Alliances and the Prelude to War & The Great War
Alliances and the Prelude to War & The Great War HY 102
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by emmanlex on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HY 102 at University of Alabama at Birmingham taught by George Liber in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Western Civ Since 1648 in History at University of Alabama at Birmingham.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
Week 8 10132015 Alliances and the Prelude to War Mounting Tension o Tensions between the major European powers 0 End of statebuilding but European insecurity remains 0 Universal military service levee en masse 0 Major transport systems esp railways introduced 0 Armaments 0 Machine gun 1889 o Defensewar budgets grew 0 Armies changed 0 Mass armies meant mass support systems Young men are conscripted into the armies at 18 The model country for the army was Germany Other European countries sort to do the same because Germany had a large population and a growing infrastructure Bismarck 18151898 Otto Eduard Leopold Prince of Bismarck Chancellor of the united Germany Help Germany unite o Isolates France 0 Because they were surrounded by France on one side and Russia on the other side 0 France is furious with Germany for taking Aslan Lauren 0 FrancoPrussian war AlsaceLorraine 0 Keep Russia and AustriaHungary from fighting over the Balkans Bismarck resigned by the emperor in 1890 due to his disagreement with the Emperor William H Forming Alliances 0 Three Emperor s League 18705 0 Dual Alliance 18791918 Germany and AustriaHungary 0 Triple Alliance 1882 Italy until 1914 Between Italy AustriaHungary and Germany During war tay betrays the alliance and joins against Germany 0 Triple Entente 0 France and Russia 1894 0 France and Great Britain 1904 0 Great Britain and Russia 1907 Maior Issue Dividing the Triple Alliance from the Triple Entente o Naval competition between Gr Britain and Germany Gr Britain had lots of colonize and trade market and needed to protect them When Gr Britain found out the Germans were building a large Navybuilding new shipsthey began worry The British defense policy was to ensure that the British navy was at least the size of the next two largest navies as outlined in the Two Power Standard as a show of their dominance The British pondered on why Germany needed such a large number of battle ships o Balkans Southeastern Europe AustriaHungary vs Russia 0 Treaty of San Stefano March 1878 0 Congress of Berlin June 1878 o BosniaHerzegovina becomes a protectorate of AustriaHungary capital Sarajevo o Balkans Wars Serbia vs Ottoman Empire Serbia vs AustriaHungary Serbia vs Greece 0 1908 AustriaHungary formally annexes BosniaHerzegovina Balkan Trouble o BosniaHercegovina capital Sarajevo o Archduke Franz Ferdinand and Archduchess Sophie o Lt Colonel Dmitrevic head of Serbian military intelligence 0 Gavrilo Princip member Black Hand Serbian terrorist group A Pivotal Month July 1914 0 June 28 1914 Franz Ferdinand and Sophie assassinated 0 June 23 1914 Austrian unconditional ultimatum to Serbia 0 To shut down all antiAustrian propaganda that is newspapers that degrades the monarchy of AustriaHungary 0 To accept an AustriaHungary inquiry into the assassination of FranzFerdinand and Sophie July 25 1914 Serbia s evasive reply July 281914 AustriaHungary declared war on Serbia Third Balkan War AH AustriaHungary asks Germany Germany gives a quotblank check Von Schlieffen plan As AH invades Serbia Russia s Tsar Nicholas II orders a partial mobilization against AH July 31 1914 Russia orders a total mobilization against both Germany and AH Von Schlieffen Plan now goes into effect Knock out France through Belgium then hit Russia August 1914 0 August 1 1914 Germany mobilizes its forces declares war on Russia 0 August 2 1914 German demand that Belgium allow German armies to pass through its territory 0 August 3 1914 Germany declares war on FranceVon Schlieffen plan 10152015 The Great War The First World War 19141918 Alliance and Entente o TripleAlliance 0 Triple Entente The Plan 0 British quotThe boys would be back by Christmas The plans of the generals collapse The Reality of War 0 War started with a series of victories by the Germans in France and Belgium 0 At the Battle of Marne Sept 6 1914 in order to save Paris France and Britain pushed Germany back over 40miles ended Schlieffen plan o Germans dug in amp Trench Warfare began Blowing the whistle and men would run to occupy their enemy s territories Machine gun was used on both side which killed many people About 8 million men died as a result Both armies decided the trench warfare was bad and decided to make cannons and artilleries Killed 70 of the men in the first months This also was insufficient so they resulted back to trenches The men who ran across the field were told not to use their gun but use their Bayonet War of Attrition o In 1915 massive French and British offense never gained more than 3 square mile of territory from the enemy Total War o In May 1915 talyjoined the Triple Entente o Ottoman Turkey Empirejoins the Central power 0 Disastrous campaign at Gallipoli for Allied Powers 0 The British sought to destabilize the Ottoman Empire Lawrence of Arabia 0 Great Britain France and Japan seized Germany s colonies in Africa and in China 0 Germany and unrestricted submarine warfareu boats Lusitania May 1915 then April 1917 the United States declares war on Germany Both sides of this war had grand ambitions This was going to be a war to the death No one wanted to negotiate in this war The methods of fighting this war became unconventional Civilians would be killed to a far greater degree than before Civilians were not exempt for bombs Submarines were created on eve of the First World War They sank not just British war ship but British passenger ships On some of this ships there were many Americans on board This ship was not really a neutral ship but also had ammunition on board The British made propagandas during the world against Germany About 139 Americans died on board and the President Woodrow Wilson was mad American later declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917 Germany needed to import its grain AustriaHungary Germans alliance breaks down and Hungary does not supply as much as needed The children are now starving The British prevent Germany for getting food from neutral territory This aggravates the Germans and causes them lash out at the British in this manner The World s First total War o The origins of WWI create enormous historical debate that have lasted nearly 100 years There is still no easy simple explanation Censorship and Propaganda When they pass through Belgium the British hinted that they nailed kittens to the door New Roles for Women 0 Women tookjobs held by men Final Battles o 1918 Germany used quotstorm troopers in final military offensives The only thing that stops them is fresh soldiers from America 0 Worked on Russians but not the Allied powers 0 Momentum shifted to the Allied powers The Consequences o Truce declared 11111918 at 1100 am 0 Total number of deaths 10000000 0 Influenza outbreak winter 19181919 500000000 died worldwide 0 Total war totally unrestricted 0 Military front and home front blurred 0 Deaths of 5 of all civilians Economic Havoc o Abandonment of free markets 0 Wage and price controls 0 Freedom of movement restricted 0 Food rationed Social Impact 0 Increased demand for workers 0 Labor unions become more influential 0 Women s roles change World War One as Total War 0 Led to Russian Revolutions 0 Rise of fascism 0 Feminism Right to vote to women in 1920 Sweden in 1921 British in 1928 and France in 1944 o Anticolonialism