Chapter 8 - Metabolism
Chapter 8 - Metabolism Bio 101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Idalis Ross on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 101 at Tri-County Technical College taught by Dr. Karen Baracskay in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Biological Science I in Biological Sciences at Tri-County Technical College.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
Chapter 8 Metabolism Metabolism is the totality of an organism39s chemical reactions Catabolic pathways release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds Eg cellular respiration glucose is broken down Anabolic pathways consume energy to build complex molecules from simpler ones Eg the synthesis of protein from amino acids Forms of Energy 0 Energy is the capacity to cause change or do work 0 Kinetic energy is associated with motion 0 Potential energy is energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure 0 Chemical energy is the potential energy that can be released in a chemical reaction Thermodynamics is the study of energy transformations W 3392 A diiver has more potential Diving converts energy on the platform potential energyr to tihan in the water kinetic energy Climbing up converts the kinetic A diver in 35 potential energy of muscle movement energy in the water to potential energy than on the platform cusm 50 Laws of Thermodynamics First law of thermodynamics the energy of the universe is constant Second law of thermodynamics Every energy transfer or transformation increases the disorder or the entropy of the universe During every energy transfer or transformation some energy is unusable and is often lost as heat Spontaneous processes occur without adding energy they can happen quickly or slowly For a process to occur without energy being added it must increase the entropy of the universe A living system39s free energy G is energy that can do work when temperature and pressure are uniform like it would be in a living cell Only processes with a negative AG are spontaneous ll Ig 5 5 Free energy Stability 2 Equilibrium i r g I W In a spam nnnnnnnnnn 92 7 Tm nay a sym it acme a 5 a Th In bowl more in re ad free Em Gin m eaten mm in 3 1 i 39l gt Le as Illree energyI lower G More stable L 5 work capacity 1 a Gravitational Immian 83 ATP powers cellular work by coupling exergonic reactions to endergonic reactions A cell does three main kinds of work Chemical ex synthesis of polymers Transport ex movement across the plasma membrane Mechanical ex muscle contraction To do work cells manage energy resources by energy coupling which is the use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one and mostly is meditated by using ATP iiIg 55 ATP adenosiiie triplmsphate is the celiis energy sliuttie cellular money 1 ATP is composed ofribosc a sugar adenine a nitrogenous base and three Adenine NH2 phosphate groups 7 7 Ribose 0H 0H 2 Energy is released from Al when the Terminal phosphate bond is ismken ilIg 459 Inorganic phosphate Adenosine diphosiphate ADP How ATP Performs Work In the cell the energy from the exergonic reaction of ATP hydrolysis can be used to drive an endergonic reaction so overall the couple reactions are exergonic ATP drives endergonic reactions by phosphorylation transferring a phosphate group to another molecule such as a reactant The recieving molecule is now phosphorylated Hg 512 In the cell AT P is continually synthesized amp broken down The chemical potential energy toillporai il Sioer in A39l39l drives most ceiluliai work 0 Energy from Energy for cellular catabollsrn exerg omq work endergonivc ienergyrelieasmg ADP i energyconsuming processes processes The energy in pimsphnrylmlc ADP comes from cataboiic reactions in the cell 0 Concept 84 Enzymes speed up metabolic reactions by lowering energy barriers A catalyst is a chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being used up during the reaction An enzyme is a catalytic protein which is used in the reaction Ex Hydrolysis of sucrose by the enzyme sucrase is an example of an enzymecatalyzed reaction iig ii I 15 CHZDH ClizOli OH H Sucrose C1EH22011 Sucrase H OH OH H Glucose C H Fructose C EHmO Every chemical reaction between molecules involves the breaking and forming of bonds The initial energy needed to start a chemical reaction is called the free energy of activation or activation energy EA Activation energy is most often supplied in the form of heat from the surroundings Enzymes catalyze reactions by lowering the activation energy barrier they do not affect the change in free energy they speed up reactions that would occur eventually ilig 5 i39 0 Substrates enter active si e en me changes shape such that Its active site en olds the substrates induced fit F In an enzymatic reaction the substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme then when it breaks a product is made and the cycle continues The active site can lower an EA activation energybarrier by Orienting substrates correctly Straining substrate bonds Providing a favorable microenvironment Covalently bonding to the substrate
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