Learning, Memory, Cognitive Development Week 1
Learning, Memory, Cognitive Development Week 1 Psych 210
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Ann Carter Herbert
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ann Carter Herbert on Friday October 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 210 at Clemson University taught by Professor Chris Pagano, PhD in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 10/16/15
Clemson University Psych 100 Learning Memory Cognitive Development Learning Classical Conditioning 0 The behavior comes after the stimulus o In most types of learning the stimulus comes after the behavior I Kid gets punishment Operant Conditioning 0 The Behavior comes before the Stimulus The consequences of a response increase or decrease the likelihood of the response occurring again 0 Thorndike s puzzle box I Stuffs cat in a box and the cat has to learn something to open the door learns how to step on a lever and the door opens I He studies behaviors that were not re exes I He never made the animal give the response I Given the stimulus being stuck in this box the animal learns the response to step on the lever and open the door He found that o LearningDecrease in time until response I how long does it take the cat to learn how to open the box I over time the amount of time it takes the animal to make the response over and over again decreases the response becomes quicker Steep Learning Curvequot learning something really fast taking less time to learn over time o The Law of Effect I Responses that produce a satisfying effect in a situation will become more likely to occur in that situation To press a lever is not a normal re ex for a cat they have never had to do that before 0 Therefore we have to wait for the o The Skinner Box cat to learn over time The first time the cat actually steps on the lever is probably by accident because that is not a natural re ex I LearningA change in the rate of response The Skinner Box Rat presses on lever in the box and it releases food He wanted to know if we can train the rat to do this quickly and a lot Cumulative Response Curve Slow curve hasn t learned to press the lever as well Fast curve trained to press the lever Extinction look this up Partial Reinforcement Schedules More resistant to extinction than continuous reinforcement 0 Every time you press the button you get a piece of food every time This became a very key finding that advanced learning giving a kid a piece of candy for answering the question correctly 0 As you mature you behave properly more and more without being rewarded all of the time When you get used to not being rewarded you avoid extinction If you give a reward every time it actually stunts growth because once that response stops they will stop learning Pigeon key pecks after removal of reinforcement 0 Continuous 50100 0 Partial100040000 I Fixed Ratio Reinforcement You always get the food after every say fifth response I Variable Ratio Schedule You get the food after AVERAGE every say fifth response 0 This gives a steeper response curve I Interval Schedules You go by time 0 You give a pellet of food after 20 seconds 0 It doesn t matter how many times the rat presses the lever o This produces a really slow rate of response I Variable Interval Schedule Reinforce comes at an AVERAGE of every 20 seconds 0 Ratio Schedules Higher Response Rates 0 Variable Schedules Most resistant to extinction I Example soda machine versus gambling I These are very general findings Same results with animals and humans etc I Learning is a lawful process Discrimination Training 0 Used to study animals perceptual abilities I Pavlov discovered dogs hear highpitched sounds Shaping Successively closer approximations to a response are reinforced until the response occurs 0 You could teach a rat how to waterski o If the raccoon walks towards the basketball he gets food I Once he learns how to walk to the ball then he has to learn to touch the ball to get food I Then pick up etc until he learns how to put the ball through the basket to get food 0 A new behavior is produced 0 This technique is used for service animals Reinforcement o Increases a behavior 0 Increases desired behaviors Punishment 0 Decreases a behavior o Decreases undesired behaviors Positive 0 Add a reinforcement or punishment Negative 0 Remove a reinforcement or punishment Punishment produces negative emotions which through classical conditioning become paired with anything present during the punishment ex The parent The child learns that punishment is a way to control others Punishment does not produce the desired response
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