Notes! 10-13-15 POLI 2500-02
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalie Notetaker on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLI 2500-02 at Tulane University taught by Michael Tyburski in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see International Relations in Political Science at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
The scienti c study of war Intro How many wars are going on right now Syrian civil war ArabIsraeli Drug war in Mexico Isis vs Iraq and Syrian governments and US How do we know what is a war and what is not a war The rst step in conducting any social scienti c study is to observe and de ne the problem De ning War quotA contested incompatibility where the use of armed forces between two parties one of which is a government results in 25 battle deaths during a calendar yearquot Incompatibility 0 When multiple actors claim a quotscarce resourcequot at the same time 0 Government involvement 0 Violence resulting in death Low threshold 25 vs high threshold 1000 thresholds Ongoing high threshold wars Afghanistan Taliban S Sudan Iraq ISIS Syria Nigeria Boko Haram Ukraine Donetsk Pakistan Yemen AI Qaida Somalia AI Shabaab Types of War Total War war waged by one state to conquer and occupy another state Unconditionalsurrender Replace existing government 0 Example WWII Germany Japan amp Itay Hegemonic Special type of total war Limited War 0 Military actions carried out with goals short of surrender and occuanon 0 Example 1991 Iraq 0 Was the 2003 War against Iraq Total or Limited By definitiontota Civil War Wars between factions within a state 0 Can be total or limited 0 Secession A nonstate party tries to separate from the current government within a territory Why do wars start Bargaining model of war Continuation of politicsbargaining over scarce resources quotby other meansquot 0 Most wars are limited quotEssentially war is ghtingquot o Costly without any intrinsic value Why War 0 Why would forwardthinking actors ght with one another Prisoner s dilemma Want to know how strong they are so we can know our relative power so we can know how likely it is that we will win and how costy it will be 1disagreement about the outcome of a potential war Uncertainty about relative capability and resolve 2inability to credibly commit to not ghting in the future 0 Changed in power as a result of bargaining often make the bargain obsolete 3the good under dispute is indivisible Critiques Model relies on the unitary rational actor Leaders may not quotupdate beliefsquot when presented with new information about capability and resolve o Wars might be costly in power but bene cial politically Fighting may polarize parties into more extreme demands Con icts of interest Territorial disputes o lrredentism Secession Control over government Strongly held ideas may prevent compromise Ethnicity amp ethnic groups What is an ethnic group Differentiation based on a belief in common ancestry andor other characteristics 0 Language religion social structure culture shared history o No 1 set of characteristics reliably distinguishes ethnicity over time Nations amp Nationalism What is a nation 0 Group whose ideal goal is statehood collective selfrule over a territory Ethnicity often forms the basis for nationalism o Ideology in which individuals identify with their nation about all other identities Encourages individual sacri ce for the group gain Ethnicity and Nationalism The most common causes of ethnic hostility are con icts over national selfdetermination amp territory 0 International norm that nations have the right to choose their sovereignty and to political selfrule Creation of an ingroup that excludes others A FLOW CHART TO CATASTROPHE Belief that your ethnic group is superior to all other ethnic groups But being ethnocentric doesn t mean that you have to ght with other groups Ethnocentrism creates the basis for dehumanization Dehumanization Stigmatization of an outgroup as nonhuman Ethnic cleansing Forceful deportation of me
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