Week 8 Notes - HIST 1302
Week 8 Notes - HIST 1302 Hist 1302
Popular in History of U.S. since 1865
Popular in History
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Haynes on Thursday October 15, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1302 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Ransom P. Cross in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see History of U.S. since 1865 in History at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 10/15/15
HIST 1302 History of the US Since 1865 Week 8 I Prosperity A After World War I 1 The US suffered from a short depression while the county was transitioning back to normal a Industry and society had to adapt from wartime to progressive society Period of growth from 1922 to 1929 1 Industry shifted from capital goods machinery materials etc to consumer goods 2 Lead to the birth of the commercial advertizing industry Demand of durables and perishables 1 Durables permanent fixtures furniture radios etc 2 Perishables More temporary aluminum foil etc 3 Transformed American life a Americans had spending money and a market geared towards them on which to spend it 1 Americans could buy their necessities as well as other things for entertainment decoration etc b Lead to competitions amongst neighborhoods as to who had the best stuff Stock buying increased in popularity 1 Bigger bang for your buck a The rates of return on stocks were superior to bank accounts with low interest rates 2 Due to the rise in stock popularity many Americans fell Victim to unscrupulous spectators who often participated in ponzi games with their client s investment Birth of consumer credit 1 Designed to help customers buy things even when they didn t have the money right then 2 Problem People will spend more than they earn which leads to massive debt The poor were left out of this economic boom for the consumer 1 The poor were denied access to credit 2 Their wages did not increase in order to accommodate the increasing market prices Advertizing and mass marketing 1 Forces backing the consumer economy were advertizing and mass marketing 2 Industry believed that in order to meet the public s wants they needed to create demand for products that could in turn could make products a In other words the consumer doesn t know what they want until they see it 3 Advertizing used people s emotions as a huge selling point for the majority of products Evolving attitudes toward marriage and sexuality 1 Signaled the end of the Victorian era in the US a Before the 1900s marriage was mainly used for practical purposes such as uniting families keeping lands etc 2 Society became more open to attitudes towards sex 3 Marriages became more focused on finding love than practicality 4 Rise of the apper culture a Several young women took advantage of the advertized products geared towards them and began to dress look and act differently 1 3 quarter sleeves knee length skirts makeup etc 2 Smoked cigarettes drank alcohol etc The growth in popularity of celebrities 1 Large sporting events and professional athletes became extremely popular in American society a Especially boxing b Important to the economy also due to the fact that the ticket sales increased the capital of the sporting events 2 Radio stations and radio promoters helped increase the popularity of such events Reverence of American business 1 Corporations were credited with the booming economy a Viewed as perfect sinless businesses 2 Growth of welfare capitalism a Employers would reward their employees as well as provide benefits in order to keep their employees within the company Industrial workers 1 The demand for industrial labor within the US slowed significantly due to the fact that most of those positions had been filled 2 The workforce grew to the point where the working environment became an employers market a This caused competition among possible employees which in turn increased the number of educated workers in the workforce 3 Unions lost power a The government grew very suspicious and wary of organized labor unions 1 Pro Corrupt labor unions were dismantled 2 Con The government is within the economy which is not someplace it should be 11 Women Workers A Many women workers were paid less than their male counterparts for doing the exact same job simply on the aspect of being women 1 This still occurs today B Many women started white collar positions because of their better opportunities 1 Most women were put into what was deemed female professions a Teachers secretaries etc C The amount of women enrolling in college increased by 50 during this time frame 111 Politics of Business A President Warren G Harding 1 President Harding was a Republican who was easily controlled by his Party 2 He was well aware if his shortcomings therefore he appointed several excellent cabinet members to help him a Some of the cabinet members were not so great due to the fact that President Harding followed cronyism 3 Ended his term in office clothed in scandal B President Calvin Coolidge 1 Unaffected by the Harding scandals 2 President Coolidge was the only president who was not an empire builder a He believed in a minimalist government b He worked extremely hard to get the governments hands out of the economy 3 Revenue Act of 1926 a This act reduced the taxes on inheritance money as well as income taxes b In addition the excise posts were cancelled and the public s access to income taxes was ended C President Herbert Hoover 1 Held the position of Commerce Secretary for Harding and Coolidge 2 Most known for his quote The business of America is business a Saw the government as dynamic and progressive 3 Hoover unified functional groups to manage the economy IV Farmers Protestants and Moral Traditionalists A Farmers 1 Due to the fact that the industrial industry was booming the agricultural industry went into a depression during the 1920s a Urban centers had a lot of access to produce therefore farmers had to compete b NonPartisan League of North Dakota Cooperation published the plight faced by farmers 1 A rural cooperation of farmers is the equivalent of an urban labor union c The Farm Bureau faced a cultural crisis 2 Farmers faced with a cultural crisis a The census of 1920 revealed that most of the population of the US lived in cities b Therefore the economic and social focus was on the cities c This caused many farmers to work tirelessly to preserve their way of life 1 Through social gatherings like square dances Moral Traditionalists 1 These Christians believed that because Christianity was the majority in the US everyone should follow their beliefs and standards 2 3 They tried to force their beliefs on everyone else 18th Amendment Prohibition of all alcoholic drinks a Initially supported by the majority of Americans due to the fact that alcohol was viewed as the source of all family destruction in the US 1 However all this law did was create more organized crime and lawlessness 2 This was due to the fact that if people want to drink they will drink Even if it is illegal to do so b Rural people still supported the 18th amendment even after it was annulled 1 Viewed alcohol as destructive to their way of life Ku Klux Klan KKK a The original KKK died out after the 1880s due to restrictions b The rebirth of the KKK started in the North during the 1920s 1 Added Jews and Catholics minorities to the original focus on African Americans c These internal terrorists preached about an Anglo Saxon racial party Protestant majority and traditional morality d WASP Immigration restrictions a Johnson Reed Immigration Restriction Act 1924 1 Imposed quotas on immigration from anywhere outside the Western Hemisphere 2 Showed favoritism towards old immigrants Irish English German etc as opposed to new immigrants Greeks Italians etc Protestant Fundamentalism 1 They believed their bible should be interpreted word for word a This came about in response to liberal Protestant ideas and modern science 2 Scope s Trial Monkey Trial a This trial became the preliminary case on the basis of fundamentalism versus science b Made leaps and bounds for modernists V Ethnic and Racial Communities A European Americans 1 These immigrants lived primarily in the cities in the Northeast and the Midwest 2 These communities of immigrants kept their heritage and customs alive and therefore had ourishing ethnic communities 3 They also had a tremendous desire to become citizens 4 Due to their massive size they had massive power a Alfred E Smith 1 Emphasized his lowly beginnings and identified with immigrants in order to be elected African American 1 African Americans continued their migration north from the south in search of better jobs and better lives a They were often faced with housing and job discrimination VI 2 That all changed when America began to recognize African Americans cultural lives a Harlem Renaissance 1 Jazz 2 African American literature and art 3 Harlem became the entertainment capital of New York b These advancements caused African Americans to be depicted as productive and future oriented C Mexican Americans 1 After the Johnson Reed Act labor sources had to come from the Western Hemisphere a The Mexican Americans filled in the empty labor positions 1 Mostly agricultural construction and manufacturing jobs 2 While other immigrants who came to the US to live and eventually become citizens the Mexican Americans did not share that view a They saw the US as a place to work b Mexico was home The Lost Generation and Disillusioned Intellectuals A World War I created a generation of alienated writers and artists who were disappointed that World War I had not resulted in the US becoming a communist state 1 Alienated and left the US B After World War 1 they focused their attention on the psychological toll of living in a postwar period 1 Commonly referred to as Whiners C After being rejected from many democratic countries based on their beliefs these individuals began to question the democratic system itself 10