Chapter 9: Intelligence
Chapter 9: Intelligence 105
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by JaCene T. on Friday October 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 105 at University of New Mexico taught by Eric Martin Jackson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Introduction to psychology in Psychlogy at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 10/16/15
O 90 Chapter 9 Intelligence Intelligence is the capacity to understand the world think rationally and use resources effectively when faced with obstacles Early psychologists assumed there was a single factor for intelligence called g or g factor This idea was based on the fact that different types of measures of intelligence whether they are focused on mathematical proficiency or 3D visualization Basically you may be really good at math and not so good at analyzing texts or viseversa you are extremely good at something but not something else Two different types of intelligence gt Fluid intelligence is the ability to reason abstractly It re ects capabilities and reasoning Fluid intelligence may be use when trying to solve a puzzle quickly gt Crystallized intelligence is the accumulation of information skills and strategies that people have learned through experience It re ects our ability to call up information from longterm memory gt Basically uid intelligence re ects a more general kind of intelligence while crystallized intelligence is more of a re ection of the culture in which a person is raised When psychologist Howard Gardner asked rather than How smart are you but How are you smart Answering the later question Gardner developed a theory of multiple intelligences proposing that there are eight distinct forms of intelligence 1 Musical intelligenceskills in tasks involving music 2 Bodily kinesthetic intelligenceskills in using the whole body or various portions of it in solution of problems or in the construction of products or displays exemplified by dancers athletes actors and surgeons 3 Logicalmathematical intelligenceskills in problem solving and scientific thinking 4 Linguistic intelligenceskills involved in the production and use of language 5 Spatial intelligenceskills involving spatial configuration such as those used by artist and architects O O 90 90 6 Interpersonal intelligenceskills interacting with others such as sensitivity to the moods temperaments motives and intentions to others 7 Naturalist intelligenceability to identify and classify patterns in nature Although the eight basic types of intelligence are presented individually Gardner suggest that these separate intelligences do no operate in isolation Any activity encompasses several kinds of intelligence working together Existential intelligence involves identifying and thinking about the fundamental questions of human existence Tasks requiring different types of intelligence involve different areas of the brain Practical intelligence is intelligence related to overall success in living There are two other basic interrelated types of intelligence related to life success analytical and creative Robert Sternburg gt Analytical intelligence focuses on abstract but traditional types of problems on IQ tests gt Creative intelligence involves the generation of novel ideas and products Emotional intelligence is the set of skills that underlie the accurate assessment evaluation expression and regulation of emotions The basis of empathy for others self awareness and social skills lie in emotional intelligence Measuring intelligence has proven challenging Therefore the development of intelligence tests occurred Intelligence tests are tests devised to quantify a person s level of intelligence The first idea of intelligence testing was based on straightforward but completely wrong was the assumption that the size and shape of a person s head could be used as an object to measure intelligence The idea was introduced by Sir Francis Galton Alfred Binet testing followed from a simple premise if performance on certain tasks of test items improved with physical age performance could be used to distinguish more intelligence people from less intelligent ones within a particular age group Binet devised the first formal intelligence test Mental age is the age for which a given level of performance is average of typical O 06 O O 90 06 o 9 o 9 Intelligence quotient IQ is a measure of intelligence that takes into account an individual s mental and physical age Historically the first IQ scores followed a formula which MA stands for mental age and CA for chronological age physical age IQ scoreMACAx100 StandfordBinet Intelligence Scale is a test that consists of a series of items that vary according to the age of the person being tested Wechsler Adult Intelligence ScaleIV WAISIV and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for ChildrenIV WISCIV both measure verbal comprehension perceptual reasoning working memory and processing speed Reliability is the property by which tests measure consistently what they are trying to measure A test has validity when it actually measures what it is supposed to measure Knowing that a test is reliable is no guarantee that it is also valid However if a test is unreliable it cannot be valid Norms are standards of test performance that permit compassion of one person s score on a test with the scores of other individuals who have taken the same test Intellectual disability or mental retardation is a condition characterized by significant limitations both intellectual functioning and in conceptual social and practical adaptive skills Occurs in 13 of the population gt Mild retardation are individuals who have IQ scores ranging from 55 to 99 constitute some 90 of all people with intellectual disabilities These individuals development is usually slower than their peers however they can function independently they are able to hold jobs and have families Moderate retardation have IQs of 40 to 54 Deficits are obvious language and motor skills are lagging behind others Severe retardation have IQs of 25 to 39 Profound retardation have IQs below 25 Historically these people would be considered idiots O 06 o 9 O 6 Fetal alcohol syndrome is produced by a mother s use of alcohol while pregnant even with the smallest consumption of alcohol can produce intellectual deficits Onethird of those with intellectual disabilities are affect by this Down syndrome results when a person is born with 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46 In most cases there is an extra of the 21St chromosome leading to problems with how the brain and body develop Familial retardation has no apparent biological defect but there is a history of intellectual disability in the family There are two ways that those with intellectual disabilities are integrated into school systems gt Mainstreaming is putting those with disabilities into to regular classrooms as much as possible The idea is that interacting with students with and without intellectual disabilities in regular classrooms will improve educational opportunities and increase social acceptance Full inclusion is thought to be more effective This idea is the total integration of all students including those with severe educational disabilities into regular classes and avoid of segregated education classes This is a controversial practice and is not widely applied Accounting for 24 of the population the intellectually gifted have IQ scores greater than 130 Yet a high IQ is not a universal guarantee of success Programs for the gifted are designed to provide enrichment that allows participant s talents to ourish Historically blacks were given IQ tests would score 10 to 15 points lower than white It wasn t that the blacks had low scores the IQ test were culturally biased Obviously whites would score higher on an IQ test if the terms and questions on the test are part of their culture If a black male that was raised by a middleclass white family he would score the same as white males It s safe to say the IQ tests are minority biased Culturefair IQ test a test that does not discriminate against members of any minority group O 06 Heritability and Environment Nature vs Nurture gt Heritability Nature is the degree to which a characteristic is related to genetic inherited factors It is believed that heritability in uences intelligence by 50 Arguably that differences in races in IQ scores were largely cause by genetic based differences in intelligence Charles Murray Richard Herrnstein Environment Nurture in this case is the setting and upbringing of an individual and how those factors in uence intelligence If environments become equal heritability increases The greatest discrepancies in IQ scores occur when comparing individuals not when comparing mean IQ scores of different groups Today the average person correctly answers more questions on an IQ test than the average person generations ago This phenomenon is named the Fynn Effect The cause of this is not clear However because our society is becoming increasingly complex and technology driven we have caught up
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