Lecture 8: Genus Homo
Lecture 8: Genus Homo 101
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by JaCene T. on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 101 at University of New Mexico taught by Tanya Muller in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Intro to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
Lecture 8 The Genus Homo Early Homo 39339 H rudolfensis and H habilis 1 Skull KNM ER 1470 demonstrated large brain 775 cm3 and very large molars became H rudolfensis 0 v Thought perhaps it came from a very large individual but no postcranial remains 393 Brain size indicates Homo molars indicate Austrolopithecus 393 Dating the skull is problematic either 18 or 24 million years ago 1 Several kinds of hominins lived in Africa before and after Homo 0 v H habilis and H ergostererectus 1 H habilis dates to 18 million years ago 3 Leakeys small brained A boisei 490 cm3 fossils and H habilis 700 cm3 skulls from same time 0 v H habilis postcranial skeleton surprising in that it is much more apelike than eXpected re ecting better climbing abilities than later hominins 1 H erectus skulls dating to 16 million years ago show increase in brain size 900 cm3 and complexity and modern body shape and height 1 Recent hominin fossil finds in Ileret Kenya 0 v H habilis and H erectus overlapped in time rather than being ancestor and descendant Split from common ancestor prior to 2 million years ago Occupied different ecological niches O 339 H erectus sexual dimorphism greater than expected 0 v The Significance of Hunting 1 Greater reliance on hunting and improved cultural means of adaptation including tools separated H erectus from H habilis and A boisei 3 With changes in types of foods consumed burden on chewing apparatus eased 3 H erectus back teeth are smaller and front teeth relatively larger v Natural selection favored stronger skulls and base of skull eXpanded dramatically v Tools re ect functional differentiation with straighter edges and more sophistication gt Allowed H erectus to eat meat on a more regular basis and dig and process tubers roots nuts and seeds more efficiently Homo naledi a new twist v Discovered in 2013 in Rising Star cave in South Africa v Appears very primitive in some respects 1 Tiny brain 560 cc and apelike shoulders for climbing primitive premolar roots v Other ways it looks remarkably like modern humans 1 Molar crowns very small with 5 cusps like modern humans v Questions surrounding it 1 When did it live 1 Where does it fit in the human family tree 1 And how did its bones get into the deepest hidden chamber of the cave intentional disposing of dead v Facebook Skinny individuals wanted with scientific credentials and caving eXperience must be willing to work in cramped quarters Within a week and a half he d heard from nearly 60 applicants He chose the siX most qualified all were young women Berger called them his underground astronauts Homo naledi O 339 Three weeks for excavation more than 1200 bones recovered including a half buried skull from a 1 yard square area 3 Abundance of material left behind 0 v Have recovered 1550 specimens from more than 15 individuals 1 Skulls jaws ribs dozens of teeth nearly complete foot complete hand minuscule bones of the inner ear Elderly adults juveniles infants identified by their thimble size vertebrae O 339 Roughly 50 paleoanthropologists most of them early in their careers met to figure out what it was Out of Africa I H erecms O 339 Biological and cultural changes enable new adaptive strategy gathering and hunting 1 H erectus pushed hominin range beyond Africa to Asia and Europe through population growth and dispersal 1 Perhaps the first Hunter Gatherers 393 Paleolithic Tools 1 Three diVisions of Paleolithic Old Stone Age 393 Lower Paleolithic roughly associated with H erectus 393 Middle Paleolithic roughly associated with archaic H sapiens including Neandertals 0 v Upper Paleolithic associated with early members of anatomically modern humans Out of Africa I H erecms 393 Tool making traditions coherent patterns of tool manufacture 1 Best sources are rocks like int that fracture sharply and in predictable ways when hammered also quartz quartzite chert and obsidian 1 Acheulian tool making tradition of H erectus associated with Lower Paleolithic 0 Different from Oldowan in that the core was chipped bilaterally and symmetrically converting a round rock into a attish oval hand aX of about 6 inches with sharper cutting edge v Evidence of mental template v Hand ax modified core of rock More compleX than earlier pebble tools v Illustrates trends in the evolution of technology Greater efficiency Manufacture of tools for specific tasks Increasingly compleX technology 3 Flakes used for light duty tools to make incisions for finer work gt Will become more important as time and technology progress 3 Adaptive Strategies of H erectus 1 Interrelated biological and cultural changes increased human adaptability 3 Rugged modern skeleton permitting long distance stalking and endurance during hunt O 0 0 Average H erectus brain size doubled that of the Australopithecines firmer commitment to hunting and gathering The size of brains increases because of the consumption of meat Fire allowed H erectus to colonize wider range of climates protect against predators and cook Cooking meat makes it easier for H erectus to eat Present at least by 800 thousand years ago Evolution and EXpansion of H erectus 1 Important H erectus sites 1 H erectus had culture 0 0 Present in Kenya 16 million years ago Dmanisi Georgia 175 to 17 million years ago represent rapid spread into Eurasia perhaps to follow meat more primitive fossils than later forms elsewhere Indonesia fossils from 700000 BP to 16 million years ago Zhoukoudian in China cave 670000 to 410000 thousand years ago Kenya Tanzania Ethiopia Eritrea and South Africa 1 million to 500000 thousand years ago at Olduvai Ceprano Italy 800000 Thousand years ago 1 Dmansisi fossils bear stronger resemblance to H habilis 0 v Recent skeletal finds suggest Dmanisi population combined primitive skulls and upper bodies with more advance spines and lower limbs 1 Distribution of H erectus fossils and stone tools indicates eXpansion into subtropical and temperate zones of Asia and Europe Archaic H sapiens 3 Archaic H sapiens encompasses earliest members of our species 300000 to 28000 thousand years go 1 Also Neandertals H sapiens neandertalensis 130000 to 28000 thousand years ago v Brain size within modern human range Some adult brains sizes were bigger than modern human brains however does not mean they were smarter v Wore clothes v Lived during second and third glacials v Distribution of fossils and tools re ects increased tolerance of environmental diversity Were able to control fire 393 Ice Ages of the Pleistocene 1 Lower Pleistocene 2 to 1 middle years ago 1 Middle Pleistocene 1 million years ago to 130000 thousand years ago 1 Upper Pleistocene 130000 to 11000 thousand years ago 0 9 3 H sapiens appeared late in Middle Pleistocene and sole hominin of Upper Pleistocene 0 9 Lived during the second and third glacial ice ages and a warmer interglacial periods 0 Hominin fossils and animals known to occur in cold or warm climates give dates to glacial and interglacial periods H antecessor and H heidelbergensis Subspecies Remains of 780000 year old hominins in Spain possible common ancestor of Neandertals and anatomically modern humans Massive hominin jaw 500000 years old found in Heidelberg led to H heidelbergensis hominins 700000 200000 years ago transitional between H erectus Neandertals and anatomically modern humans Cave of Sima dos Huesos thousands of fossils representing at least 33 individuals of all ages dating to 300000 years old may represent early stage of Neandertal evolution Neandertal s were not isolated in Europe but spread across the Middle East and Asia Distribution of archaic H sapiens fossils and tools show H0m0 s increased tolerance of environmental diversity 0 v Chance discovery on England s Suffolk seacoast shows that humans reached northern Europe by 700000 BP 200000 years earlier than thought 1 Arago France 200000 thousand years ago 3 Fossils have mixed features that seem transitional between H erectus and the Neandertals The Neandertals 3 First discovered in Western Europe but fossils with Neandertal like features also found in Africa and Asia 1 Kabwe skull from Zambia dating to about 130000 BP with Neandertal like brow ridge 1 Paabo 2007 Identified Neandertal mtDNA at sites in Asia and Siberia extended range 3 May have reached areas around 127000 years ago during warm period 3 Cold Adapted Neandertals v Short and stocky v By 75000 thousand years ago the Wurm glacial lead to extreme cold in Europe v Wore clothes made tools and hunted Relied more on brute strength v Neandertal technology Mousterian improved during Wurm glacial 1 Massive nasal cavities expanded area for warming and moistening air Bigger nasal cavities to warm the air before it enters the lungs 1 Evidence teeth used for various purposes 3 The Neandertals and Modern People 1 Current view H erectus split into two groups 3 One group ancestral to Neandertals another group ancestral to anatomically modern humans AMHs 393 AMHs evolved in Africa Asia Central Europe or the Middle East then colonized Western Europe and displaced Neandertals around 50000 BF 3 Contrasts between the two groups Neandertals with heavy brow ridges and slanting foreheads Neandertal cranial capacity exceeds AMHs Neandertals with larger jaws providing support for huge front teeth and faces were massive Stronger bones Neandertal bones and skull more rugged greater sexual dimorphism 1 Alternative view Neandertals ancestral to modern Europeans 393 Evidence fossils from sites in Western and Central Europe e g Mladec l Hortus and Vindij a exhibit both Neanderthal robustness and modern features Rise of Anatomically Modern Humans Homo sapiens sapiens 3 Most scholars believe that AMHs evolved from an archaic H sapiens ancestor in Africa and deny that Neandertals were ancestral to AMHs in Europe and the Middle East 0 339 According to this view AMHs spread to other areas including Western Europe where they replaced or interbred with the Neandertals 393 Out of Africa 11 and the search for Eve but did they disappear 0 v Recent research reasserts that Neandertals did not in fact disappear or get displaced by anatomically modern H sapiens who came out of Africa 1 Jeffrey Long 2010 analyzed microsatellite DNA in 2000 people and found evidence of two periods of interbreeding 60000 years ago in the Mediterranean and 45000 years ago in eastern Asia v Recent Fossil and Archaeological Evidence 393 Three anatomically modern skulls dated to 154000 160000 thousand years ago found in Ethiopia 3 Fossils and tools found at several South African sites further corroborate the idea that AMHs originated in Africa 0 339 Evidence of modern behavior tool making 1 Study of mitochondrial DNA mtDNA lineages 3 Everyone alive today has mtDNA descended from a woman g Eve 2 who lived in sub Saharan Africa around 200000 30000 thousand years ago v Eve s descendants left Africa no more than 135000 thousand years ago then displacing Neandertals in Western Europe and colonizing the rest of the world v mtDNA variation greatest in Africans suggesting they have been evolving the longest v Additional DNA comparisons from Neandertal bones support view that Neandertals and AMHs are distinct groups albeit with interbreeding The Denisovans 3 In late 2010 based on ancient DNA evidence a hominin group known as the Denisovans was identified as distant cousins to Neandertals 1 Lived in Asia from roughly 400000 50000 thousand years aho 1 Named from Denisova a cave in southern Siberia where their traces were found 1 Entire genome extracted from a finger fragment and wisdom tooth v Split between Neandertals and Denisovans occurred around 400000 years ago with Neandertals spreading west into Europe and Denisovans heading east v Striking relationship with Melanesians representing interbreeding between native Papua New Guinea residents Papuans and Denisovans v The wisdom tooth resembles neither Neandertals nor AMHs with bulging sides and large aring roots Red Deer Cave People v Recently described from two caves in southwestern China v Notable for their recent date and uneXpected combination of primitive and modern features v Partial skulls and other bone fragments from at least 4 individuals between 14300 and 11500 years old v Evidence they cooked giant red deer hence the name v Differ from modern humans in their jutting jaws large molar teeth prominent brows thick skulls broad noses at faces and lack of chin v Most recent remains found anywhere that do not closely resemble modern humans evolutionary status up for debate Advent of Behavioral Modernity 0 v What do we mean by behavioral modernity v Reliance on symbolic thought elaborating cultural creativity thus becoming fully human in behavior and anatomy v Traditional view modern behavior emerged recently perhaps 45000 40000 years ago and only after H sapiens pushed into Europe 3 Creative eXplosion based on elaborate cave paintings v Recent discoveries much older more gradual evolution of modern behavior 0 v African archaeological sites indicate gradual buildup of behavioral modernity from 300000 30000 thousand years ago 0 v Examples Blombos Cave South Africa bone awls and weapon points more than 70000 years ago shaped then finely polished Why would you polish a tool Too show it off Katanda region Congo with barbed bone harpoon points dating back 90000 80000 years ago Pinnacle Point South Africa with small stone bladelets which could be attached to wood to make spears and red ochre a pigment used for body paint Advances in Technology Tool Advancement 0 v Upper Paleolithic tool making traditions traditionally associated with early AMHs 1 Emphasized blade tools Broken similarly as akes are broken off v Blades hammered off a prepared core as in Mousterian tradition but blades are longer than akes 4 6 inches length more than twice the width maximizes cutting surface v More efficient than Mousterian techniques amount of cutting edge derived 15 times more v Some composite combines raw materials and bone tools v Increasing technological differentiation specialization and efficiency allowed humans to adapt to a wider range of environments Other Upper Paleolithic Trends 0 v Number of distinct tool types increased re ecting functional specialization More trial and error 393 Increasing standardization in tool manufacture cultural traditions about how to make tools 6 3 Growth in Homo 5 overall population and geographic range Moving into environments that are more temperate and need culture to adapt to their new habitat 0 v Increasing local cultural diversity varied special purpose tools made by local populations 1 Scrapers to hollow out wood and bone burins first chisels to make slots in bone and wood and to engrave knives pins needles with eyes fishhooks Tool manufacturing that correlates with the environment Glacial Retreat 0 v Wurm glacial ended in Europe between 17000 12000 thousand years ago v Tundra and steppe vegetation replaced by shrubs forests v Reindeer and other large game replaced by more solitary animals such as rabbits and small gazelle v Shallower warmer offshore waters over the continental shelf encouraged marine life to develop and allowed humans to utilize on sea and shore marsh birds ducks etc resources v Although hunting remained important southwestern European economies became less specialized as humans began to eXploit a wider range of plant and animal life 393 Flannerv broad spectrum revolution Broad spectrum revolution is the diversification of plant and animal resources that immerged as the last glacial retreated 0 39 Sets the stage for the eventual domestication of plants and animals by greatly diversifying those available for consumption Settling the Americas 393 Bering land bridge Beringia exposed during periods of glacial advance 1 Big game hunters gradually migrate from northeast Asia Siberia into North America following prey on land 1 Other ancient hunters entered along the shore by boat fishing and hunting sea animals such as whales and seals 1 Successive generations of hunters followed game southward through unglaciated corridors or by boat down the Pacific coast 0 v Early American Indians Paleoindians hunted large game including horses camels bison elephants mammoths and giant sloths 1 Clovis tradition sophisticated stone technology based on point fastened to end of hunting spear found in North America between 13250 and 12800 thousand years ago 1 Non clovis sites also eXist 1 First migrations of people into Americas may date back 18000 years predating Clovis 3 Monte Verde site in Chile dated to 13500 thousand years ago 393 Migration to America may have preceded Clovis tradition 393 The onlv hominins the made it to the New World ever were homo saviens saviens or AMHs This is very important to know Homo oriensis O 3 Tiny humans inhabiting Flores an Indonesian island 370 miles east of Bali until fairly recent times 0 9 Few scientists imagined that a different human species had survived through 12000 thousand years ago and possibly even later Very small skull about 370 cm3 Originally described as a downsized version of H erectus Faced unusual evolutionary forces along with gigantic lizards Komodo dragons and dwarf elephants Controlled fire made stone tools more sophisticated than any known to be made by H erectus including small blades that may have been mounted on wooden shafts allowing them to hunt elephants Wiped out by a volcanic eruption around 12000 thousand years ago Ngadha people of central Flores and Manggarai people of West Flores tell stories about little people who lived in caves until the arrival of the Dutch traders in the 16th century Foot proportions and toe more similar to great apes than H erectus Also called the Hobbits because of big feet and short stature Anthropology Today 0 339 Sequencing the Denisovans v Genome comes from the pinkie bone of a girl who lived in Siberia between 82000 and 74000 years ago v She was a member of the extinct Denisovan group v Sequencing shows she is both a relative of Neandertals and a relative a AMHs indicating interbreeding with both populations v Some intriguing genetic differences include genes involved with wiring the brain and ones that are known to be linked to autism v Study also shows that Native Americans and people in East Asia have more Neandertal DNA than those whose ancestors are from Europe Summary 06 Be able to identify the adaptive strategies of H erectus and the role they played in its expansion out of Africa and into most parts of the Old World v Know what archaic H sapiens were and how they were related to H erectus and the Neandertals v Know what the Neanderthals were how they were related to other species of Homo where and when they lived and how they adapted to a cold climate v Know what anatomically modern humans are where they likely originated and how they were related to the Neandertals 0 v Understand the advances in stone tool technology during the Lower Middle and Upper Paleolithic 0 v Understand the role that the ice ages played in the evolution of modern humans 0 139 Know when and how the Americas were colonized by humans
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