Psych105 week 6 notes
Psych105 week 6 notes Psych 105- Intro to Psycholgy
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Psych 105- Intro to Psycholgy
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by JustAnotherStudent on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 105- Intro to Psycholgy at Washington State University taught by Staff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see PSYCH 105 in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
Psych 105 17022015 Week 6 TesT QuesTion OrienT x3 is orienTing To The Time The pldce dnd orienTing To who you ore Who ore you where ore you when is if Q o QuesTions 0 None 0 AnnouncemenTs 0 None 0 Grdndmd o OrienT x3 0 Memory TesT Te obouT recenT evenT dnd bring if dek IdTer dslt Time reldTed o Chunking XFLGKSJAOWOEKDFJ o XFLG KSJA OWOE KDFJ o BesT for irreevonT info dnd mdltes if more mdndgedble Hierdrchy A few brood concest divided inTo smdll concest dnd fdcTs Subdivided inTo even ndrrower concest dnd fdcT Orgdnioniondl Encoding Applied To STudying de dTTenTion To 0 OuTIines o Heddings 9 Preview quesTions dnd summdries o Self TesT quesTions The briefesT from of memory sforage Sensory Memory gt The immedidTe iniTidl recording of sensory infordeion in The memory sysTem AudiTory o durdTion d few seconds 0 Exomple IdsT few words of d senTence Visuol iconic memory 0 DemonsTrdTion Sperlings phoTogrdphic recoII TesT o DurdTion Less Thdn 0 second Why o If your brdin decides if The info is relevonT Tth s why if you hedr your home dcross The room your dTTenTion is grdbbed gt Sperlings Iconic Memory ExperimenT Sperling fldshed The eTTers in on 0 screen for i2Oih of 0 second ImmedidTer offer The screen wenT bldnlt he sounded 0 Tone A high medium or low piTch Tone signdled The row The pdrTicipdnTs were supposed To reporT o Recoil for The eTTers in 0 row wos dlmosT perfecT o How con we expldin This thT hoppens when The Tone sounds 0 When The Tone sounds righT offer The picTure is fldshed we hove Time To reTrieve The eTTers from iconic memory st The durdTion of shorT Term memory gt LimiTed durdTion dfTer Three seconds only 50 is recoIIed dnd offer 12 seconds noThing is remembered st The copociTy of memory gt ShorT Term memory LimiTed copociTy seven biTs of info con be sTored 2 miller i956 Recoil is beTTer from rdndom digiTs phone numbers Thdn for rdndom eTTers Also sligthy beTTer for wth we hedr Thdn wth we see WiThouT reheorsol mosT people con rerin dbouT 4 info chunllts in Their shorT Term memory gt Long Term memory UnlimiTed copociTy buT noT ds occurdTe ds occurdTe ds sensory memory or shorT Term memory Orgdnizes dnd sTores info Info noT sTored in precise locoTions DurdTion of memory sTordge ThoughT by some To be permdnenT gt Long Term poTenTidTion LTP A neurdl bdsis for Iedrning dnd remembering ossocidTions Synopses become more efficienT dT TrdnsmiTTing messoges dnd Incredsed efficiency in The synopse Iedds To more efficienT neurdl circuiTs To TesT This The dpldsid sed slug wos cldssicolly condiTioned To wiThdrdw iTs gill when shoT dT wiTh 0 oner pick 0 Through experience The slug wiThdrew iTs gill more quickly 0 More seroTonin wos found in iTs synopse o thT wos occurring STrengThen of neurdl firing dlso colled long Term poTenTidTion LTP LTP is o physicol bosis for memory 0 LTP Blocking drugs inlerfere wilh memory 0 Mice lhol lock on enzyme needed for LTP connol novigole lhe moze o lnjec ring rols wilh o chemicol lhol bloclts LTP eroses recenl leorning o Rois lhol inges r on LTP enhoncing drug Ieorn o moze wilh hove lhe usuolly number of mislolltes st Emotion and Memory gt Excilemenl slress or slrong emo rion con slrenglhen memories Slronger memory in response To emolionol siluolions is odoplive Emolion lriggered slress hormones increose glucose produclion which signols To The broin lhol somelhing imporlonl hoppened The omygdolo boosls oclivily ond proleins in The broin s memory oreos gt Floshbulb memories Floshbulb memories ore cleor deloiled memories of emolionolly significonl evenls How do such memories gel encoded Whol porls of lhe broin ore involved 0 Amygdolo ii goes inlo survivol mode gt Emolionol Memory Con be persislenl Heighlens lhe body s slress response Spurs produclion of lhe slress hormones odrenoline ond corlisol Con be 0 key symplom of PTSD Experimenlol lreolmenls include drugs To block memory gt Explicil or declorolive memory Processed in The hippocompus Memory of focls ond generol ltnowledge Memory or personolly experienced evenls Memory lhol con be consciously recolled Amnesio polienl HM wos unoble To form new explici r memories He couldn l recoll new evenls or focls in his life such os spending Time on lessons wilh reseorchers o Semolic Memory 9 Focls ond generol lltnowledge gt You con ltnow lhol lhere ore 5 colours of sltillels wilhoul ocluolly eoling Them 0 Episodic Memory 9 Personolly experienced evenls gt Knowing lhol dry ice burns gt lmplicif non decldrofive Memory Refenfion independenf of conscious recollecfion Processed by cerebellum dnd ofher brdin dreds Mofor dnd cognifive sltills Amnesid pdfienf HM refdined implicif memory He could ledrn new skills such ds copying d picfure using 0 mirror 0 Procedurdl Memory 9 Mofor dnd cognifive skills 0 Priming o Enhonced idenfificofion of objecfs or words 0 Acfivofion of on exisfing memory by d sfimulus o The dcfivofion offen unconsciously of pdrficuldr ossocidfions in memory st Pdfienf HM Henry Moldison l926 2008 gt VVVV VV gt gt HM suffered from epilepfic seizures Af 27 he hdd pdrfs of his fempordl lobes removed fo prevenf seizures HM hdd explicif from before fhe surgery He could NOT remember whdf hoppened offer fhe surgery He could recognize himself of dge 27 in picfures buf he could nof recognize himself ds much older mdn yedrs ldfer HgtM losf explicif memory for evenfs fhdf hoppened offer fhe surgery Refdined implicif memories he performed normdlly on procedurdl memory dnd priming fdsllts This suggesfs fhdf explicif memories ore processed by fhe hippocompus lmplicif memories ore processed elsewhere in fhe brdin st The Hippocompus VVVV gt Processes explicif memories for fdcf S 0nd episodes Feeds memories fo ofher brdin dreds for sfordge Pdrf of fhe limbic sysfem Acfive during slow wove sleep Hippocompus dnd fhe corfex displdy simulfdneous dcfivify during sleep st Cerebellum gt gt gt Crucidl fhe formdfion of implicif memories Pldys key role in forming dnd sforing memories credfed by cldssicol condifioning dedge fo cerebellum disrupfs forming condifioned reflexes st Amnesia gt gt Refrogrdde indbilify fo dccess memory before 0 cerfdin ddfe Anferogrode lndbilify fo form or consoliddfe new memories offer 0 cerfdin ddfe l9O220l5 Context effects Ability to recall improved when in the some context as the initial experience 0 State dependent memory 0 Recall is improved when encoding and retrieval of a memory happen in the same emotional or biological state gt It s difficult to remember happy times when depressed gt This may explain whit after a happy experience people view the world through rose colored glasses Forgetting Encoding failure 0 Something didn t store right in the beginning Storage decay 0 Not important enough to pay attention to for very long Retrieval failure 0 Info is there you put it in but what for whatever reason you don t remember Encoding Failure Info is never encoded into long term memory What etters accompany the number 5 on the telephone 0 Jlt Where is the number 0 on your calculator Some memories cannot be encoded without effort Storage Decay Memories decay gradually if they are not used Info is at first rapidly forgotten After a certain period of time the forgetting levels off Retrieval Failure Tip of the tongue phenomenon Interference Motivated forgetting Proactive interference FonNard acting The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new info A friend s email address that was learned long ago may interfere with learning the new email address Retroactive interference Backwards acting The disruptive effect of learning on the recall of old info Learning a password fora new bank card can disrupt recall of the password for your existing ATM card Motivated Forgetting Repression Freudian defense mechanism that banishes an anxiety producing memory form consciousness Preserves self concept Memory may be retrieved through a cure or therapy Increasing number of memory researchers thinlt repression rarely occurs Misintormation Effect Incorporating misleading info info a memory event 0 Elizabeth Loftus asked 0 How fast were the cars going when they hit each other 9 How fast were the cars going when they smashed each other 0 The reported recall of the rate of speed depended on how the question was asked False Memory False memories can be planted Imaging nonexistent events can create memories Imagination inflation imagining something and really perceiving it activated simiIar brain areas People with vivid imaginations are more likely to have faIse memories Children are very susceptible to false memories Memory construction Source Amnesia Source Memory 0 Knowing when where and how info was acquired Source Misattribution o Retaining the memory of the event but not the context of the event How to improve memory Use distributed space practice Make the material meaningful Activate retrieval cues Use Mnemonic devices Minimize interference Sleep more Test yourself Remembering Memories Major terms and concepts ExperimenTs from The book Areds of The brdin dnd how They influence memory TheoreTicolly how To improve memory or incredse likelihood of noT remembering Be dble To design on experimenT using These concest how would you decredse The likelihood of d pdrTicipdnT To remember forgeT or ogree To folse memory ChapTer 7 Thinking st Thinking gt CogniTive psychologisTs sTudy how we use meanl imdges credTe concest solve problems dnd mdke decisions dnd form judgmenTs CogniTion gt Building blocks of Though Meanl imdges 0 Meanl represeanTions of objecTs or evenTs Tth ore noT physicolly presenT Concest 0 Meanl groupings of simildr objecTs evenTs ideds or people 9 Concest provide 0 kind of meanl shorThdnd economizing cogniTive efforT o DifferenT coTegories of Concest o Formdl concepT meanl coTegory formed by ledrning The rules or fedTures Tth define if gt Rigid dll or noThing coTegorionion 0 Fuzzy gt Used when bounddries ore dTTribuTed ore fuzzy mdking clossificoTion difficulT o Mdking sense of ndTurdl concest o ProToTypes The mosT Typicol insTdnce or besT exomple of d pdrTiculdr concepT o Exempldrs individuol insTdnces held in memory of d concepT or coTegories 0 Problem Solving 9 We monipuldTe meanl imdges gt AlgoriThm STrdTegy Tth involves following 0 specific rule procedure or meThod Tth inevdebly produces The correcT soluTion gt HeurisTic Involves using 0 menlol snorlcul To reduce The number or solullons ollnougn The guoronlee of solulion is losl gt lnsllnc r A sudden oflen novel reolizolion of o solulion nol reolly o slrolegy ol oll
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