HIST 1010, Week 7 Lecture Notes
HIST 1010, Week 7 Lecture Notes Hist 1010
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Peyton Robison on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1010 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Melissa Blair in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 157 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 7 September 29 2015 The Rise of Christianity and the Disintegration of Rome I The Rise of Christianity in the Pax Romana The Collapse of Rome the West a Deteriorating Conditions b Christianity as the Religion of the Empire c The Final Collapse Persistence in the East Byzantium Today s Questions o o How does Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire in the first two centuries CE o o How does the Western Roman Empire fall apart What are some of the key aspects of its disintegration Universal Religion A Definition 0 v A universal religion is one which brings together people of different cultural racial ethnic and class backgrounds and gives them a common culture centered around their faith 0 v Buddhism and Christianity both examples of this in the early centuries CE The Rise of Christianity in the Pax Romana 0 Christianity cannot become a universal religion simply by speaking to the Jews 0 St Paul not one of the disciples never met Jesus a missionary has a conversion experience after Jesus dies and begins traveling throughout the Mediterranean to establish churches and write to the people there I The set of beliefs around Christianity spread and are appealing to a lot of people living in the Roman Empire not to the elites right away but to small farmers to women to slaves etc 0 Messages of humility and love I Christianity s reliance on texts that laid out the teachings of the faith 0 As the first century goes along gospels and other bodies of religious text are being written 0 IMPORTANT o Facilitates spreading of the faith no longer reliant on missionaries to travel and speak 0 Has the potential to blunt the impact on slowing of the spreading of the faith I Even though martyrs were persecuted the texts were still in existence 0 Roman Empire doesn t make an effort to suppress Christianity until it has already spread widely Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 7 0 As long as they re getting their tax money they don t care what people believe 0 quotChristians should not be sought out etc Emperor 0 Not a large scale persecution of Christians because of the Pax Romana Roman peace I Before the middle of the third century I Although it was mostly peaceful there were some trouble spots 0 The Levant o A pair of largescale Jewish uprisings against Roman rule in the first two centuries CE 0 There had been sporadic restrictions on the practice of the Jewish faith by some governors o A very heavy tax burden was placed on Jewish residents of the empire 0 Rebellions are put down pretty brutally I Texts emerge out of crisis and trouble I First rebellion is very violent 0 Driven out of town onto a mountain 0 An entire legion of Roman soldiers surround the mountain in an effort to starve them out 0 They take a year to build a ramp up the side of this mountain to kill whoever is left Threats to Rome 0 v Sasanian or Sasanid empire to the east controlling land from the Indus to the Euphrates rivers 0 v quotBarbariansquot from the northeast including Goths and Huns 3 Overall a constant lack of soldiers and general difficulty securing borders The Disintegration of Rome 0 Over the course of about two and a half centuries things start slowly falling apart 0 Essentially what happens is that the Roman Empire is too big of a chunk of land to be maintained security ruling 0 Rome had very bad luck in that they had a series of really bad emperors I Roman Empire under Constantine o Becomes emperor in 306 o The Empire had been divided split into chunks and governed by multiple emperors o The previous empire had made deals with other guys to be his quotlieutenantsquot blah blah blah 0 He reunifies the empire militarily under his leadership 0 He converted to Christianity right around the time that he became emperor Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 7 0 Under his rule and rulers after him Christianity becomes the dominant faith of the empire 0 Firmly in place before Constantine but the empire started reflecting the conversion Christianity as the Faith of the Empire 0 v Emperor Constantine converts in 312 and announces that persecution of Christians will cease 0 v He organizes the Council of Nicea which unifies various Christian sects and creates the Nicean Creed as a statement on the basic tenets of the faith Cont o The Nicean Creed 0 The ruler declares that there is one set of common beliefs spread throughout the empire 0 Formalizes Christianity and helps it spread further 0 The Roman catholic church kind of holds the empire together The Final Collapse o The Barbarian kings slowly accumulate increasing amounts of power 0 More consolidated armies o Smaller amounts of land 0 Able to pay soldiers and pay for what they re doing 0 Roman leaders begin to collaborate with Barbarian armies to protect their borders in return for not trying to push them out 0 Right after the last Roman emperor resigns in 476 o A Barbarian king installs himself as the king of Italy 0 Theoderic the Ostrogih ruler of Italy 488526 CE 0 Eastern Roman emperor asks him to go take over the Barbarian king s spot 0 He does 0 Made quick alliances with Romans because he adopted a lot Roman culture 0 Western empire falls into chunks Byazantium The Eastern Empire 0 The people who live there think of themselves as Romans 0 Emperor Justinian tries to rebuild the entire Roman empire Terms and WrapUp v Saint Paul Universal Reli ion Council of Nicea v How does Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire in the first two centuries CE v Overextension Barbarians Theoderic the Ostrogih v How does the Western Roman Empire fall apart What are some of the key aspects of its disintegration October 1 2015 Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 7 A World of Religions 100600 CE I The Spread of Buddhism The Advent of Hinduism III The Mayan Faith in Mesoamerica Today s Question 0 v What were the ways in which religions were reaching out to people in this era What were some of the differences from earlier faiths and practices that allowed religion to become such a central part of the lives of so so many people in the first several centuries CE Mahayana Buddhism 0 Comes together as a set of beliefs early CE although there s not a known precise date 0 Holds that the Buddha is a god 0 Also holds that there are many bodhisattvasI demigods whose job it was to help people find their way to a happy afterlife Individuals would often have devotional practices toward a specific bodhisattva I Mahayana Buddhism introduces helpers but isn t moving away from classic Buddhism I Bodhisattvas are available to everyone 0 Buddhism particularly influential in China 0 After the collapse of the Han dynasty Mahayana Buddhism finds an audience I Moves in in a moment of crisis China and Buddhism after the Han 0 Han empire collapses 220s CE 0 Barbarian leaders take over many Han lands and establish the Northern Wei dynasty 0 Rough transition 0 Not as successful as barbarian kings rule over former Roman lands lots more tension between Wei population and their rulers and old elites and Wei 0 When the leaders come to power the old elites were not happy 0 Wei leaders do a lot to appease these elites and tone down the tension I Adopt styles of clothing etc 0 As a result the nomads get angry o This is the context in which Mahayana Buddhism comes to prominence in China in the 300s CE I In this uncertain context Mahayana Buddhism provides a sense of your place in the world and a sense that someone with spiritual power is interested in your wellbeing somebody cares about you I Millions of men and women become Mahayana Buddhists I People in China are looking for a new sort of spiritual sense previous beliefs were built on Confucianism o Meditation and praying to a specific bodhisattvas were important ways of dealing with life in the practice of Buddhism in China specifically Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 7 o Buddhists want to be flexible and adaptable in how people worship etc 0 There is no one leader of the faith I Many monks monasteries and people writing about the faith Hinduism 0 Focus back to India 0 Buddhism is losing adherence among general population 0 Brahmans spiritual leaders of India under Varna system 0 Brahman doctrine and practice evolve I Practices from Buddhism and other sects join together Emergence of Hinduism 0 Evolution of older Brahman faith trying to reach out to rural people 0 Buddhism had a strong foothold with urban people 0 Rural areas were the majority o In the effort to reach out to rural people they are very successful and by about the year 300 Hinduism is the primary religion in India 0 Trio of major gods Brahma Vishnu and Shiva which could work in the world through a variety of incarnations o Brahma Birth or creation Vishnu life Shiva destroyer or death 0 Each god can manifest in a variety of different ways 0 Personal devotion to these gods called bhakti replaced elaborate and formal rituals overseen by Brahmans as the primary way of observing the faith 0 Shift in devotional form does not diminish importance of caste as outlined in Laws of Manu The Faith of the Mayan People on the Yucatan Peninsula 0 BANTU ON THE TEST SO READ IT IN THE BOOK 0 Mayan rulers and priests saw it as theirjob to maintain the harmony of the three aspects of the universe that they saw to exist 0 Three aspects occupied by many gods 0 Many of the gods deal with the processes of life and death 0 Had to make sure that the gods were paying attention they were pretty indifferent I Human and animal sacrifices I Paid close attention to the movement of the stars the moon the comets etc 0 Very elaborate calendars o Developed their writing system 0 Important because if facilitated the spread of religious practices throughout the area 0 The Mayan territory is held together not by a singular political entity they were independent citystates but by their set of religious beliefs I A lot of emphasis on devotion to the gods individually Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr Melissa Blair Week 7 Terms and WrapUp o Bodhisattvas bhakti devotional practices 0 What were they ways in which religions were expanding in this era What were some of the differences from earlier faiths and practices that allowed religion to become such a central part of the lives of so so many people in the first several centuries CE
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