violent crime rates at the city level Trends in Crime 0 Violent crimes may be increasing again after a downward trend 0 Property crimes have decreased and seem to be continuing that trend 0 Selfreported crime results appear stable however the Monitoring the Future MTF data assessing criminal activity of high school seniors the crime problem is much greater than the FBI data indicates 0 The future of crime trends is dependent on the economy technological change and social factors Crime Patterns and the Nature of Crime 0 Ecology of crime includes day season and climate 0 Weather effects such as temperature swings may have an impact on violent crime rates a Regional differences urban v rural areas area of the country probably can be explained by economic differences Firearms 0 Use of firearms some criminologists believe that the proliferation of handguns significantly raises the rate of violence while others believe that personal gun use acts as a crime deterrent o Handgun control is quite controversial some believe that possession of handguns should be outlawed others refer to the Second Amendment and the right to bear arms Social Class Socioeconomic Conditions and Crime 0 Crime is inherently a lowerclass phenomenon as they have the greatest incentive to commit crimes 0 Instrumental crimes people unable to obtain desired goods and services may resort to illegal activities to get them 0 Repressive crimes people living in poverty engage in disproportionate amounts of crimes such as assaults and rapes due to rage frustration and anger against society Social Class Socioeconomic Conditions and Crime 0 An explanation for the relationship between official crime and social class may be a function of law enforcement practices not actual criminal behavior patterns a Selfreports indicate that police may be more likely to arrest lowerclass offenders and treat affluent more leniently 0 Nonetheless the association between class and crime is quite complex Other Factors 0 Age and crime younger people commit more crime than older individuals 0 Aging out of crime deviance in youth is fueled by the need for money and sex and reinforced by close relationships with peers like themselves Most older adults conform to conventional lifestyles Gender and Crime 0 Male crime rates much higher than those of females This difference is based on a number of theories 0 Lombroso s masculinity hypothesis held that some delinquent females physically and emotionally closely resemble males 0 Chivalry hypothesis holds that much female criminality is hidden because of the culture s protective and benevolent attitude toward women Gender Socialization and Development 0 Girls are socialized to be less aggressive than boys and are supervised more closely by parents 0 Cognitive differences may contribute to behavioral variations as girls are encouraged to be more empathic about other people and avoid harming them 0 Girls are more verbally proficient and may develop social skills to help deal with conflict without violence Gender Socialization and Development 0 Liberal feminist theory the lower crime rate for women can be explained by their secondclass economic and social position 0 Gender based crime rates are still significant but females seem to be closing the gap Race and Crime 0 Minorities are involved in a disproportionate share of criminal activity a Suspects who are poor minority and male are more likely to be arrested than suspects who are white affluent and female 0 In some areas young AfricanAmerican males are treated more harshly by the criminal and juvenile justice systems than members of any other group Race and Crime 0 Racial threat hypothesis as the percentage of minorities in the population increases so does the amount of social control that police direct at minority group members 0 Disparities in justice policy result in widely disproportionate makeup of the prison population the highest rate is among black males aged 2034 Race and Economic and Social Disparity o Minorities are often forced to live in high crime areas where risk of victimization is significant 0 Minorities face more social isolation and economic deprivation than the white majority adding to a sense of frustration and failure 0 Family dissolution in minority communities is thought to be tied to low employment among AfricanAmerican males which places additional stress on the family Chronic OffendersCriminal Careers 0 Chronic or career criminalsa small group of criminal offenders account for a majority of all criminal offenses o Delinquent chronic offenders the chronic 6 percent have the most dramatic amount of delinquent behavior 0 Arrests and court experience did little to deter this group Chronic OffendersCriminal Careers 0 Early onset youth who have been exposed to a variety of personal and social problems at an early age are most at risk of repeat offending 0 Characteristics that predict chronic offending include school behaviorperformance family problems substance abuse and deliquency Chronic OffendersCriminal Careers 0 Serious violent crime commission during adolescence as well as early onset of delinquent behavior account for persistence continuity of crime 0 These chronic offenders are the focus of crime control policy such as long periods of incarceration and a three strikes policy conviction of a third offense requires serving a mandatory life sentence Chapter One Crime and Criminology Deviant or Criminal How Criminologists Define Crime Deviance includes a broad spectrum of behaviors ranging from the most socially harmful such as rape and murder to the relatively inoffensive such as joining a religious cut or crossdressing A deviant act becomes a crime when it is deemed socially harmful or dangerous it is then specifically defined prohibited and punished under the criminal law A Definition of Crime Crime is a violation of societal rules of behavior as interpreted and expressed by the criminal law which reflects public opinion traditional values and the viewpoint of people currently holding social and political power Individuals who violate these rules are subject to sanctions by state authority social stigma and loss of status Criminology Definition An academic discipline that uses the scientific method to study the nature extent cause and control of criminal behavior Interdisciplinary science involving two or more academic fields Criminal Justice System made up of the agencies of social control such as police departments the courts and correctional institutions that handle criminal offenders What Criminologists Do The Criminological Enterprise Criminal StatisticsCrime Measurement Analysis Measurement Identification Victims Testing theories Sociology of LawLaw and SocietySocioLegal Studies Investigate history of legal though Assess effects of proposed legal change What Criminologists Do The Criminological Enterprise Developing Theories of Crime Causation Psychological Personality development social learning cognition Developing Theories of Crime Causation Biological Biochemical genetic neurological What Criminologists Do The Criminological Enterprise Developing Theories of Crime Causation Sociological Neighborhood poverty socialization group interaction Penology Punishment Sanctions and Corrections Penology the correction and sentencing of known criminal offenders Rehabilitation Social control What Criminologists Do The Criminological Enterprise Victimology Victim surveys Victimization risk Victim culpability Services for crime victims A Brief History of Criminology Classical Criminology Cesar Becaria 17381794 Utilitarianism pleasure and avoidance of pain Free will to choose legal or illegal behavior Crime is attractive Crime may be controlled through the fear of punishment Punishment works best when perceived to be Severe Certain Swift quick A Brief History of Criminology Positivist Criminology Auguste Comte 17981857 Scientific method Logic Empirical verification Valuefree A Brief History of Criminology Sociological Criminology Quetelet 17961874 Durkheim 18581917 Relationship between social factors and crime Crime is a social phenomenon that can be reduced by improving social and economic conditions The Chicago School crime a reaction to the social environment Social Views life experience and access to opportunities A Brief History of Criminology Conflict Theory Karl Marx Burgeoisie Proletariat critical Criminology the economic system create the conditions Developmental Criminology Gluecks Complex View Integration of sociological psychological and economic elements Delinquency A Brief History of Criminology Contemporary Criminology Rational Choice Theory they rational decision makers Trait Theory biological and psychological characteristics intrearct with the environment Social Structure Theory the social environment controls criminal b Social Process Theory they learn from others critical Theory it s due to an unfair economic structure Developmental Theory multiple forces combine to produce crime Crime Views Consensus View of Crime the majority share common values and agree on what behaviors should be defined as criminal Conflict View of Crime criminal behavior is defined by those in a position of power to protect and advance their own selfinterest lnteractionist View of Crime those with social power are able to impose their values on society as a whole and these values then define criminal behavior Crime and the Criminal Law Code of Hammurabi Babylon Mosaic Code Israelites Common Law England 1066 Precedent Mala in se evil crimes such as murder Mala prohibitum or Statutory crimes related to social condictions Contemporary Criminal Law Social goals Enforcing social control Discouraging revenge Expressing public opinion and morality Deterring criminal behavior Punishing wrongdoing Creating equity Maintaining social order Crime and the Criminal Law Criminal Law The written code that defines crimes and their punishments Reflects the values beliefs and opinions of society s mainstream The Evolution of Criminal Law Social and Economic Conditions Stalking Gay marriage Future Direction of Criminal Law Contemporary Criminal Law Felony Misdemeanor Ethical Issues in Criminology What to Study Whom to Study How to Study Critical thinking pp6 Considering the findings of Zgoba and Bachar would you advocate abandoning sex offender registration laws because they are ineffective Or might there be other reasons to keep them active What other laws do you think should be the topic of careful scientific inquiry to see whether they actually work as advertised Chapter Three OngmaiAms1 Victims and Victimization quotI39ve been mugged of cerquot The Victim s Role Victimology The scientific study of victims Victimologists Criminologists who focus their attention on crime victims M amms smi lo zoulbumba M We ARMEbwrru 0va Hi5 WEE VAND BADBREATH Victimization sToll on Society Costs of victimization NCVS 23 million victimizations per year Damaged property Pain and suffering Involvement of criminal justice system Medical costs lost wages Reduced quality of life fear Longterm medical care and counseling Economic Loss System Costs Juvenile violent crime 158 billion per year Total loss 450 billion annually 1800 per person Individual Costs Assault 9400 The average murder costs about 3 million Individuals suffering a violent victimization during adolescence earn about 82000 less than nonvictims due to physical and psychological problems that impede educational and economic success Some victims become physically disabled The Nature of Victimization Blaming the Victim LongTerm Stress PTSD Adolescent stress Relationship stress Fear Antisocial Behavior Cycle of Violence The Nature of Victimization The Social Ecology of Victimization Violent crimes More likely in Public areas Commercial establishments Crime in Schools Ages 1218 17 million victims of nonfatal crimes at school The Nature of Victimization The Victim s Household Larger African American Western Urban Victim ChaLacteristics Gender Age Social status RaceEthnicity Marital Status Repeat Victimization Theories of Victimization Victim Precipitation Theory Active precipitation victims act provocatively Passive precipitation victims exhibit some personal characteristic than unknowingly threatens or encourages attackers Victim lmpulsivity tendency to react lack self control Theories of Victimization Lifestyle Theories People become crime victims because their lifestyles expose them to criminal offenders HighRisk Lifestyles College Lifestyle Criminal Lifestyle Victim or Criminal Deviant Place Theory The greater the exposure to dangerous places the more likely people will become victims of crime Theories of Victimization Routine Activities Theory The volume and distribution of predatory crime are closely related to the interaction of three variables Suitable targets goods easy to access and easy to sell Capable guardians Lacking the presence of owners police Motivated offenders areas with large numbers of young people Caring for the Victim Victim Service Proqram VictimWitness assistance programs Victim compensation Victim advocates Victim impact statements Public education Crisis intervention VictimOffender reconciliation programs Caring for the Victim Victims Rights Victims Bill of rights The right to be notified of proceedings and the status of the defendant The right to be present at criminal justice proceedings The right to make a statement at sentencing and to receive restitution from a convicted o ender Caring for the Victim Victims Riqhts cont Victims Bill of rights The right to be consulted before a case is dismissed or a plea agreement entered The right to a speedy trial The right to keep the victim s contact information confidential NORTHSHORE 3 U M M U N l T quot DU L 1 i j j Rea Opportunities CRIMINOLOGY SOC 104 LN Fall 2010 SOC 104 LN is a Green Curriculum course Green Curriculum courses seek to promote ecological literacy and responsible citizenship at NSCC and beyond Instructor Carlos M Marin PhD EMail Address cmarinOl northshoreedu Of ce Hours By Appointment after class Location Lynn Mcgee Building Room LW203 Hours 200 PM 7 3 15 PM Tuesdays and Thursdays COURSE SYLLABUS RES 2UIRED TEXT Siegel L 2008 Criminology T he Core Fourth Edition Belmont CA WadsworthThomson Learning ISBN 9780495809838 Other Course Material and Readings to be handed out and assigned COURSE DESCRIPTION This course is an introduction to the study of criminal delinquent behavior in the United States Examining classical and contemporary criminological theories this course allows students to explore the origins of criminal behavior and apply criminological knowledge to the diversity of crime as it exists today The course provides students with a critical understanding of crime as a social phenomenon by analyzing and discussing crime causation purposes of crime measurement and strategies for crime prevention and treatment As a part of the NSCC Green Curriculum Project this course pays special attention to the nature cause and control of environmental crimes and to the impact those crimes poses on people and the natural environment COURSE OBJECTIVES By the end of the semester students will Have an understanding of the historical construction of the criminology concept of the different theories explaining criminal behavior and of the various typologies of crime 2 Have a critical point of view of what determines the way in which society responds to crime and what makes people into offenders 3 Have an understanding of the different theories of crime causation and your own perspective and interpretation of crime causation visavis those theories 4 Become aware of the diverse composition of the US population and of the prejudice against certain social groups regarding criminal behavior Get familiar with the use of some tools to access crime and interpret crime data for research and crime prevention policy 6 Understand the relationship between individual and societal problems and the links between criminal and delinquent behavior U39 7 Have a critical perspective on how criminology thoughts have in uenced the categorization of crime and police for crime prevention and control Think critically about law and justice and have your own perspective about the social and legal institutions assigned to crime control 9 To be able to de ne the sustainability concept and have a clear understanding ofthe nature cause and impacts of environmental crimes 9 CLASS FORMAT The class has an interactive format in which it is expected that all students engage in active discussions about the assigned reading lectures and other materials brought to class such as videos and documentaries We will focus on the deconstruction of misconceptions and on the understanding of the discussed topics Also we will re ect on the applications and impacts that those topics have in our individual and social contexts Prior to class students need to read carefully their assigyments and come to class with comments about their understanding of the readings questions for discussion and be prepared to write a response guestion Throughout the course current events will be considered and discussed as they relate to the material CLASS DECORUM Your thoughts and ideas are welcomed and respected in this class Students should feel the class is a safe environment to freely construct and express their ideas Consequently RESPECT is essential in this class Please keep in mind 0 Use respectful and liberating language Do not employ stereotypes slurs or language that disrespects others Let us not lose sight or our common humanity 0 Keep an open mind Respect the thoughts and ideas of your fellow peers Learn to listen and discuss with others whose perspectives and experiences differ from your own 0 Please avoid behaviors such as side conversations while the instructor or another student is speaking texting using a computer for purposes not associated with the class and eating 0 Please turn off and put away all electronic devices that are not necessary for class such as cell phones computers Mp3s while in the classroom Computers and smart phones will be allowed only in cases that are required for the purposes of the class Students showing a lack of respect for others will be asked to leave the room for the remainder of the class Your cooperation is greatly appreciated GRADING ASSIGNMENTS Your nal grade will be determined on the accumulation of 100 points designated as follows 0 Class participation and attendance 20 0 Reading responses Forums on Angel 24 o Exams 3 6 points 18 0 Data Crime Paper 12 0 Group Presentations 6 0 Research paper 20 0 Total 100 1 N S43 5 139 Class Participation and attendance 20 Attendance is critical to successful completion of this course Full attendance will have a positive impact in your class performance and consequently your nal grade You can earn up to 20 points from the Class 1 quot 391 quot and 39 l of the grade based on attendance 0 071 absences will get 20 points added to your total points 0 2 absences will get 15 points added to your total points 0 3 absences will get 10 points added to your total points 0 4 absences will get 5 points added to your total points 0 5 or more absences will get 0 points and a good chance to fail your class Coming to class late is disruptive and inconsiderate Please make every effort to arrive for class on time Three late arrivals will equal one absence Note You do not need to provide me with an explanation or reason for your absence because in terms of learning from class an absence is an absence regardless of the circumstances I understand that we all on occasion have times when we are ill or have a problem preventing us from attending class If absent from class it is YOUR responsibility to nd out what you missed DO NO EMAIL ME ASKING WHAT YOU MISSED Being absent does NOT excuse you from anything that was discussed or due in class Make sure to nd out what you missed before the next class Reading responses Forums on Angel 24 points You are asked to respond to some reactions questions related to the topics covered in each chapter You need to answer the questions and respond to at least two other students responses Responses are expected to be a minimum of 300 words and responses to other students at least 60 words See due dates on semester overview and on Angel Chapter Exams 18 points There will be three exams to evaluate the textbook readings and inclass discussions and activities The exams can be multiple choice truefalse completion and essay questions I strongly suggest you purchase the study guide that comes with the required textbook to assist you in preparing for these exams Due on October 9 chapters 1 2 34 November 4chapters 5 6 789 and December 16 chapters 10 11 12 1314 Group Presentations 6 points Each group is asked to pick a topic and prepare a presentation for the rest of class Due on December 7 and 1 Crime Data Paper CDP 12 points You are asked to analyzed crime data from the state of Massachusetts and compare it with the town or city of residency and provide explanations of the crime trends found your interpretation of those trends and how the information can be used to prevent crime in your community See details at the bottom of the syllabus and on Angel Due on October121150 PM on Angel 6 Research Paper 20 You are asked to write the preliminary steps of a short research paper about one specific topic within the main subjects covered in the text book See details at the end of this syllabus and on Angel Due on December 9 1150 PM on Angel LATE ASSIGNMENTS All assignments are due on the day of the class noted No late assigyments will be accepted No makeup work is allowed except through m arrangement with the instructor The instructor will only permit the makeup of work due to a legitimate absence It is the quot quotquot of the student to nd out what was missed in a class not attended and make up the work ACADEMIC HONESTY Please note Unless prior approval is granted by the instructor all work submitted for this course is to be your own original work completed speci cally for this course and not previously or concurrently submitted to any other instructor All infractions of this policy will be taken seriously and pursued accordingly Please refer to the Student Handbook for more speci c policy guidelines Cheating and plagiarism are taken very seriously and are grounds for failure in this course To plagiarize is to use another s words as your own without proper attribution given to the original author Unethical work will be severely punished and penalized 1 Cheatin g use or attempted use of unauthorized materials information or study aids 7 Fabrication falsi cation of information 8 Plagiarism representing the words or ideas of someone else without giving them proper citation STUDENTS WHO ARE DIFFERENTLYABLED quotNorth Shore Community College welcomes students with disabilities to engage in an interactive collaborative partnership with Disability Services and faculty in order to meet your educational and academic needs If you have a disabilityrelated need for reasonable academic accommodations in this course and have not yet met with a Disability Counselor please visit wwwnorthshoreedudisability and follow the outlined procedure to request services IfDisability Services has formally approved you for an academic accommodation in this class please present me with your Faculty Notice of Academic Accommodations during the first week of the semester so that we can address your speci c needs as early as possible If you will require assistance during an emergency evacuation on campus please notify me immediately For your reference evacuation procedures are posted in all classroomsquot PROGRESS REVIEW I will be available immediately after class for individual consultation if you feel that you need feedback or have any questions or concerns regarding your progress throughout the semester You may contact me through email It is my intention to do everything in my control to help you to achieve the objectives of the course and enjoy this semester while we are together SEMESTER OVERVIEW September 9 September 1416 September September October October 1214 October October November November November 16 18 November November 30 December 79 December a Introductions Syllabus review Class expectations our context The of Sustainability The Nature and Extent Crime Social Process Theories Developmental Theories Chapter ll Property Crime crime and organized Crime Enterprise Crime Environmental Crimes c ont Group Presentations on Crime Typology on Angel on Angel Chapter 13 Due September 13 l l 50 PM answer answer 81 October 7 Forum 4 answer questions 1 pp 133 answer 165 and 4 answer and 2 347 answer applied to the answer 379 Due November 15l l 50 PM answer 411 Research Paper Due on December 9 Exam 3 10 11 12 Crime Data Paper 1CDsz Due on October 12 1150 PM on Angel This assignment asks you to compare and analyze a type of crime from the state of Massachusetts and the town or city where you live using data from the UCR Uniform Crime Report In other accomplish this assignment you can go through the following steps 1 Select one type of crime from the categories reported on the UCR crime databases http wwwfbi govucrucrhtm L 2 Collect information about the type of crime you have chosen for a period of minimum six 6 consecutive years for instance 2003 2008 for both the state and your towncity of residence 3 Elaborate table of raw data see example below Table 1 Raw Data 2007 2008 to up you your own 4 Calculate rates per 100000 applying formula from text book pp30 Please be aware that in the formula you need to replace total US population by otal state population and otal towncity population see sample below Table 2 Rate per 100000 Total Cr39me State Vs Danvers Popula on 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 State 6300000 3094 2972 2879 2900 2925 2940 Danvers 29000 3086 3497 2914 3407 3528 3793 5 Present your data on a chart or graphic See example below Trends of total crime in 39 and Danvers 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 O State Da nvers 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 6 Provide explanations of the trends found and how you can use that information control and prevent crime in your community For this section use information from your text book on Evaluating Crime Data pp 3641 A paragraph of minimum 400 words using Times New Roman double space and 12 as a font size Rubrics for Grading Total Points 12 Data Accuracy period tables chart 5 Analysis soundness re ect reading 5 Form 1 Bibliography 1 Uniform Crime Report UCR Final Research Paper Due on December 9 1150 PM on Angel You are asked to write the preliminary steps of a short research paper about one specific topic within the main subjects covered in the textbook following steps 1 through 4 of A Research Model 9 pp 126127 text book The paper should have A topic and a tentative title for your paper 2 A problem or thesis statement 3 Reviewing of literature Present this review in the form of an annotated bibliography see link below on how to prepare an annotated bibliography Use at least ve resources from library sources books or articles from journals on library databases DO NOT USE WEBSITES For each source you should write a summary of a minimum of 200 words In this summary you also should indicate how the content of that source relates to your hypothesis 4 Ahypothesis or question 5 A response about what you learned on the problem you chose as your topic Minimum 400 words The paper should be typed doublespaced and 12 point font Times New Roman or Arial Spelling grammar and punctuation count so please proofread your work before turning it in Use formal writing Do not use contractions don t should be do not I m should be I am Ifyou need assistance with your writing andor editing please make an appointment with one of the tutors at the writing center Here are some useful websites that will help you with your assignment How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography httpwwwlibrarv rnmell edn nliunn39 P 39 39 quot3973 htm How to use appropriate bibliographic citation Find here MLA examples on how to do in text citation and on how to present your bibliographic list httpwwwlibrarv comequot 39 39 Find here APA examples on how to do in text citation and on how to present your bibliographic list httpwwwlibrarv comequot 1 39 V
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