Psychology 202: Mind & Society Week 3
Psychology 202: Mind & Society Week 3 202
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bayann Alkhatib on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 202 at University of Oregon taught by Jeff Measelle in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Mind and society in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
Psychology 202 Week 3 Lecture notes discussing stress its factors including physical social and socioeconomics and the body s reaction to stress in detail Also includes lessons of Genetics genetic codes genetic roles Genetics X Environment genetic expression behavioral genetics heritability genetic modification genetic mechanisms and epigenetics Stress Stress is the physiological response to a perceived environmental challenge 0 Hormonal neurological and immune defenses Stressors are things that challenge maintenance of a balanced physiological state ie homeostasis such as a test worth 50 of your grade 0 Blood pH temperature blood glucose and blood oxygen levels Body s response to acute stress 1 Rapid response system the Sympatheticadrenalmedullary SAM axis Adrenaline epinephrine release fast acting in the body Physiological effects mobilizes energy increases Blood pressure and heart rate increases respiration releases endorphins so you don t have pain The stress response is an automatic physiological defense against an acute threat fight or flight response olncreased BP and heart rate and mental alertness OCNS activity and hormonal responses oHighly adaptive 2 Delayed amp Sustained Response HypothalamicPituitaryAdrenal HPA axis HPA activated win minutes Release of cortisol the main human stress hormone Physiological effects boosts action of adrenaline increases blood glucose surpasses nonessential functions growth digestion reproduction We rely on it daily and to respond to stress 3 Post Stress Recovery Parasympathetic system Supports down regulation recovery and return to homeostasis How does our body TYPICALL Y react to stress Hans Selye identified the three stages of the How the body responds to stress He discovered it through experimenting on mice finding ulcers on the hormone injected mice He called it the General Adaptation Syndrome General Adaptation Syndrome 1 Phase 1 Alarm ReactionFire fighter wakes up at midnight in response to alarm 2 Phase 2 Resistance cope Fire fighter is consistently waking every night to respond to fires body become activated and he is now used to waking up to respond to alarm 3 Phase 3 ExhaustionAfter a while there is going to be failures and damage done to the system Repeated resistance turns into exhaustion of organs Fire fighter will fail to preform as well When Adaptive Becomes Maladaptive Stress response adaptive but when used too often it can lead to breakdown Acute stress sudden amp severe vs chronic stress frequent amp repeated Longterm repeated activation of the stress response can lead to damage amp negative health consequences Bruce McEwen came up with the concept of allostatic load the price the body pays over long periods of time for adapting More recent conceptualizations of stress McEwen s concept of allostatic load longterm effects of stress during sensitive periods Allostatic load is the wear and tear on the body which grows over time What factors influence how stress gets under the skin to affect health Research among primates by Sapolsky and others shows similarities to humans Baboons low social status individuals with high SAM activity and elevated blood pressure Macagues Subordinate animals more prone to atherosclerosis even with same diet Heart attacks are the most common in the US stress causes clogged arteries which ultimately results in a heart attack Psychological Dimensions of Stress humans and some other primates experience psychological stressors related to anticipated challenges ie psychological stress Often chroniclonglasting our big brain imagining the future Language allows us to communicate fears and worries to others Memory allows us to recall and relive the moments of stress Chronic anxiety about the future requires constant vigilance Social Dimensions of Stress Social situations a source of stress social threats to our wellbeing such as violence marital conflict caring for a sick family member mportance of social relationships or WHY words can hurt us Our brains have evolved to enable us to understand others feelings communicate in sophisticated ways and negotiate social coalitions informational arms race Subjective feelings incredibly useful but can have enormous costs Socioeconomic Dimensions of Stress Chronic stress a key link between challenging social conditions and negative heahh Importance of socioeconomic status SES gradient Each step downward in SE8 is associated with poorer health Marmot and Whitehall studies that found that the lower down in status you went the poor health outcomes you ended up with Social Inequality Stress amp Health in the US Lower SES amp Greater psychosocial stress Unpredictability little control less social support lack of workplace autonomy Feeling poor more stress with greater inequality US Income distribution Most unequal of developed nations 40 o of wealth in the nation is controlled by the top 1 Relative low socioeconomic mobility ability to move from one social level to another Relatively low life expectancy number 29 in the world Stress amp Disease Disease with clear strong lifestylelifechoices are leading causes of death in US What disease can be considered lifestyle diseases Coronary Heart Disease Stroke Asthma Obesity etc Biology 2 Genes What is the Genetic Basis of Psychological Science What is the role of genetics in science psychology The term genetics is used to describe how characteristics are passed along to offspring to process the gene to turn off or on Role genes play determines the traits of the offspring Genetic predispositions are always important contributors to human development health and behavior However genes clone often ONLY in account for less than 13 of what explains most complex behaviors Genotype Codes for Phenotype Humans Share 999 of the same genetic material Concept of Genes VS Environment Genotype vs Phenotype organism s genetic makeup organism s observable physical or behavioral characteristics never changes 0 always changes complimentary set from momdad includes emotions feelings etc Genes nature AND Environment nurture both influence phenotype in the ways that they interact Genes in our bodies that are dependent on environment vs genes waiting on experience to take place and turn them off G X E Environment Contexts Influence Genetic Expression Genes guide development of inherited characteristics Final expression of genes is a complex interaction between genetic makeup and environment context Unlike most physical traits more complex behavioral phenotypes are going to be polygenetically determined and there will be a much larger role in environment How do we study effects of genes on behavior Behavioral Genetics uses 2 methods to asses the degree to which traits are inherited Twin studies compare similarities between monozygotic identical and dizygotic fraternal twins to determine the genetic basis of specific traits Greater similarity of monozygotic twins raised together or apart is likely due to genetic influence Adootion studies compare biological relatives and adoptive relatives Consider thisWhat am I saying when I say for example that intelligence is highly heritable Genetically basis One s intelligence is genetically determined Understanding Heritability o Heritability statistical estimate of the genetic portion of the observed variation in some specific trait o Heritability refers to populations and not to individuals it is a population estimate 0 Estimates of heritability are concerned only with the extent to which people are phenotypically similardifferent within a specific population based on degrees of relatedness Heritability rates vary between studies Genetic Expression can be modified 0 Gene activation creates proteins which creates the physiological behavior of an individual 0 Gene manipulation techniques can enhance or reduce the expression of a particular gene Changing a single gene can change an entire behavior of offspring 1 Changing one s genes expression leads to the expression of other 2 genes which ultimately influences behaviors Genetic Mechanisms 0 Genetic AND environmental features control this process of selective activationexpression and silencing Key idea gene expression can be affected by intra and extra cellular signals G X G and environmental influence G X E o This is what is called an epigenetic effect Epigenetics study of alterations to how genes produce proteins 0 Genes require environmental intra or extra cellular input 0 Core implication of epigenetics the expression of a gene in the form of proteins involves heritable material but doesn t necessarily reflect DNA sequencing Genes need the environment to function 0 Environmental experience do not change DNA sequences but can change how DNA balances in cells any function chance in how the gene functions that doesn t involve an alteration in DNA sequence our epigone is a reflection of our accumulated experience
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