Fundamentals of Chemistry
Fundamentals of Chemistry CHEM 1075
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This 73 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elisha Hand on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1075 at NorthWest Arkansas Community College taught by Beverly Kelley in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/224070/chem-1075-northwest-arkansas-community-college in Chemistry at NorthWest Arkansas Community College.
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Chem 1075 Chapter 13 quulds and Sollds Lecture Outhne Sllde 273 Properues olequlds Unllke gases llqulds respond dramaucally to temperature and pressure changes We can study the llquld state andmake 5 general obseryatrons 1 quulds have a but a quulds take the shape oftherr 2 quulds usually rea ly However not all llqulds ow at the or 3 quulds do not slgnlflcandy change 4 quulds have a comparedto gases lds are abou more dense than gases quu t 5 quulds that are soluble mlx Ll ulds homogeneous mnrture sllde 4 Intermolecular Bond Concept 39 molecules bonds are between amms amolecule t tt quotd urF tnt n r determrnedby the strength of attracuon between molecules sllde 5 Intermolecular Bonds Recall that a dlpoles ln molecules There are three rntermolecularforces 1 2 3 Sllde o Dlsperslon Forces quotquot Dlsperslon forces or London forces are the result of Electrons are constantly and areglon g 67 g maybecometemporanly and 39 shghtly whlle another reglon becomes sllghtly negatwe M 8 5 mt 5 Thls creates atemporary dlpole andtwo molecules wth temporary dlpoles are to each other shde 7 Drspersron Forees Conunued Drspersron forces e ar the rnterrno1eeu1ar force Drspersron forces are presentrn rno1eeu1es The m the rno1eeu1e The m amolecule the the drspersron forces Shde 8 Drpo1e Forees Polar rno1eeu1es have The opposrte1y charge a drpo1e d ends ofpolar rno1eeu1es are attraetedto each other thrs 15 the Drpo1e forces are than drspersron forces 3 l 1 v lt 1 r x a n1 511 de 9 Hydrogen Bonds Hgdmgen band are a spemal type of drpo1e attraehon Hydrogen bonds are present when amolecule has Hydrogen bonds are espeer ally rrnportant m water or bond an 7 7 andhyrng orgamsms J 4 1 n n 2 d t I A Shde 1o Physxcal Properhes ofL1qu1ds the rno1eeu1es 1 2 3 Shde 11 Vapor Pressure Atthe ofahqmd some rno1eeu1es gam enough energy to Thrs 15 The process 15 candensatmn sllde 12 Vapor Pressure Cohuhued The th rholeeules eseape rhto the gas phase As the between rholeeules vapor pressure Tahe13 1 zpnr Pre ltur2 Selected quun o Appm ruate lulcnnulcclllir Vipm rrersure Liquid Molar Mam Akra iun 3 ZD T 18 gruul strung m mm Hg pr p101 and 39 30 74 gruol 5mm 5mm Hg hutyl alcohol C1Hv0H 74 gmnl strong 5 mm Hg uroml chlnndc Lama 79 umol weak aou huh Hz elltyl clher ngsz 7a gmnl 450 mm Hg 5h ole 13 Vapor Pressure Companson Lets eorhpare water and ether 7 Water has rhterrholeeular attraeuohs auol 39r rquot ether has only rhterrh oleeular attraeu ohs At 0 C has a srgru eaut vapor pressure At 35 C etherhas a7 vapor pressure and water Sllde 14 Vapor Pressure vs Temperature As the temperature the vapor pressure ofallquld Agam the the rhterrholeeular attraeuohs the the vapor pressure at a glven terhperature sllde 15 Bolllng Polnt to the standard atrnosphene pressure m m the bolllng polnt othe llquld A hqulolwrth a bolllng polnt has a vaporpressure Sllde 16 Vlseoslty Vlseosltyls the result of an between rnoleeules the vrseosrty the lnterrnoleeular forees the s The Table 13 2 Vista of Selentad quum Apprax ale Intermolecular vasetally Liquid Mnlnr Mass Atlrnrllnn at wc water 18 nml mans Lnn pm ionlracidC1HCOOH 74 gmol strong llD hutyl almhnl CanOH 74 gnrnl Atlmng 295 propyl chloride CrHaCl 79 gmol weak 035 ethyl ether CgHaOCgH 74 1 nm weak 023 gtVulugs uxpmssorl lu cunllpu a mmmnn unit ol Vtscttsttl oppyttgm a 2mm Pearson Plenuee Hull lnc 5h ole 17 Surface Tensl on The of allquld ls ealleol mime tension For an object to slnkln allqulol rt rnust rst break through the surface The th the surface tenslon of a h quld Sllde 1849 Propertaes of Sollds Unllke gases sollds do not respond olrarnataeally to temperature and pressure ehanges We ean study the sohol state andmake 5 general observataons l Sollds have a shape and volume Unllke hqulols sollds are 2 Sollds are elther r n ttn 3 Sollds eornpress or expandto any olegree on the volume ofa solld 4 one lrnportant ls llquld water 5 Sollds by dlffuslon The pamcles are to dlffuse ln a solld heterogeneous rnurture sllde 20 Crystallme Sollds sllde 21 Ioruc Sollds A crystallme m a w M V N refenedto as a crystal lattrce Other lom compounds wlll have dlfferent crystal latuces Sllde 22 Molecular Sollds A crystallme partrcular conformation In t r g a sllde 23 Metalllc Sollds A crystallme pattem anangedln a l Ml Mr W wd ulrur ls composed of anangedln a ole mte pattem surrounded by about the crystal Sllde 24 General Propemes of Sollds Type of Solld General Propemes IONIC MOLECULAR METALLIC Table 13 4 m Text Examples sllde 25 sllde 27 Stxueture of Water Water H boh d hasa glel51045 Lets start wrth the eleetxoh dot formula for water moleeular shape ahdthe Physlcal Propemes ofWater H 7 Waterrs a one ofthe few substahees that ls 7 as a soholtharr as a llquld s wa r r ezes the hydrogen bonds orgaruzethe water moleeules rhto aLhreerdAmenslonal strueture where the moleeu es are 7 iman m the llquld quuld water has a denslty of l 00 gmL whlle lee has a denslty of gmL meluhg and l l IIZTe Ar S9 HES quot l I E Mhlhr rmss bolllng porhts especlally eomparedto the other y eompouhds of Group IVA16 Thls ls due to whlch ls present but u H25 Hase or H2Te PDF Created Wlth FlnePrlnt pdfFactory Hal verslon mtg HWva Qdffactor Com Chem 1075 Chapter 7 Language of Clnemlstiy Lecture Outllne Sllde 273 Classlflcatlon of Compounds Most The exeeptlons are and enbonotes whlch eontnn tlne lon There are 5 eommon classes oflnorgamc eompounds see ow elnnt m7 mifwnstounl Pxnn l nnnn l l 39 39l w on slide 4 Ionle Compounds Ionic campaundx e ontnn Kinmioniceompounds eontnn elements one and one 7 KCl ondAlCls are blnny 10m eompounds Temm ionic eompounds eontnn elements otleost one and one 7 KNO and AlNOg3 are temny lonle eompounds Sllde 5 Molecular Compounds Malenllarcampaundx eontnn 1 alecular Some examples ofblnary molecular eompounds are Sllde o Aqueous Aclds 39 and is lnddcated by tlne symbol A Win an 7 solution of a eompound eontnmng 77 and one other HCl aq ls ablnary and A 2mm axzaridls an soluu on of a eompound eontnmng and one other HNOsls otemny oxyacld 511 de 7 Pracuce or a 1 10 Thentelle 11 15 bmary ortemary 1 Shde 879 Classx cauon orons Recallanianxsan or thha A chargedxon 15 called aca an A chargedxon 15 called an man A boundtogether whmh has an 15 a ga mmirian my 1 I Em PALM J 14 1 3 WWW 11M Wk Emu Shde 10 Monatomn Canons atoms can valence electrons and become caucus ulonquot Na 15 named A13 15 named group metals except along vmh Ag Znquot and Cd Shde 11 Max115 11m Form Muluple Ions uxonquot Fe 15 the F315 the T111515 calledthe ofnammg caucus Shde 12 Meta1s That Form Mu1trp1e1ohs followed by for 1esser charge OR for greater charge Fe 15 the F2315 the Thrs 15 es11eo1th e ofnammg caucus Note KtherexsnoLa nnameuse 1 e eobs1t Shde 13 Common Mohatorhre Caucus See Textbook 511 de 14 Mohatorrue Amons can valence e1eetrohs and beeorhe aruohs and addmg the suf x Br39rs the brormde roh 0215 the oxrde roh N315 the mmde roh Shde 15 Predmung Cauon Formulas Group LAl Group IVA14 Trausruoh Meta1s Shde 16 Common Cauon Charges 1 run 139 u s v we tn A m1 Shde 17 Predmung Aruoh charges Group VIM17 Group VIA16 Group VAIS Slide 18 Polyatomic Anions Polyatomic anions generally contain one or more elements combined with These anions are called Most polyatomic anions have names that end in the suf x or PO4339 is the ion P03339 is the ion SO4239 is the ion SO3239 is the ion N0339 is the ion N0239 is the ion Slide 19 Polyatomic Anions What is the same comparing ate and z39te ions What is different The oxyanions that end in have oxygen than the oxyanions than end in Slide 20 More Polyatomic Anions The formula for the chlorate ion is ClOgl39 What is the formula for the chlorite ion There are two polyatomic ions that end in Slide 21 Some Common Polyatomic ions SEE INSIDE BACK COVER OF TEXT Slide 22 Writing Ionic formulas An ionic r J is r J of and ions A formula unit is the of an ionic compound simplest way to write the formula or simplest ratio of cation to anion A formula unit is so the charge must equal the charge in the formula unit When writing chemical formulas the always goes first and the always goes second Slide 23 Formulas for Ionic Compounds If the ions in the ionic compound have the same charge the formula unit contains one of each ion Na and Cl39 combine to form Mg2 and S239 combine to form Al and P339 combine to form PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom Sllde 24 Formulas of 10m Compounds we must Ca and Cl39 eomblne to glve what formula7 Ca needs two cl39to balanee eharge The Formula would be Sllde 25 Formulas forlonle eompounds A13 and 0239 eomblne to glve what formula7 The formula would be Don39t show m nal formula sllde 26 CnssrCross Method 39 1 the charge on eaeh lon The charge on the alumlnum lon beeomes the for the oxygen andthe A1 2 A1203 sllde 27 Praeuee Wnte the formulas for the lomc eompounds eontatnlng 4 alumlnum andlodrne 5 potasslum andphosphorus o banum and sulfur sllde 28 Formulas wth Polyatomle Ions Follow the same rules as blnary lomc eompounds lfthe eharges are the formula has of e on Mg and so eomblne to form K and clOs39 eomblne to form Lfthe eharges are 7 equal the total eharge must equal Lfyou have more than one polyatomre ron rt ls placedln A13 and co eomblne to form Slide 29 Practice Write the formulas for the ionic compounds containing 1 barium ion and nitrate ion 2 rubidium ion and sulfite ion 3 tinII ion and phosphate ion 4 leadIV ion and carbonate ion 5 calcium ion and bicarbonate ion 6 ironIII ion and hydroxide ion Slide 30 Determining Ionic Charge If an ionic compound contains a metal which can have than ionic charge we must determine the on the ion The sum total charge of an ionic compound must equal What is the charge on the iron ion in Fe203 Slide 31 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds When naming ionic compounds we combine the and name drop the word ion with the cation and the anion MgO is composed of magnesium ion and oxide ion therefore the name is What is the name of cinnabar HgS Slide 32 Determining Formulas for Binary Ionic Compounds What is the formula of iron III uoride 1 2 Slide 33 Naming Ternary Ionic compounds We name ternary ionic compounds like binary ionic compounds the cation name followed by the anion name K2C03 is named AlNO33 is named PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom If we have a metal that can have more than one oxidation state we have to determine the charge on the metal CoC1033 is r J of and is named Slide 34 Predicting Formulas for Ionic compounds What is the formula for radium carbonate given that calcium carbonate is CaCO3 The formula for radium carbonate is Slide 35 Binary Molecular Compounds Binary 39 39 r J are r J of A is the simplest representative particle of a binary compound Slide 36 Naming Binary Molecular Compounds The rst element in the compound is named rst and the second element has the suf x z39de The number of atoms of each element must be indicated by Greek pre xes UIbUJNt I D OOOC 0 Slide 37 Names of Binary Molecular Compounds The molecular compound P4S3 is used on match tips What is the name What is the name for Br308 Slide 38 An Exception There is one exception to the use of the Greek pre xes when naming binary molecular compounds If there is only atom of the rst element the is not used The pre x is always used for the second element CO is IF5 is Slide 39 Binary Acids A binary acid is an aqueous solution ofa r 39 39 39 and a PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom The formula of an acid always begins with HF aq Binary acids are named by using the pre x before the element stem and adding the su ix HF aq is HZS aq is Slide 40 Ternary Oxyacids Ternary oxyacids are aqueous solution of a r J and an If the acid is derived from an oxyanion ending in the su ix is changed to HNO3 aq is from NO339 nitrate ion If the acid is derived from an oxyanion ending in the su ix is changed to HNOZ aq is from NOZ39 nitrite ion 4142 Practice PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httQwww9dffactomcom chem 1075 Chapter 3 The Meme System Leemre Ouume Skate 2 The Meme System Skate 3 Meme Base Umts Length Mass Volume Trme Shde 4 Umt De nruons Meter Krlogram Lner M M N 10 1 H r merger W 7 mm mm m Symbol Mumpnerracnnn W c 1000000000 1 X 0 mmmr M 1000000 7 1 v 0 krhv U300 1 X1 BMW um meter gram 0m wmnd r mamr mm r n 11x url rmHI m 0001 1 X1quot mm 0 0 000 0011 x 10quot mm 7 0 000 mm 001 r 1 x 0 Shde 7 Large Pre xes 1 kilometer 1 megameter 1 gigameter Slide 8 Small Pre xes 1 decimeter 1 centimeter 1 millimeter 1 micrometer 1 nanometer Slide 9 Metric Symbols Kilometer milligram microliter nanosecond Slide 10 Metric Equivalents Slide 11 Metric Unit Factors Since 1000m 1km we can write Since 1 cm 001m or 100cm 1m we can write Slide 12 MetricMetric Conversion Problem What is the mass in grams of a 325mg aspirin tablet Slide 13 and 14 MetricMetric Conversions A hospital has 125 deciliter bags of blood plasma What is the volume in milliliters Slide 15 Another Example The mass ofthe Earth is 598 x 1024 kg What is the mass expressed in megagrams Mg PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom sllde 16 MetncrEngh sh Unlts Meme qumleur quotWMquot apply use meln aqmvnlems mm mm slgmllmnl dlglu Smne the mun mu nglm y5mmsh ve dl emnr mlueme slanllmds Hum 1m nataucrequnalmbhuwrv21me u s uwau olWelghlS am Mrasumhaartdehnzd 1m eoexmly aqua m1 54m wyngm zma Peltan Pvenllce Hell lnn sllde 17 MetncrEngh sh Converslon What dlstance ls longer 100 Umeters or 100 0 yards7 sllde 18 EngllshrMetnc Converslon oz of mllk cartor sllde 19 Volume by Calculauon sllde 20 and 21 Cut Volume Vs quuld Volume Unlts Cuble Volume Commued Sllde 22 enigma dlsplaces avolume of498 em3m each cyllnder What ls me 7 A Volkswagen Beetle dlsplacementln cubl lnches m sllde 23 and 24 Volume by Dlsplacement Sllde 25 The Denslty Concept Denslty ls de ned as Sllde 2o Denslty Unlts Sllde 27 Esnmatlng Denslty Sllde 28 Caleulaung Denslty 10 0em37 sude 29 Density as aUmt Factor 1275mL of aerd 1 84 gmL how many grams of aerd are m are battery7 sude 30 and 31 Temperature and Temp Scales Shde 32 Temperature Conversrons Equauor for eonvemng c H 1 Equauor for eonvemng c H K Shde 33 Temperature Conversrons 1 2 3 4 shale 34 and 35 Heat and Heat vs Temp Heapquot Temperaturerw m m Shde 3s calone andjoule salariei de ned as the amount of neededto rase me of of waterby cal kcal cal J J kl Shde 37 and 38 Speci c Heat of ofa substance by me Shde 38 Speci c Heat Calculations Equation 1 2 chem 1075 chapter 6 ThePenodl Table Leeture Outlme Slrole 2 Groups amp Penods ofElements A or of elemerrts A on the perrodre table ls a or of elemerrts Slrole 3 Penods on the Perrodre Table sllde 4 5 Groups on the Penodl Table Slrole 679 Grouplngs or Classlflcatlons ofElements Label on Perrodre Table above Slrole 10 Common Names ofFamllles Group LAl Group JlAZ Group VIM17 Group VIM18 Shde 11 Penodm Trends follow a regular Consider the of atoms orthexr Two trends for atomic radws 1 Atommrad usi 2Atom1 radms 7 Shde 1213 Atomic Radms amp Trend a t h u Atoms getlarger as you go top to bottom beeause L quot L39 L 4 n v a t t L I Atomic size decreases as you travel le to nghtbeeause Shde 14 Metalhe character of an element Metalhe character follows the same trend as atom sxze Slide 1517 Physical Properties of Elements Known values For K Slide 18 Predicting Chemical Properties Members of a family or group also have All alkali metals have oxides of general formula so The formula for chloride of calcium is CaClz What is the formula for the chloride of barium Slide 19 Valence Electrons When an atom undergoes a chemical reaction only These electrons are of the and are furthest away from the nucleus These are the The valence electrons are the beyond the noble gas core Slide 20 Predicting Valence Electrons The Roman numeral in the American convention indicates the number of valence electrons When using the IUPAC designations for group numbers the last digit indicates the number of valence electrons Slide 21 Electron Dot Formulas An of an elements shows the symbol of the element surrounded by its valence electrons PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom We use for each valence e1eetron Consrder phosphorous1gtwhreh has 5 valence e1eetrons Shde 22 Iomzau on Energy The iani 39 to remove an m the gaseous state Tu n r t as you go from to m a group Tu n r t as you go from to across apenod the is he reqmred to rernoye the e1eetron shde 23724 Iontzau on Energy Trend amp Conelustons Metals requrre lmle energy to rernoye e1eetrons therefore easrly e Nonrnets1s requrre alot of energy to rernoye e1eetrons therefore easuy Eleetrons are or resultrng m e1eetron con gurauons resernbhng shde 25 Posruve Iomc charge Ion re Group LAl rneta1s therr Na gt Na e39 Group lA2 metals therr Ca gt Ca 2e Metals their valence electrons to form ions Slide 26 Negative Ionic Charge Group VIIN17 nonmetals c1 e39 a 01139 Group VIN16 39 0 2equot 9 0239 Nonmetals valence electrons to form ions Slide 27 Predicting Ionic Charge Group IAl Group VN 15 Group IIN2 Group VIN16 Group IIIN3 Group VHN17 Group IVN4 Group VIIINIS Slide 28 Practice Write the formula for the ions of 1 Potassium 2 Phosphorus 3 Aluminum 4 Bromine 5 Tin 6 Barium 7 Nitrogen PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom Chem 1075 Chapter 8 Chemical Reactions Lecture Outline Slide 2 Chemical amp Physical Changes In a physical change the of the 39 remains Examples In a chemical change the of the 39 a chemical occurs During a chemical reaction a is formed Slide 36 Evidence for Chemical Reactions 4 Observations which indicate a chemical reaction 1 A is released 2 An is produced A substance dissolves in to give an aqueous solution If we add two solutions together we may observe the production of a substance The insoluble solid formed is called a 3 A permanent is observed 4 A is observed A reaction that heat is an exothermic reaction A reaction that heat is an endothermic reaction Examples of a heat energy change in a chemical reaction are and given off Slide 7 Writing Chemical Equations A describes a chemical reaction using and A general chemical equation is A B 9 C D In this equation A and B are and C and D are We can also add a to a reaction A catalyst is written the arrow and the reaction without being PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom sllde 8 States of Matter 1 Equau ohs o ofthe reactants and products Ag 130 a Cs Dltan 1r thrs equauorr reactant ls m the state audreactarrt ls m the state Also product ls m the state and product ls m the state Sllde 9 Cherrucal Equatror Symbols symrrr murmur recur hr sh swam prelude nalds gr emu rm must 7 Murmur hum pus murmuredomnureuruWurst r e a murmur rr e mrrsuu rm rrrusr r mum at ur ru mum or orrmursmpmrruu u ucuu creamer ht he ourrxrururr uwrmmarr ur Sllde 10 A Cherrucal Reacuor Let39s look at a cherrucal reacaor HQH302aq NaHC0S NaC2H302aq H200 3029 The equatror reads as follows ls addedto aud yrelds aud sllde 11 Dlatorruc Molecules Seven hohruetals occur naturally as Slide 12 Balancing Chemical Equations When we write a chemical equation the number of of each must be the on both sides of the arrow Must obey the Law of This is referred to as a chemical equation We balance chemical reactions by placing a in front of each substance A coefficient all subscripts in a chemical formula 3 H20 has 6 hydrogen atoms and 3 oxygen atoms Slide 13 Guidelines for Balancing Equations Before placing in an equation check that the formulas are Never change the in a chemical formula to balance a chemical equation Balance each element in the equation starting with A first B last C Leave and until last D The atom that appears leave until Balance polyatomic ions as a if it appears on both sides of the equation Slide 14 Guidelines for Balancing Equations Cont The coefficients be numbers Ifyou get a multiply the whole equation by the denominator to get whole numbers 7H2g 702g gt 7 H201 X 2 711294r 02g H200 After balancing the equation check that there are the same number of atoms of each element or polyatomic ion on both sides of the equation H 70 gt H 7 0 Slide 15 Guidelines for Balancing Equations Cont Finally check that you have the whole number ratio of coefficients Ifyou can diVide all the coefficients by a do so to complete your balancing of the reaction 7 H2 t 713mg gt iHBKgH 2 7H2g tiBr g gt 7 HBrg Check totals for atoms of each element H Br gt H Br Slide 16 Balancing a Chemical Equation PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom Balance the following chemical equation iA12SO43aQ iBaNO32aQ iA1NO33aQ iBaSO4S Slide 17 Practice Balance the following chemical equations inOz 9 inO 702 ng 702 9 ngO iA1OH3 iHCl a iAlCl3 ino 7C5H5 0 9 7C0 inO Slide 18 Classifying Chemical Reactions We can place chemical reactions into five categories Reactions 2 Reactions 3 Reactions 4 Reactions Reactions Reactions 5 Reactions Slide 19 Combination Reactions A combination reaction is a reaction where substances are combined into r They are also called reactions We will look at 3 combination reactions 7 The reaction of a metal with oxygen 7 The reaction of a nonmetal with oxygen 7 The reaction of a metal and a nonmetal Slide 20 Reactions of Metals and Oxygen When a metal is heated with oxygen gas a metal oxide is produced gt For example magnesium metal produces magnesium oxide gt Iron metal reacts with oxygen to produce ironIH oxide gt PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom Slide 21 Reactions of Nonmetals and Oxygen Oxygen and a nonmetal react to produce a nonmetal oxide For example white phosphorous produces tetraphosphorous decaoxide gt Sulfur reacts with oxygen to produce sulfur dioxide gas gt Slide 22 Metal Nonmetal Reactions A metal and a nonmetal react in a combination reaction to give a binary ionic compound gt Sodium reacts with chlorine gas to produce sodium chloride 9 When a main group metal reacts with a nonmetal the formula of the ionic compound is predictable If the compound contains a transition metal the formula is not predictable Slide 23 Decomposition Reactions In a decomgosition reaction a single r 39 is into simpler substances or is usually required to start a decomposition reaction Ionic compounds containing oxygen often decompose into a metal and oxygen gas For example heating solid mercuryII oxide produces mercury metal and oxygen gas gt Slide 24 Carbonate Decomposition Metal hydrogen carbonates decompose to give a water and carbon dioxide For example nickelH hydrogen carbonate decomposes gt Metal carbonates J r to give a and carbon dioxide gas For example calcium carbonate decomposes gt PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom Slide 25 Activity Series Concept When a metal undergoes a reaction it displaces another metal from a compound or aqueous solution The metal that displaces the other metal does so because it is The activity of a metal is a measure of its ability to compete in a reaction In an activigg series a sequence of metals is arranged 139 to their Slide 26 Activity Series Metals that are reactive appear in the activity series Metals that are reactive appear in the activity series The relative activity series is LigtKgtBagtSrgtCagtNagtMggt AlgtMngtZngtFegtCdgtCogtNigt SngtPbgtHgtCugtAggtHggtAu Slide 27 SingleReplacement Reactions A singlereglacement reaction is a reaction where a displaces another in a compound If a metal another in the activity series it will a single replacement reaction Fes CuSO4aq gt If a metal another in the activity series will occur Nis CdSO4aq gt Slide 28 Aqueous Acid Tquot l 39 Still Singl J 39 Reaction Metals that H in the activity series with acids and those that H with acids More active metals react with acid to produce hydrogen gas and an ionic compound Fes 2 HClaq gt Metals less active than H show no reaction Aus HzSO4aq gt Slide 29 Solubility rules Not all ionic r J are in water We can use rules to predict if a A will be in water r PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom ly Rules fax 10 Cumpouuds Compounds Lnntiruxung the allowing iuns are generally sotilltlit in water 1 rillrali metal ions and the ammonium ion Li 39 Na39 K NH 2 scelnle inn Czquq 3 nilrnts ion N03 4 halide ions X39 Cl Br r AgX ngXZ and Pbx2 are insolubl excaptiuiisl 5 sulfath ion sof SrSOq Basoi and Pbsc4 are illwlublo uteplinns corn minds unlainmg the rollowmg ions are gentmlly iiisiiliilln in water P i2mrbunneibnCOmquot39 See mlelsxcepriunstlr ls l 12 i 0 ha ursulihle sulflde ion 51 CaS sis BaS and rule l cxccplmns he so i c 39 1e i n Olr CaOH2 SrOH 3 BaOH3 and iiile 1 cicepnuns are quotrhese compnuiiiis are adunilly sliglilly soluble or ely siighlly soluble iii Nile Cupyrlgm 20m Pearson Fvenlice Halli he slide 30 DoubleeReplacement Reacuons In a dauble mghremznl martian soluuon sWitch anions and prool ce BZ a compounds in aqueous u comp AX AZ BX ounds IfeltherAZ or BX is an compound a Will appear and there is a chemical reaction reaction Slide 31 DoublerReplacement Reactions Cont Aqueous banum chlonole reacts With aqueous potassium chromate BaClaaq Kacroiaq a From the solubility rules is so there is a double displacement reacuon Aqueous sodium chlonole reacts Wth aqueous lithium nitrate NaClaq LiNoiaq a Both and are soluble so there is no reaction slide 32 Neutralization Reacuons 39 reacuon A new39m39 n martian is the reaction of an and a to form a and when dissolvedin water Acid Base SaltWater HX BOH gt BX HOH iHClaq 7CaOHz aq 9 inSO4aq 7K0Haq gt Slide 33 Combustion Reaction A combustion reaction is de ned as any organic substance CXHyOz that burns in to form and CXHyOZ 02 9 C0 H20 Write the balanced combustion reaction for the burning of propane C3H8 Do the same for octanol C8H180 PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httQwww9dffactomcom chem 1075 Chapter 10 Stoxchxometxy Leemre Notes Skate 2 What rs stoxchxomem to predmt the cost of processes The calculauons these scientists use are eaned starchmmetry calculauons Shde 3 Interpreting Chemxcal Equaaons 2NOg 02g gt 2N02Cg 1 V r L u u quot43 939 9 ga Vd 39 we Shde 4 Moles and Equation Coef ments 2NOCg 023 gt 2N02Cg Shde 5 Mole Raaos Coemeremkaaos 2NOg 02g gt 2N02Cg equauon as as react with as to produce gasquot reactants and products m every ba1aneed ehemrea1 equaaor Shde 6 Interpretation of Coef exems Fr m equauon f gas react or are produced ofproducts are produced Ifthere are gase we know how many Table 10 Im retahun uf Chenucal Equamm Caef uen For le eneral Equanun A s A C 2 D The mm of molecules J 2 3 1 2 The mer of nunle s 2 a 1 2 The ratio of Volumes 0 gas is 2 3 1 2 Shde 7 Consemauon of Mass reaction Letstest 2NOg 029 a 2N02g Shde 8 Mole e Mole Relau onshxps We can relate to m a reacuon by usmg coef cients CR coef cient relationship from the balanced equadon Ln 39 escape CR N2Cg 02g 2 NOCE Smee 1m of N2 reacts thh 1 mol of o to produce 2 mol of No we can wme the following mole relationships Shde 10 Mole rMole Calculations How many moles ofNO will be formed when 2 25 mol of muogen reaew Nzcg 023 a 2 NO e Shde 11 Mass eMass Problems we wru eonven a ofareactant orproductto an ofreactant orproduct There are three step e c s onven me grver mass to moles usmg me as a mi factor m the balanced equauon e as aumt factor Shde 12 Mass eMass Problems 171 Mal Mink rquot o 139 rm Freezer 1 A l H 1 7 Mass or of much i Prxldud J Shde 13714 Mass 7 Mass Stoxchxometry Problem 2 Hg0s a 2 Hg 023 Shde 15 ermrrg Reactant Concept 39 You need 1 make one sandwreh 1 Cheese 2 Bread a 15mdwreh Shde 16 Limiting Reactant Since you run out of bread rst bread is the 39 J39 that how many sandwiches you can make In a chemical reaction the is the reactant that controls the amount of products you can make A limiting reactant is before the other reactants The other reactants are present in excess and are referred to as Slide 1718 Determining the Limiting Reactant If you heat 250 mol of Fe and 300 mol of S how many moles of FeS are formed Fes Ss gt FeSs Slide 19 Mass Limiting Reactant Problems There are three steps to a limiting reactant problem 1 Calculate the that can be produced from the reactant mass reactant l 3 mol reactant l 3 mol product 3 mass product 2 Calculate the that can be produced from the reactant mass reactant 2 3 mol reactant 2 3 mol product 3 mass product 3 The limiting reactant is the reactant that produces the amount of product Slide 2022 Mass Limiting Reactant Problem How much molten iron is formed from the reaction of 250 g FeO and 250 g Al 3 FeOl 2 All gt 3 Fel A1203s PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom Slide 23 Percent Yield When you perform a the amount of product collected is the The amount of product calculated from a limiting reactant problem is the The is the amount of the actual yield compared to the theoretical yield Slide 24 Calculating Percent Yield Suppose a student performs a reaction and obtains 0875 g of CuCO3 and the theoretical yield is 0988 g What is the percent yield CuN03zaq NazC03aq gt CuCO3s 2 NaN03aq PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom Chem 1075 Chapter 4 Matter and Energy Leeture Outurre Shde 2 Matter Exrsts m one of Shde 3 Sohd State Inasolrddue Solrds have Solrds eannot be Solrds have the Shde 4 quurd State In auqurd the quurds have quurds eauuotbe quurds have less Shde 5 Gaseous State InagasLhe Gases have Gases can be Shde 6 State ofMatter Summary Property Sohd quurd Gas 3932 xx Shde 7711 changes of State Sllde 12 Classl catlon ofMatter Matter can be dwldedlnto And can be and cannot be Sllde 13 Mlxtures There are 2 types ofmlxtures Sllde 14 Pure Substances There are 2 types ofpure substances Compounds can be Sllde 15 Occurrence ofElements Sllde 16 Names of the elements Sllde 17 Elemental Symbols PDF created Wlth FlnePrlnt pdfFactory trlal verslon httg WWW gdffactoy com sllde 18 Other Elemental Symbols Sllde 19 Types ofElements Three elassl eauons ofelements sllde 20 Properties ofMetals 1 sllde 21 Properties ofNonmetals sllde 22723 Penodl Table ofthe Elements sllde 24 MetalsNonmeta1 and Semlmetals mmwanew ls Slide 25 Physical States of Elements Slide 26 Law of De nite Composition The law of de nite composition states that Slide 27 Chemical Formulas A particle r J of A chemical formula expresses The chemical formula of sulfuric acid is Slide 28 Writing Chemical Formulas Slide 29 Interpreting Chemical Formulas Slide 30 Physical amp chemical Properties A physical property is a characteristic of a Physical properties include A chemical property describes the Slide 31 Chemical amp Physical Changes A physical change is a change where the Physical changes include A chemical change is a PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom The quot39 ofthe 39 Slide 32 Evidence of a Chemical Change 1 2 3 4 Slide 33 Conservation of Mass The law of conservation of mass Slide 34 Potential and Kinetic Energy Potential energy PE is Kinetic energy KE is Energy can be Example Slide 35 KE Temp and State All 39 have Solids have the and gases have As you increase the r of a 39 its Property of particle solid liquid gas Slide 3637 Conservation of Energy Energy and Chemical Change The law of conservation of energy Six forms of energy PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom Chem 1075 chapter 9 The Mole Coneept Leeture Outlrne Skate 2 Dozen eornparedto Mole We use dozen to We know 1 dozen We use mole to Shde 3 The Mole Lu m a ehernresu substanee A rs abbrevrated N39 of pamcles or pamcles 1 mol Avogadro39s nurnber pamcles We can use the relatronsnrp to eonvert between the number of and the fa substanee Shde4 HowagxsaMole7 1 mole of one mole of Olympre shotputballs has abouttne same as the Shde 5 Mole Calculanonsl Use Avogadro39s number to eonvert between and amcles mole a 39Numbcr p 39 Mules f uf es substance J J Skate 6 Mole Caleulauonsl n pm Howmany sodmm atoms are m 0120 mol Na7 Skate 7 Mole Calculations I Howmany moles ofpotassrurn arem125 x 10 atorns K7 Slide 8 Practice If you have 249 X 1024 molecules of CO2 then how many moles of carbon dioxide is that How many atoms of Fe are in 475 moles of iron How many moles would contain 356 X 1022 molecules of water Slide 9 Atomic Mass vs Molar Mass Atomic mass is the mass of an 1 J in The atomic mass of iron is 5585 amu Molar mass is the mass of of a J in The molar mass ofiron is 5585 g Why are the numbers the same Slide 10 Molar Mass Recall that l amu g or amu l g Can show that lmole Fe has a mass of 5585g Molar mass for iron is 5585g Can also think of as 5585g lmole Fe or 5585gmole Slide 11 Calculating Molar Mass The molar mass of a substance is the sum of the molar masses of each element in the formula What is the molar mass of magnesium nitrate MgN03z The sum ofthe molar masses is 1 Mg X 2 N X 6 O X Molar Mass g mole PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httQwww9dffactomcom shde 12 Mole Caleulat ons 11 Nowwe lel use the ofaeompoundto eonvert between ofasubstanee and or ofasubstanee 6 02 x 103 pamcles 1 mnl molarmass ean convenmoles to mass m m rNumher a V Mnhs 39 Mass of 1 of u whim quotmet ubslmze quot 4 m 4 shde 13 Maserole Caleulat ons What 15 the mass of133 moles of mamum T17 shde 14 Mole Caleulat ons 11 What 15 the mass of2 55 x1023 atoms oflead7 shde 15 Mole Caleulat ons 11 Howmany 0 molecules are presentm 0 470 g of oxygen gas7 shde 16 Mass of a Moleeule What 15 the mass of a smgle moleeule ofwate shde 17 MolarVolume Standmd le emnz and gmnmz are and sllde 18 Pressure and Uhlts pelllhlt l e psl 12w luhl Mmmpllcrl was umquot sllde19 MolarVolume ofGases mole gas molecules gas L gas Table Mule R213 onsh for Selected Case n hr Nn hr Mela Mala Gas Mules Mnleeules Mass Volume al 51 hydrogen 112 1 1m auz x 1033 ox en 02 no 02 x lo mer dlaxlde C01 1 no 02 x m 1111 am no 02 x m23 argon Arquot l 110 a 02 x m 3935 gmnl 21 4 Lmul Amon gs ls Lompazsd olslltllls WKth than muVKLlle sllde 20 Gas Dehslty The dehslty of gases ls mueh than that ofllqlllds lll ate the dehslty of any gas easlly 39 P s We eah eale The formula algal dang at 57 l Sllde 21 Calelllahhg Gas Dehslty we need the molar mass for ammohla What ls the dehslty of ammoma gas N39Hg at STP7 Fllst The molarvolume N39H at STP ls 22 4 Lmol Dehslty ls massvolume e Shde 22 Molar Mass of a Gas We e also use to calculate the of an unknown gas 196 g ofan unknown gas occupies 1 JUL at STP What 15 me molarmass7 We Wantgmol we have gL shale 23 Mole Umt Factors We now have three interpretations for the mole at SIP for a gas This nges us 3 umtfactors to use to convertbetween moles pameles nnass and volume shale 24 MolerVolume Calculauon m in Fansquot Hymn 39M39 me n gt Ks 39 EI lSmmIanAMXL 11 nimaII knlerlohn o n muer Shde 25 MolerVolume Caleulauon A sample ofnneunane cm occupxes 4 50 L at STP How manymoles ofnneunane are presenw shale 26 Maserolume Calculauon What is the mass of3 36L of ozone gas 03 at STP7 shale 27 MoleculerVolume Calculauon Howmany molecules ofhydrogen gas H2 occupy 0 5001 at STP7 Slide 28 Percent Composition The of a r J lists the mass percent of each element Comp Slide 2930 Calculating Percent Composition Let s practice using H20 Assume you have of the compound so nd molar mass of wataer g H20 Next nd the percent composition Hydrogen Oxygen Slide 3132 Percent Composition Problem TNT trinitrotoluene is a white crystalline substance that explodes at 240 C Calculate the percent composition of TNT C7H5N023 Slide 33 Empirical Formulas The empirical formula of a r J is the whole number ratio of ions in a formula unit or atoms of each element in a molecule The molecular formula of a compound is the ratio of elements as they The molecular formula of benzene is 7 The empirical formula of benzene is PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom The molecular formula of octane is 7 The empirical formula of octane is Slide 3435 Calculating Empirical Formulas from experimental data We can calculate the empirical formula of a compound from its experimental data We can determine the mole ratio of each element from the mass to determine the formula of radium oxide RaO A sample of radium metal was heated to produce of radium oxide What is the empirical formula Radium oxygen 9 radium oxide The of radium is gmol and the of oxygen is gmol Comes from periodic table We get Ra 0 Simplify the mole ratio by diViding by the smallest number We get Ra O RaO is the empirical formula Slide 3637 Empirical Formulas from Composition We can also use percent composition data to calculate empirical formulas Assume that you have of sample Benzene is 922 carbon and 783 hydrogen what is the empirical formula If we assume of sample we have g C and g H Calculate the moles of each element The ratio of elements in benzene is C H DiVide by the number to get the formula PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom c c Shde 38 Molecular Formulas Tms represents the The mm of cm H atoms ofbenzene Shde 39 Ovemew of Calculauons Cbpydgh a 20m Pearson Frermce M 1m Chem 1075 Chapter 17 Oxidation and Reduction Lecture Outline Slide 2 An oxidation reduction reaction is a reaction involving the of from one substance to another The describes how many have been or by an atom The of is LEO The of is GER LEO the lion says GER Slide 3 An is a 39 that by accepting electrons The oxidizing agent is A is a 39 that by donating electrons The reducing agent is In redox reactions the number of must the number of Slide 45 The oxidation number describes how many electrons have been lost or gained by an atom Oxidation numbers are assigned according to seven rules l A metal or a nonmetal has an oxidation number of Cs is 0 C12 is 0 Fes is 0 2 A has an oxidation number equal to its Ca2 is 2 C1139 is l in CaCl2 3 A atom in compounds is usually assigned an oxidation number of H is 1 in H20 4 An atom in compounds is usually assigned an oxidation number of 5 For a r J the element is assigned a oxidation number equal to its charge as an anion O is 2 in H20 6 For an r J the of the oxidation numbers for each of the atoms in the r 39 is For a the of the oxidation numbers for each of the atoms in the r 39 is on the I 39J 39 ion Slide 6 What is the oxidation number for magnesium metal Mg What is the oxidation number for sulfur in the sulfide ion S239 PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom What is the oxidation number for barium and chloride in BaClz Slide 7 What are the oxidation numbers for each element in oxalic acid H2C204 Slide 8 What are the oxidation number for each element in carbon tetrachloride CC14 Slide 9 What are the oxidation numbers for chlorine and oxygen in the perchlorate ion C1041 Slide 10 The is an example of an oxidationreduction reaction Iron metal reacts with oxygen in air to produce the ionic compound ironIII oxide which is composed of Fe and 0239 ions 4 Fes 3 02g 9 2 Fe203s Iron and is Fe 9 Fe 3 e39 Oxygen and is 02 4 e39 9 2 0239 Slide 11 and 12 Another example Fes Ss 9 FeSs The sulfur changes from ito iand the iron changes from 7 to The iron loses electrons and is 0 my 2 Fe 39 Fe 2 6 Charge becomes more The sulfur gains electrons and is 0 39 a 239 S 2 e 39 S Charge becomes more Slide 13 is the of electrons and is the of electrons PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom An 0X1 d1ng agent ts ttse1 A teductng agentts ttse1 1n out example Fes 5s 2 FeSs shde 14 In aredox teactton one substance must be and one substance mustbe The total number of electrons ts equal to the total electrons to m shde 15 Idenufy the teductng agent the ontdtztng agent andthe ontdataon and teductaon tn the fouowtng teactton when CuSs Hzg 7gt Cus HZSQ Cu ts torn to H ts torn to Shde 1s and 17 Redox teactaons tn aqueous so1utton are nnost otten shown tn tottn Iontc equataons readdy show us the tn ontdataon nutnbet 5 Fez39aq Mno aq 8 man 2 5 Fe339aq Mn139aq 4 301 We can easily tell that the oxidation number of iron changes from to so the iron is Manganese changes from in MnO4139 to in Mn2 so manganese is PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httQwww9dffactomcom chem 1075 chapter 12 Chemlcal Bondlng Lecture Outhne Sllde 2 Chemlcal Bond Concept Recall that an atom and electrons Care electrons are found to the nucleus Valence electrons are foundln the s andp energy subshells It ls ln a Sllde 3 Octet Rule e acqulles There ar electrons ln lts oute ell e two ways ln wluch m B BY r sh an atom ay achleve an octe 7of electrons from b By M J one atom to another 7 one or more pans of electrons J 9 9 T w Sllde 4 Types ofBonds Ionic n Bond atoms to orm 0 m1an Bonds are formed when two atom compounols s electrons to form 7compounols Sllde 5 Ionlc Bonds An ionic honnrs formed by the 7 between arged cauons and charged anrons Thl ls slmllar to the Sllde 6 544 JJ Ionl c B onds The ronrc bonds formedflom the combrnatron of anrons anol catr 1J7 are an lesultlnthefol ua angd tructure The txuctu 7 Wn here ons 7 matron of s re for orornary table salt ls sho PDF created wtth FlnePrlnt pdfFactory tnal verslon httplwww pdttaotot com sllde 7 Formauon of Canons ehargeol Most mam group aehleve a noble gas eleetron eon guratl on by Lhelrvalence eleetrons and are wth anoble gas Magneslum Group lA2 loses lts al nee eleetrons to beeome Mg A magneslum lon ha 12 0e andls lsoeleetronle wth See also Ch 6 Sllde 25 for dlscusslon ofPoslnve 10ml Charge sllde 8 Formauon of Canons We ean use eleetxon dot formulas to look at the formauon of Eaeh ofthe metals ln Perlod 3 form eatlons byloslng 1 2 or 3 eleetrons respeeuvely Eaeh metal atom beeomes wrth the precedlng noble Formatlon of Anlons are formed when an atom eleetxons and beeomes ehargeol Most eleetrons to beeome wth a noble gas Chlonne Group VlA17 gams valenee eleetron anol beeomes Cl A ehlonde lon has 18 eleetxons 17 18 er andls rsuezewums wrth See also Ch 6 Sllde 26 for dlscusslon ofNegame 10ml Charge Sllde 10 Formatlon ofAmons We ean also use eleetron dot formulas to look atthe formauon of he nonmetals ln Penod 3 gam 1 2 or 3 eleetrons respeeuvelyto form anlons Eaeh nonmetal lon ls wth the followlng noble gas I M r nut g l A or Mat MPH1m l A w M l W39 lr xlh p Slide 11 Lewis Dot Structures of Molecules In Ch6 Slide 21 we drew electron dot formulas for atoms The number of around each atom is equal to the number of electrons the atom has We will now draw electron dot formulas for molecules also called Lewis Dot structures A Lewis structure shows the between atoms and helps us to Visualize the of atoms in a molecule Slide 12 Lewis Dot Structures of Molecules Drawing the following out on board Consider Hz The bond in Hz is called a bond Consider Oz The bond in 02 is called a bond Consider N2 The bond in N2 is called a bond Slide 13 Guidelines for Drawing Lewis Dot Structures of Molecules 1 Hydrogen has only 2 e or 2 Beryllium has 4 e or 3 Boron can have 6 e or and be happy 4 Elements the 2nd Period can their octet have more than e 5 Halogens prefer bonds if possible Slide 14 Steps for Drawing Lewis Dot Structures of Molecules 1 Count the number of electrons for the structure 2 Arrange atoms and connect with bonds 3 Leftover electrons fill octets rst then octet 4 Multiplebond if of electrons and for central atom Slide 15 Lewis Dot Structures 1 H20 2 PC13 3 S02 PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom 4 co 5 HNCrseentra1 6 Pcls 7 N03quot 8 c102quot 9 C12CO Crs eerrtra1 shale 16 Polar Covalentbonds bonds result from the of valence eleetrons Often the eleetrons than the other m m bondrs A shared equally Shdel7 Eleckonegauvxty Each element has an mate to valence e1eetrons rs the abxhty ofan atom to m a chemical Fluonne rs the e1eetronegatrve e1 ement strdem Eleckonegauvxty I39HuumL Mm Lu mtrtmms Sllolelg Eleeuonegauyltylefenenees The eleeuonegauylty of H ls and of Cl ls slnee there ls a ln electronegatlvlty between the two elements the bondm He Cl ls olar slnee Cl ls eleeuonegauye the bondlng eleeuons are attracted the Cl atom and mm the H atom Thls Wlll glve the Cl atom charge and the H atom a charge sllde 20 Delta Notatlon for Polar bonds We use the Greekletter olelta s to lndleate a bond The chargedatom ls lndleateolby the symbol anolthe sym ol Thls ls charged atom ls lndleateol by the b refenedto as forpolarbonds 5Heclse Sll ole 21 Delta Notatlon for Polar bonds 1 39 The hydrogen halldesHF HOLHBr andHI all have bonds The halloles are all eleeuonegauye than hydrogen and are oleslgnateol Wlth a sllde 22 Nonpolar Covalent Bonds What lftwo atoms ln a eoyalentbonol have the 4 txonegauvmes7 The bondls polanze andltls a v che eleeuonegauylty l dlfference ls ltls usually consldered a bond The dlatomle halogen moleeules haye bonds sllde 23 shapes ofMoleeules Eleetron pans surroundlng an atom repel eaeh other Thls ls referredto asValenee Shell Eleetron Pan Repulsron VSEPR theory The and eentral atom The glves the arrangement of t m sllde 24 Tetrahedral Moleeules Methane CHa has pans of around the eentral earbon atom re W H H 9 H The four bondlng pans and Lharefo are A n repelledto the four eomers ofatetxahedmn The quot geometxyls The shape ls also tevahedml Sllde 25 Tngonal Pyramldal Moleeules 1n ammonra NHE the eentral nrtrogen atom ls surrounded by alrs and pan H H H F H The geometry ls andthe H shape ls Sllde 26 Bent Moleeules In water H20 the eentral 0 atom ls surrounded by pans and g pans M 5 H 5 The electron palr geometry ls J H andthe moleeular shape ls u shde 27 LlueurMolecules a a a 1n earbon dloxlde CO2 the eentral c atom ls bondedto eaeh oxygen by two eleetron pans a double bond There are bondedto c Accordlng to VSEPR the eleetron pans wlll eaeh other andthey wlll be at othe c atom Chem 1075 Chapter 15 Acids and Bases Lecture Outline Slide 2 Arrhenius Acids and Bases Svante Arrhenius proposed the following de nitions for acids and bases in 1884 7 An Arrhenius acid is a substance that ionizes in water to produce 7 An Arrhenius base is a substance that ionizes in water to release For example HCl is an Arrhenius acid and NaOH is an Arrhenius base Slide 3 Properties of Acids An acid is any substance that releases hydrogen ions H into water Blue litmus paper in the presence of hydrogen ions Blue litmus is used to test for acids Acids have a lemons limes and Vinegar are acidic Acids have a feel on the skin Slide 4 Properties of Bases A base is a substance that releases hydroxide ions OH 7 into water Red litmus paper in the presence of hydroxide ions Red litmus is used to test for bases Bases have a feel Bases also have a milk ofmagnesia is a base Slide 5 Strengths of Acids Acids have strengths The strength of an Arrhenius acid is measured by the in solution Ionization is the process where polar in solution The acid HCl ionizes into H and Cl7 ions in solution J into Slide 6 Srong amp Weak Arrhenius Acids Strong acids ionize to release hydrogen ions into solution 7 HCl is a strong acid and Weak acids only ionize in solution 7 HF is a weak acid and 6 Strong Acids 7 Consider all other acids as weak acids Slide 7 Arrhenius Acids in Solution Acid ionization can be shown as PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom The hlgdrtmium ion H30 is formed when the aqueous hydrogen ion attaches to a water molecule Consider H30 and H to be equivalent Slide 8 Strengths of Bases Bases also have strengths The strength of an Arrhenius base is measured by the in solution Dissociation is the process where cations and anions in an ionic compound in solution A formula unit of NaOH dissociates into Na and OH ions in solution Slide 9 Strong amp Weak Arrhenius Bases 39 Strong bases 139 7 NaOH is a st ong base and to release hydroxide ions into solution Weak bases only ionize in solution 7 NH4OH is a weak base and only I 39 Most hydroxide bases are bases Ammonia NH3 or NH4OH would be a base Slide 10 Arrhenius Bases in Solution When we dissolve Arrhenius bases in solution they dissociate giving a and a bases 139 39 and bases 139 Slide 11 Strong amp Weak Electrolytes An aqueous solution that is a conductor of electricity is a An aqueous solution that is a conductor of electricity is a The the degree of ionization or dissociation the he conductivity of the solution Slide 12 Electrolyte Strength Weak acids and bases and insoluble ionic r are PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httQwww9dffactomcom Shohg ade and bases and soluble tom eompouhds are Ta I 5 5 rnng andUIcaL l39lcctm smug Eledmly es Weak Elschnlyles Smmx Ami Walk Ami hvdmrhhmv and H I4q hvdmnunnr and HHaq h and mosh Home and h 03m shmmc and Hssoamq sulhlwus acid stowq perthlnrmand HUUqaqp mu nu c aq pl nsph acid H1170 L quotms an a 15 Stnmx AW mm b39mrx sodxum hydmme NaHq ammonium hydmxidc NHpHuq pomsmm hydlonde K0Ha1 Inmluhln hydmxxdcs such as huuum hydmxxdr Jul new 43 015 mm nus hemmah calciumhydmxide CAOHa most mher hasts strunnum hydmxidu snowmen H mm vdmxide Ba0lzaq SUIHNL Sans IUSUIIAL39II39 Svlls39 sodium chhmde Namesquot sheenhuman Agmm pheassmm Larbona e KZCOqzq alnum carbonate Camus zinc suumc ZnSGnq barium sulmm Basms wweskhomwwuuh oopyugh o 2094 homo Hans he Shde 13 Neuhahzahoh Reaehohs R H The reaction produces the aqueous sauNac1 W neutralize n Shde 14 Predmnng Neutralization Reacuons We eah identify the Anhemus an Lhatreactm a heuuahzahoh reaction to produce angen sueh as ealemm sulfate CaSOo The ealemm must be from OH and the sulfate must be from HzSOo shde 15 BrohstedeLowry Aexds amp Bases than the Anhemus de muohs A Bransted Lowrlg acid is a substance that a hydrogen ion to any other I It is a A BronstedLowry base is a 39 that a hydrogen ion It is a Slide 16 Autoionization of Water Water undergoes an Two water molecules react to produce a ion and a ion Only about 1 in 5 million water molecules is present as ions so water is a weak conductor The concentration of hydrogen ions H in pure water is about at 25 C Slide 17 Autoionization of Water Since H is l X 107 molL at 25 C the hydroxide ion concentration OH must also be at 25 C H200 gt HaQOH39a l At 25 C HOH39 1 x 103971 x 10397 This is the of water Slide 18 H and OH39 Relationship At 25 C HOH39 So ifwe know the H we can calculate OH What is the OH if H 01 M or 1 x lOlM Notice for coefficients of l the exponents should equal to l4 Slide 19 The pH Scale ALH value expresses the acidity or basicity of a solution Most solutions have a pH between solutions have a pH 7 As a solution becomes more acidic the pH decreases solutions have a pH 7 As a solution becomes more basic the pH increases PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom slrde 20 AndBase classrfreatron of Soluuons A soluaon ean be elassrfred aeeordng to rts pH and solutrons haye apH aerde sohrtrons have a pH between i basre soluaons have a pH between basre soluaons haye apH sohraons have a pH of Shde 21 The pH Coneept Reean that pH rs a measure ofthe aerdty H39 or Hso of a solutron The pH s a1euses canyngm a 2m Peavso Pvemtce math lm to express the hydrogen ron eoneentraaon Mathematreauy 11 rs the molar hydrogen ron eoneentraaon andxf then Shde 22 Caleulaang pH What rs the pfothe hydrogen ron eoneentraaon m avmegar sohraon rs 0 001m Shde 23 Ca1eu1aangH fronn pH Ifwe rearrange the pH equatron for If we get Mlk has a pH of Wham the eoneentraaon of hydrogen ron m mllk7 Shde 24 Advanced pH Ca1eu1atrons What rs the pH of blood wrth 11 4 8 gtlt1078 m What is the H in orange juice with a pH of 275 Slide 25 pH Calculation Summary 1 X 1014 lOpH H pH gt H gt OH lt logH l X 1014 OH1 PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom Chem 1075 Acid Naming Practice Ch 7 Name Complete the following table Acid Name Acid Formula Ion Name Ion Formula Hydrochloric acid HCl Chloride ion Cll39 Phosphate ion 5 Nitrous acid H103 Telluride ion C101 Iodous acid HZSe Perchlorate ion 1 I HC102 Selenate ion BrOzl39 Sulfuric acid H2C03 Chlorate ion Fl39 Bromic acid H2803 Arsenate ion 104139 Selenous acid H2TCO3 Hypoiodite ion PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httQwww9dffactomcom Chem 1075 chapter 11 The Gaseous State Leeture Outhne Shde 2 Properues of Gases There are 5 rrnportantproperues of gases 1 Gases have 2 Gases have shde 3 Krnetre Moleeular Theory Vrews gases as 1 Gases are made up of 2 m andr drreeuons 3 Gas rno1eeu1es have for one another 4 Gas rno1eeu1es undergo ofgas rno1eeu1es rs he proporuona1 to the ternperature Shde 4 Vanables affectmg Gases There are four vanables atreeung gases 1 15 expressedm 2 15 enpressedr 3 15 expressedm 4 15 expressedm or Shde 5 Gas Pressure rs the resu1t of as rno1eeu1es The the the pressure The the ternperature the gas rno1eeu1es move sllde 6 Almosphene Pressure m Almosphene pressure ls mehes Hg or mmHg or on at sea level Sllde 7 Unlts of Pressure Table 11 1 Um of Ga Prrnun 1 Standard I39xusur nmmspnen l m Madly 29 m Hg 7 rm Hg Emmy Imlllmetan olmexzurv 75 mm Hg madly onquot my km mum pounds per squan mrh ll7 pal kllopaseal r Amllhmslw Mmerwry lmm My rs llefinml as Haul mu 0 WWW w honor hr Tovkulll a M lm39enlcd nu lawmanv whus uurlml pressure mu he glue as m mquot wl m rm Marisol luau v5 me mum SI mm arprcssmt somgnmew Fellsun Fvsnllne Hall We sllde 8 Gas Pressure Converslons Hg Sllde 9 Boyle39s Gas Experiment at constant m a 1 tube uslng llquld mereury He found lhanhe othe an When he the pressure the volume Slide 10 Boyle s Law Boyle s Law states that the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to the pressure at constant temperature Inversely proportional means two variables have a reciprocal relationship as or as Mathematically we write Slide 11 Boyle s Law Continued If we double the pressure then we see the volume is halved If we triple the pressure then we see the volume is onethird the original volume If we increase the pressure by 23 then what happens to the volume Slide 12 Illustration of Charles Law As a balloon 39 39 a at constant room is cooled from room temperature with liquid nitrogen 496 C the volume decreases Slide 13 Charles Law Charles Law states that the of a gas is to the in Kelvin As or as We can write Charles Law as an equation using a proportionality constant k Slide 14 Charles Law If we double the temperature we see the volume double If we half the temperature we see the volume halved If we increased the temperature by 32 or 15 then we see the volume increased by 15 also Slide 15 Illustration of GayLussac s Law As the of a xed amount of gas in a steel cylinder constant volume increases the increases As or as Slide 16 GayLussac s Law GayLussac s Law states that the of a gas is to the in Kelvin We can write GayLussac s Law as an equation using a proportionality constant k PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom Slide 17 Avogadro s Law Avogadro s Law states that as the is increased the of a gas also increases As or as Slide 18 Ideal Gas Law Combine all the gas laws Boyle s law Charles law GayLussac s law Avogadro s law Ideal Gas law Slide 19 Ideal Gas Law Consider a sample of gas at an initial set of conditions If that same sample of gas was placed under a new set of nal conditions then Slide 20 Ideal Gas Law Applied If both equations are equal to k then they are equal to each other We can use this equation to solve any problem about a gas at two different sets of conditions Slide 21 Ideal Gas Law Applied A steel container of nitrous oxide at 150 atm is cooled from 250C to 400C What is the nal pressure of the gas A 275L helium balloon is heated from 200C to 400C What is the nal volume A 150L sample of methane gas exerts a pressure of l650mmHg What is the nal pressure is the volume changes to 700L PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom Shde 22 Ideal Gas Law We ear rearrange the equauoh to read Thrs rs the shde 23 Ideal Gas Law Problem Howmany moles ofhydrogen gas oeeupy 0 5001 at sun shde 24 Vapor Pressure above ahqurdwheh the rates ofevaporauon and eohdehsauoh are equal mereases as mereases shde 25 Daltoh39s Law Dalmn xlaw aggmial gmxxurex states that the of agaseous of rruxture rs equal to the the mdwxdual pressures of eaeh gas shde 26 Daltoh39sLaw ealeulauoh An atmosphehe sample eohtams rutrogeh oxygen and argon Ifthe parua1 pressure ofmtxogen rs 587 mm Hg oxygen rs 158 mm Hg and argon rs 7 mm Hg whatrs the baromethe pressure7
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