Chapter 10 reading notes
Chapter 10 reading notes PLS103
Popular in Issues in world politics
Popular in Political Science
13309 - PLS 103 - 02
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Marth on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PLS103 at Grand Valley State University taught by Dr. Zhao in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Issues in world politics in Political Science at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
Ch 10 reading notes Political parties any political group identi ed by an of cial label that presents at election and is capable of placing through elections candidates for public of ce serious groups aim to obtain the keys of government and quotlive by the house of powerquot 0 Essential functions of parties 0 Ruling parties offer direction to government pursuing the vital task of steering the ship of state 0 By allowing voters to choose between parties with different teams of leaders and sometimes with contrasting policies gives effect of liberal democracy 0 Parties function as agents of political recruitment preparing and recruiting candidates for the legislature and the executive 0 Parties combine interests ltering a multitude of speci c demands into manageable packages of proposals Prioritize Party origins o Cadre parties formed by members within an assemblythe cadres joining together to re ect common concerns and then ghting effective campaigns in an enlarged electorate o This was one of the very rst parties in the 19th century Common in conservative parties of Britain Canada and Scandinavia Party organizations 0 Iron law of oligarchy Robert Michel states that to say organization is to say a tendency to oligarchy who says organization says oligarchy 0 Michel argued that even parties formally committed to democracy become dominated by ruling elite Party members 0 party members don t usually show much participation or commitment Only when they are required to pay their monthly dues o the reduction in membership has occurred in tandem with dealignment among electors and surely re ects similar causes including o the weakening of traditional social divisions such as class and religion 0 loosening of the blood linking trade unions and socialist parties o decay of local electioneering in an era of media based campaigns 0 greater appeal of social movements and more informal modes of political engagement to younger generations 0 the declining standing of parties often linked to cases of corruption 0 Perception of parties as forming a single structure of established authority with the state Selecting candidates and leaders Selectorate consists of those who nominate a party s candidates for an election 0 This group often plays a more critical role than the electorate in determining who will represent the party in office 0 Candidates 0 Nomination process is decentralized o Nomination task is constrained by three wider features of political system The electoral system choosing candidates for individual constituencies in a plurality system is a naturally more decentralizing task Incumbents current members of parliament that possess an advantage almost everywhere usually achieving reselection Candidates are only truly chosen if incumbents step down Rule nearly all countries impose conditions such as citizenship on member of the legislature while many parties have adopted gender quotas for party candidates 0 Primary elections enables a party s supporters to choose their candidates for a particular office 0 Open primaryextends the choice still further to any registered elector Only for one party 0 Closed primary limited to a party s registered supporters nominating convention 0 Leaders Prime minister president chancellor Germany 0 Party members provide an incentive for people to join the party and can also be used to limit the power of entrenched faction within it Belgium and Canada 0 Parliamentary party traditional method especially for cadres parties Several parties give a voice to both members of parliament and ordinary memberseither through special congress or a twostage ballot Australia Denmark New Zeeland Party systems Denotes the overall con guration of parties their relative importance and the interaction between them Legal regulation applying across the board Dominant party systems one party is constantly in of ce governing alone or in coalition south Africa 0 they use their control of the state to reward their supporters thus building a secure base but also leaving themselves vulnerable Two party system Two major parties compete to form singleparty governments great Britian o The other parties provide little if any in uence on the formation and policies of governments 0 Neither major party dominates on its own but in combination they form two pillars of a strong party system Multiparty system several parties typically 5 or 6 achieve signi cant representation in parliament becoming serious contenders for a place in a governing coalition Scandinavia o The philosophy is that each party represent a social group