Intro Biological Anthropology
Intro Biological Anthropology ANTH 1013
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Date Created: 10/15/15
1 El Primate Evolution Anth 1013 Lecture 20 October 2004 2 El Interpreting Variation in Fossil Record I Remember a Biological classi cation I u Types ofvariation affecting classi cation I Individual variation u I Age changes a Dental development and size I Sexual dimorphism u 3 iii lnterpretmg Variat10n 1n Foss11 Record I Remember a Species is the category that we ultimately want to de ne even when looking at the fossil record I Biological species a Testaole in living populations How dovve interpret variation in fossll groups7 I Level of variation u lntraspeci c I Variation within a species a Attributable to individual age and sex dlffererices u lnterspeci c I Variation between reproduc iver isolated populations species 4 El lnterpretmg Variat10n 1n Foss11 Record I Morphological variation in fossil sample n Comparable to that observed within species ofliving forms I If es not s litquot 39 quot u Choosing appropriate modern analogues I Time and s ace u Linnaean classi cation static situations a Paleospecies I Individual specimens possibly separated by millions of years I Taxonomic boundaries somewhat arbitrary 5 iii The Genus Level I Separating genera plural of genus ii Relativejudgment I Hybridization in contemporary animals ii More difficult in paleospecies I Broad adaptive zones u Less restrictive ecological niches than species a Teeth provide excellent evidence concerning ecology u Cladis ics Members should share same derived characters not seen in other genera 6 iii Eras Following the Precambrian Paleozoic 570225 mya n Permlan 2807225 mya Mesozoic 22565 mya Jurasle 1907136 mya PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom I Cenozoic 65 mya to the present Tertlary psi 8 mya cene ucene Ollgucene Mlucene Pllucene u Quaternary l 8 to tne present Plelstucerle Holocene 7 El Leading Up to Cenozoic I Late Mesozoic a First de nite placental mammals seen during late Mesozoic ca 70 mya u Mesozoic mammals were small about the size of mice I Cenozoic Age of Mammals a Successful mammalian radiation occurs largely during this period a Rise ofmajor lineages of modem mammals u Mammals and birds replaced reptiles as dominant terrestrial vertebrates 8 El Success of Mammals I Larger brains I Longer more intense period of growth and development in Internal fertilization and internal development I Oviparous incubate externally by laying eggs I Viviparous development in u era a Major innovation among terrestrial vertebrates ii Heterodonty ooth shapes of different types I Primitive mammalian dental formula is 3143 ii Endothermy 9 El Early Primate Evolution u a malianradiation u Primitiye primates split from early placental mammals Plesladaplf 7 Culugu f flylrlg lemur I Eocene 5534 mya a Large numberoffosslls recoyered u Oyer 200 recognized species a Dennite primate features a u Anthropolds in China I 4 mya I Cranlal fEISSll EVldEHEE lS lacklrlg 10 El Early Prlmate EVOlutIon cont Oligocene 3423 mya u Many tossilized remains ofseveral species ofarlthropolds a old World I Fayurn Egypt World a Earllest forms may be ancestral to Old al ld New World forms a By eany Oligocene continental drilt nad separated New World 11 El The Miocene ca 22 5 mya I Diverse group of hominoids emerged in and radiated throughout Africa Asia and Europe I Most likely many more forms of hominoids existed then than today PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httQwww9dffactomcom I Geographical and climatic circumstances in By 23 mya most continents were near present position except North and South America in Arabian Plate connected with northeastern Africa I Allowed for transcontinental migration in Miocene warmer than Oligocene and Eocene 12 El Mocene Hommolds I African 2314 mya a Most fossils come 39om western Kenya a Generalized primitive hominoids u Proconsul I Bestkan genus 13 El IVIiocene Hominoids I European 1311 mya u Fossils found in France Spain Italy Greece Austria and Hungary u Showderived characteristics a Bestknovm genus is Dryopithecus u Ouranopithecus enus of Greek and Hungarian fossils I Greek fossils date to ca 109 mya 14 El Mocene Hommolds I Asian 167 mya u Largest and most varied grou u Dispersed in Turkey IndiaPakistan and southern China a Highly derived a Bestknow genus is Sivaplhecus I Found ll l Turkey and Pakistan 1 Gurillarsized huminuiu 15 El The Miocene Hominoids General Characteristics I Widespread geographically I Long timespan 236 mya I More closely related to apehuman lineage than that of Old World monkeys I Mostly largebodied n More similar to lineages oforangutans gorillas chimps and humans I Most are so derived as to be ancestral to any living form I No definite hominids from the Miocene a New fossil evidence dating to ca 6 mya may be earliest hominids 16 El Gradualism and Punctuated Equilibrium I Transpecific evolution sult ofaccumulation of small microevolutionary changes guided by natural selec ion a Occurring within populations and species I Phyletic gradualism a Slow accumulation of micro change I Punctuated equilibrium a Long periods of evolutionary stasis combined with quick spurts of change I Do these necessarily have to oppose each other PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom 1 El An Introduction to Paleoanthropology Anth 1013 3 November 2004 2 El Paleoanthropology I Definition the study of ancient humans I Multidisciplinary field i Geologists 39 39 paleoclimatologistsyou get the idea I Dating paleoecology archaeological and anatomicalbiological evidence 3 El Becoming a Fossil I Taphonomy in Study of how bones and other materials come to be buried in the earth and become fossils I What has happened since death a Sedimentation 39 39 bone 39 39 etc in Context I Primaryvs secondary 4 El Dating Methods Relative I Relative dating younger or older but not by how much u Stratigraphy and law of superposition I Natural geologic processes may shi sediments causing dif culty in dating in Fluorine analysis applicable to bone measures fluorine content due to groundwater seepage I Material must be from same area uorine content based on local conditions 5 El Dating Methods Chronometnc I Chronometric absolute dating a Uraniumm halflife of45 billion years n Potassiumargon KAr 4DK has halflife of 1 25 billion years turns into 4DAr rFaAr aiiam Ul N l 39 39 39 39 sites in the 1 to 5 million year range I quot quot 0 on neiumin u Carbon14 MC halflife of5730 years Not good for da ing much past 4050000 years I These dates are always given with a range of error 6 El Cross Checking the Dates I Fissiointrack datin u Percentage of 238U that has fissioned I Paleomagnetism u Observing magneticallycharged particles in geological deposits I Biostratigraphy u Comparing fossilized fauna to those from areas of known dates 7 El Types of Sites I Butchering sites PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom u Generally one or two major faunal species found along with associated scatter of archaeological traces Extinct elephants 17 mya and extinct buffalolike animal 12 mya I r J V I Quarry sites B Area where hominins acquired and fashioned crude stone tools Thousands of small 39agments and akes of one rock type Multipurpose sites a Also know as base campsquot u Smaller stone debris multiple smaller animal species etc 8 El Hominid Homininigt Hominid u Term traditionally referring to uprightwalking apesquot in our lineage u Classi cation based on relatedness Hominins only humans and our evolutionary ancestors and cousins since the split of Africana e and human lines from a common ances or n This terminology is biologically more correct so we will use this naming scheme 9 El The Piltdown Man Found in gravel pit near Sussex England a Charles Dawson in 1912 Hailed as missing link bt apes and humans a Humanlike cranium with apelike mandible 10 11 El Characteristics of Hominins l Bipedal locomotion habitual u Wh 7 y More emCiently carry infants or oblects back to base camp 7 Huntll lg 7 Seed and nut eating 7 Visual surveillance 7 L ngrdlstal lce Walklng 7 Male pl OVlSlOl lll lg 7 l Increased cranial size and complexity u er neural networ n More ef cient cooling system tied with bipedality 12 El Identifying Hominin Fossils Locomotion Skeletal morphology of bipeds compared to quadrupeds ancl brachiators ertebra Sshaped vertebral column Differentiation in vertebral size and shape Low number of lumbar vertebrae u Pelvis Short and broad pelvis u Femurkneejoint Knockkneedquot or vasalus shape a Cranium Foramen magnum located direc ly under cranial base Facial region less prognathic fonNardly projecting Lack of nuchal crest on occipital bone 13 El Identifying Hominin Fossils Dental Cranium PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httQwww9dffactomcom u Sagittal crest presence vs absence Dentition a General trends Anterior teeth incisors and canines u arger Posterior teeth premolars and molars u ller ll l apes also the dental arcade l5 roughly parallel Through tlme the dental arcade becomes more parabollc llalll llll apes PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httQwww9dffactomcom 1 El Anatomically Modern Humans Origins and Dispersal Anth 1013 Lecture 22 November 2004 2 El The Modern Human Chin 3 El The Questions I When in Approximately when do we first see AMH I Where in Did AMH arise from multiple regionally disparate populations I Tempo in Was the appearance ofAMH a rapid event 4 El Hlstory of the Models I Regional continuityMultiregional u Originally called the candelabra model a Modi ed to include some genetic ow between groups I Out of Africa Replacement u Originally called the Noah s arcquot model B 39 iauui ui replacement 5 El Bodies of Evidence I In general fossil evidence corroborates genetic data a Earliest AMH specimens from rica I Klasies River caves over 100 kya and Border Cave u Near East Skhul Cave at Mt Carmel 115 kya and Qafzen Cave 100 kya Israel NearNeanderthal site ofTaoun a Europe I Eastern Europe Croatia and Czech Republic u 4533 lltya I Western Europe a Croalvlagnon in France at least oy 30 lltya u Far East China and SE Asia At least by 20 kya possibly as old as 50 kya Mongolia 6 El Mitochondrial DNA mtDNA Analysm I Mitochondrial vs nuclear DNA uclear Passed on to offspring by both parents Doubleahellx structure millions ofoase pairs Mutates at a slow rate a of in mutations are deleterluustu tne urganlsrn u Mitochondrial Passed onlytnrougn tne female line l e you only have it from yourmotner Loopashaped stmcture 17 000 base pairs u Easleftu WEIrleth Mutates lox faster u Nunrdeletenuus mutatluns 7 El Divergence I Variation in mtDNA a dern humans I 8 nucleotides avg u Humans and Neanderthals PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom I 27 nucleotides avg u Humans and c 39 54 nucleotides avg 8 El Mapping Migrations of AMH I Rate of mutation in H sa 39 lens a 3 of nucleotides change per1 million years I From island populat39 ns ount ofvarlatlon Wl the p p l u Tlme of arrival from an n archaeological evidence a Once known then you can map migrations by observing genetic differences 9 El Genetic Data Suggest I Date back to single mtDNA type but not one Eve European and Asian populations less varied that either are to African I Later appearance for Europeans and Asians African populations around longer I AMH emerged in Africa 165 kya European and Asian populations 8065 kya 10 El Oh Cmel World What Happened to Everyone Elsegt I Longterm climatic trends favored AMH Warmer and wetter AMH better adapted I Physiologically I Cuturally a Very complex tool assemblages 39om the Upper Paleolithic 11 El Next Time I Race concept revisited I Modern human variation and forensic anthropology I Bioarchaeology PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom 1 Introduction to Primates Anth 1013 Lecture 27 September 2004 2 E How We Study Primates I Comparative method I Looks at 39 quot quot 39 quot between l I Anatomy genetically behaviorally etc I Adaptive significance of certain physical and behavioral systems I Overview of humans Homo sapiens and over 200 species of nonhuman r lat dforms primates prosimians monkeys and apes 3 E Remember I Evolution is not goaldirected I Living species not superior to evolutionary ancestors I Living species including humans are not the end all be allquot I We are not seeing an apex orfinal stage of primate lineages those became extinct 4 E Where are We I Mammals the class Mammalia I Over 4000 extant species I 3 major subgroups I Egglaying duckbilled platypus and echidna I Pouchedmarsupials I Placental diverse group including rodents carnivores primates etc I Populations ofancestral mammalians developing independently on diverging land masses 5 E When Are We I Mesozoic era age of reptiles I Triassic Jurassic and Cretaceous I Pangea land mass began splitting during the Triassic I Mass extinction I Occurred around the end of the Mesozoicbeginning of Cenozoic 6 El Vertebrate Evolutionary Time Scale 7 E Mammalian Radiation I Therapsids I Intermediate forms bt reptiles and mammals I Small endothermic insectivores a ima I Around this time these primitive mammals are thought to have began to radiate I Adaptive radiation relatively rapid expansion and diversifcation of an evolving group of organisms as they adapt to new ecological niches PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom 8 E The Placental Mammals I Most common group I Distributed all over the world I Flying swimming and burrowing some adaptations I Over 20 orders of mammals I Range in size from the dwarf shrew a few grams to the blue whale largest animal to known to ever inhabit the earth 9 El General Characteristics of Placental Mammals I Endothermic I Presence of body hair Relatively long gestation period followed by live birth Mammary glands hence the term mammals Increased brain size and moredeveloped nervous system Increased capacity for learning and behavioral exibilit Different types of teeth incisors canines premolars and molars 10 E Primates I Look at characteristics that taken together separate primates from other mammals I Primates have remained generalized I Retain primitive traits that other species have lost over time while becoming more specialized I Example development of hooves on many prey species Good adaptatlorl forthose needing speed and stablllty Losethe ability to manipulate dpieets 11 E Primates I Because not so specialized primates can not be described by one or two shared traits I Biologists use a group of traits that more or less apply to primates I General traits that are not equally represented in all primates I Expected in a group of related but diverse organisms 39 39 lUllll 12 E Primate Characteristics I Again no one feature distinguishes primates from other mammals except possibly the structure ofthe middle ear I W E LeGros Clark early comparative anatomist and paleoanthropologist I De ned primates based on evolutionarytrends or traits which together make up the primate patternquot I Most traits related to skeletal morphology I Adaptations reflected in I Limbs and locomotion teeth and diet senses brain and behavior 13 E Limbs and Locomotion I Tendency toward erect posture I Shown to some de ree in all primates Varlouslyassoclated Witn Sittll lg leaping standing and occasional blpedal Walklrlg I Flex ble generalized limb structure I Allows for engaging in a variety oflocomotor behaviors PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom I Prehensile hands and feet grasping ability I Retention of ve digits I Opposable thumb and sometimes a divergent big toe I Nails instead of claws I Tactile pads w sensory nerve bers at ends of digits 14 E Diet and Teeth I Lack of specialized diet I Most primates tend to eat a variety of food items I Generalized dentition I Teeth not specialized for processing only one type of food I Correlated with lack of dietary specialization I Primates are generally omnivorous I Diet consists of plants meats insects etc 15 E Senses and the Brain I Primates especiallythose that are diurnal rely heavily on the sense of sight rather than smell this is reflected in skull eyes and brain I Vision I Color vision diurnal primates I Nocturnal primates lack color vision I Depth perception stereoscopic vision I Eyes positioned in toward hem of face I Visual info transmitted to both hemispheres of brain I Specialized structures in the brain 16 E Senses and the Brain cont I Decreased reliance on sense of smell I Overall trend in decreased size of olfactory structures in the brain I Also a decreased size of snout n some species the large snout has more to do with housing large canines rather than smell I Expansion size and increased complexity of brain I General trend in placental mammals especially seen in primates I Visual and association centers of the neocortex 17 El Maturation Learning and BehaVIor I Maturation I More ef cient means of fetal nourishment I Longer gestation I Reduced numbers ofoffspring w single births the norm I Delayed maturation and extension of en ire life span I Learning I Greater dependence on exible learned behavior I Social groups I 39 39 39 39 association or 39 I Tendency for diurnal activity I Occurs in most primates one group of monkeys and some prosimians are nocturnal 18 E Primate Adaptations I Traditionally characteristics shared by primates are seen to have resulted as adaptations for arboreal living I Arboreal hypothesis I Omnivorous diet to exploit foods leaves insects seeds fruits nuts etc PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom I Acute color vision with increased depth perception I Bene cial for complex 3D environments with unsure foothold I Ability to grasp with hands and feet 19 E Primate Adaptations cont I Visualpredation hypothesis Cartmill 1972 1992 I Characteristics such as forwardfacing eyes occur in other predators cats owls etc I Primates may have developed other traits not purely as a response to arboreal environment I Angiosperm hypothesis Sussman 1991 I Primate characters evolved with the emergence of angiosperms flowering plants I Traits arose due to need for netuned visual and tactile discrimination 20 E Primate Adaptations cont I The above hypotheses are likely NOT mutually exclusive I More likely a combination of these circumstances 21 E Diet and Teeth I Like majority of other mammals primates have fourtypes of teeth I lncisors and canines for cutting and biting I Premolars and molars for chewing I Dental formulae I of tooth types in any one quadrant of the mouth I Most placental mammals have 3143 dental formula I 2123 dental formula for adult Old World anthropoi39ds Old World monkeys apes and humans I 2133 dental formula for New World monkeys 22 E Geographic Distribution I With some exceptions nonhuman primates are found in tropical and semitropical I areas of the Old and New Word I Majority of primates are arboreal although some are adapted to terrestrial habitat eg baboons I Some spend considerable amount oftime on ground gorillas and chimpanzees I All nonhuman primates spend at least some time in the trees 23 E Primate Locomotion I Quadrupedalism l Pasties in sume munkey species Sluvvias seen in many prusimians Terrestrial Orr fingenipsias seen in babuuns Knucklerwalking great apes r e gunllas and chimpanzees African I Vertical clinging and leaping Slow quadrumanous climbing man I Brachiation I Gibbons I Bipedality I Humans 24 E Next Time I Primate classification I Comparative anatomy of mammals with respect to locomotion PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom I Overview of the extant primates PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httQwww9dffactomcom 1 El From Deepest Darkest Africa The Plio Pleistocene Hominins Anth 1013 Lecture 8 November 2004 2 El Hominin Evolutionary Timeline 3 El Where Are the Fossils Foundgt I Eastern Africa a Stretches ca 1200 miles from Red Sea to Serengeti Plain u Years of geologic activity have exposed Miocene Pliocene and Pleistocene deposits 4 El Ardzpzl lvem mmzdm I East A 39ica Ethiopia I 5844 mya I Mosaic of characteristics a Primitivetraits Large anterior dentition relative to posteriorteetn Tnin enamel u Derivedtraits Forwardlv posltlol led foramen magnum Broaderlowermolars I Locomotion u Parttime bipedal and arboreal 5 El Amtralopz39fvem ammemz39x I East A 39ica Kenya Ethiopia and Tanzania I 417407 m I Mosaic of characters a Primitive Hignlv prognathlcface Large canines parallel dental arcade u Derived Proxlmal tibia Relatlvelv tnicllt enamel and Wldel tnan longer molars I Locomotion u Parttime bipedal and arboreal 6 El Amtralopzl kem afamemzx I East A 39ica E hiopia and Tanzania I 43 mya I Mosaic of characteristics a Primitive traits Luri curved metatarsals arid pedal phalariges Prugriathli raee Relatively large eamnes vvitn dlastema u Derived traits Murphulugv ertne pelvis arid femur in Locomotlori All elues pulnttu ubllgate blpedallsm Arbureal rer sleeping snelter arid pmteetien 7 El I m Walking The Laetoli Footprints 8 El Amtralopz39fvem a z39mmx I South Africa Makapansgat and Sterkfontein mya I Mosaic of characteristics PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom u Primitive traits rognatnic race and some oostoroitai constriction u Derived traits I Smaller Cal ill ieS l iO diasterna an Forwardiy positioned rorarneri ma I Thick enamel Pelvic morphology d Wider moiars than afarensis gnum 9 El Oh Bipedal One The Pelvis ofA 926071th 10 El Pamm lvmpm getviolent East A 39ica Ethiopia and Kenya 25 mya Mosaic of characteristics a Primitive Craniai capacityabout4i0 cc Marked postoroitai constriction 39 ed Forarneri magnum position rnick enamei Small anteriorderititiori iarge moiars Parabolic dentai arcade n er Large sagittai crest Broad maiars cneek oones Dishrshaped race 11 El Pamm lvmpm 702er I East A 39ica E hiopia Kenya and Tanzania I 2312m a I Mosaic of characteristics Primitive Craniaicapacitysimiiartoaoes Marked pusturbital constriction u Derived Furamen magnum position Tnick enamei Small ante o Other Large sagittai crest Eiruad maiars cneek oones Vanlarge mandioie Dishrshapewrace nor dentition iarge oremoiars and moiars 12 El Pamm lvmpm mbml m I Sou h A 39ica SNartkrans and Kromdraai mya I Mosaic of characteristics a Primitive Craniaicapacitysimiiartoaoes Marked pusturbital constriction o Derived Foramen magnum position Tmck enam i Small anterior dentition iarge moiars o Other Large sagittaicrest Eiruad maiars cneek oones Vanlarge mandioie Dishrshapewrace 13 El Lesser Known Hominins I All from A 39ica little material available a Kenyanthropus platyops u Australop hecus garhi I Dated to about 2 5 mya PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httQwww9dffactomcom u Sahelanthropus tchadensis I Recent find dated to 776 mya Good candidate for common ancestor ofhomil iil i and ape lineages 7 u Orron39n tugenensis I Dated to about 6 mya 14 El Timeline of Change I Mosaic evolution in Physiological systems and behavioral correlates evolve at different rates ipedal adaptations u Appears rst in the fossil record a Most de ning characteristic ofthe hominins I Dental trends u Anterior tee h decreasing in size especially canines increase in size of premolars and molars with thick enamel a Dental arcade becomes more parabolic I Cranial capacity a Increase along with neurology don t occur until later 15 El Next Time I Wrapping up the australopithecines I The genus Homo PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom 1 El Culture and Art Modern Human Variation and Forensic Anthropology Anth 1013 Lecture 29 November 2004 2 El Upper Paleolithic Culture I Stone tool technology in Steady increase in complexity from H habiis Olduwan to H erectus Acheulian to H sapens neanderthaensis Mousterian to Upper Paleolithic tool assemblages I Chatelperronian 40 kya I Aurignacian I Gravettian I Solutrean I Magdalenian 14 kya 3 El Symbolic Thought Art and Language I Symbolic representation in Symbols have no inherent meaning Art n Earliest art is 39om Bolombos Cave South A 39ica 74 k a 39 abundance in sites 39om all regions in he a Postdates appearance of morphological AMH I Language 4 El Symbolic Thought Art and Language I Symbolic representation Symbols have no inherent meaning Art n Earliest art is from Bolornpos Cave South Afrlca 74 kya i from all Fdl llllll u Postdates appearance ofrnorphologlcal AMH I Language u Anatomlcal capabilities forspeech mctures Broca s and vvernicllte s areas Cranial flexure resonating chamber Posltlol l ofthe hyold g0 Q 5 El Forensic Anthropology I Application of physical anthropology in a medico Iegal setting I Develop a biological profile from skeletal remains in Ageatdeath in Sex in Stature in Group affiliation sed synonymoust with race or ethnicity in Identifying pathological conditions andor trauma 6 El Estimation of SeX I H sapiens are sexually dimorphic ii Expressed in differing degrees in different populations PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httpwwwpdffactomcom I Ex India and SE Asia typically are less dimorphic than aboriginal Australians i In general bones of males are largerwith morerugged muscle attachments than females I What is the best skeletal indicator of sex 7 El Estimatlng Sex The Pelvis I Only skeletal structure that is larger in females u Has signi cance in terms ofnatural selection I Best single estimator of sex a Sciatic notch u Subpubic concavity u Curvature of sacrum u Presence ofparturition pits 8 El Estimatlng Sex The Skull I Muscle attachment sites a Temporal lines B Attachment fortne temporalls muscle a Mastoid processes Largerln l u Nuchal area More pronounced ll l males I Superior orbital margin C u Sharper in females I Shape of mentumchin E I Shape of forehead F u Males slopingfemales vertical I Supraorbital ridges and glabella H More pronounced in males 9 El Estimating Age I Subadults aged with greater accuracy Dental developmenteruption and skeletal development I Adults Aged by looking at morphological changes in skeleton I Epiphyseal Jsion I Cranial suture closure I Pubic symphysis and auricular sur ce os coxae I Dental wear and degenerative joint disease 10 El Group Affiliation I Modern human variation Within and between gro p I Greatervariation within de ned groups than between them i Polygenic inheritance Produces continuum ofvariation Individuals not easily assigned to welldefined groups I Needs of law enforcement Does biological determination agree with social selfconcept 11 El Until the end I Next time B Class fossil presentations Study guide and review for Exam 3 Monday 6 December Bioarchaeology slides PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httQwww9dffactomcom l Wednesday 8 December Last day of class D Study guide and review for Final Exam l Monday 13 December 145345 PDF created with FinePrint pdfFactory trial version httQwww9dffactomcom
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