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Week 8 - PHCL 2600 Notes

by: Emily Notetaker

Week 8 - PHCL 2600 Notes PHCL2600

Emily Notetaker
GPA 4.0
Funct Anat and Pathophysiol I

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Week of October 12th Notes. Four lectures total.
Funct Anat and Pathophysiol I
Class Notes
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This 26 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Notetaker on Friday October 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHCL2600 at University of Toledo taught by Williams,F in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Funct Anat and Pathophysiol I in Pharmaceutical Sciences at University of Toledo.

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Date Created: 10/16/15
Lecture 22 Monday October 12 2015 1204 PM 1 Nervous system reading i vai ew chapter 12 it CNiS brain and cranial nerves chap 14 ii Brain I Cerebelluinni iE Major divisions of the brain Develops into telencephalon cerebral cortex and diencephalon thalamus and hypothalamus Develops into the superior and inferior colliculi and the cerebral peduncles Develops into metencephalon cerebellum and pons and the myeiencephalon medulla oblongata Di Geeierxce ooa ow bracin 9 o l ineir var rem animals is developmenl oF PVCWW OW Even brain has mesencephaclon 91 Vhom loancephadoh quot Meduguoe oblonfgci m is Con nuous w lhe SplhaxA COV a 39 HOU3 WW develop r Nearest Pocampe WK move gt Netgrad who Becomes d39v iom o M w quotquot iMi V o sesame Hoot PHCL 2600 Page 1 Lug Brain s stalk made up of cerebral peduncles superior and inferior colliculi midbrain Pons Medulla oblongata Rests between and connects spinal cord and higher brain centers Midbraln Coma Wis h m S ho cl cure LJho W m radar quot ConnecH Gen her Cal DeHULm is elm 0 broqn Stem LIAJM bradw Section below the pons and continuous with the spinal cord Functions as relay between the spinal cord and upper brain stem mid brain Contains nuclei that control heart rate respiration and vasoconstriction Point of exit of cranial nerve VIII Lilii Between midbrain and medulla Wider and thicker than medulla Consists mostly of white matter ascending XII l l and descending tracts and a few nuclei Serves as relay center from medulla to higher brain centers midbrain etc Point of exit for cranial nerves V hi h BP zeSSeLS CoinsHack anomr ac onS lon CF brmih darkd Ar owuwmds Mve Sivvx axw Whots 2 sches here Ascchdih i 0GFcrltrsenorl in F o Arobra nw D s cndir3 cF eercnkmo tor vxfo 0 PNS i W SngvallI r no a 3her brown genbars we COMP gtlt IJJJ Comes Oudr Swenion bUO medem at Pops PHCL 2600 Page 2 H Smaller portion of the brainstem On top of pons corpora quadrigemina Point of exit of cranial nerves III and IV Contains visual re ex centers coordinates information to adjust head and eye turn towards stimulus COHtainS auditory re ex centers response to loud startling noise Contains connecting fore and 9 COhmJ ch b mm 2 WW Pours o hindbrain motor activities omlw uklamow winvases quot Ill 3m 1 3 oli Geren i nerves For 33033 olfactory smell a II optic sight III oculomotor IV trochlear IK 2 El glossomeoshs mngue V trigeminal face and chewing VI abducens ye movement VII fac face s VIII vestibulocochlear hearing and balance IX glossophagngeal jtongueland pharynx X mu thorax and abdomen XI accessog spinal accessory to vagal XII hypoglossal tongue Inovements 3 I rq imporm For ANS C erebellum EPituitary gland ponslMcdulla I Midbrain piml Cord Hypothalamus PHCL 2600 Page 3 it Core or center of hrainstem n Numerous neurons that receive and integrate information from the cranial nerves spinal r1ewesr and other names from the brain gr Large and small neurons synapse on each other providing means for integration of information Functions of Reticular s Formation RF Essential for initiating waking cycle alertness consciousness and initiating sleep cycle Waking cycle MS controls alertness reticular formation and other neurons midbrain RF initiates and maintains alertness pons RF initiates and maintains sleep Lesion to midbrain RF coma lesion to pontine RF constantly awake d2 J Functions of the Reticular formation RF Some neurons in the RF are important for motor control speci cally balance and support of the body against gravity Some nuclei in the RF are cardiovascular respiratory and vomiting centers inw rmir8 neurons PHCL 2600 Page 4 Cerebellum 39o Pituitary gland Pom Mc39duna 39 Midbrain Rcticular fonnation Spinal cord I Iypothalamus gm Part of metencephalon of hindbrain Separated physically from cerebrum by them 39gt Oval in shape central constriction called the m39 w are enlargements on either side of vermis 0g alum0Q covering Cerebellum Surface of cerebellar hemispheres is gray matter consisting of a series of folds Interior is made up of some gray matter and bands of white matter forming the tree like structure Connected to all other parts of the CNS by neurons 3 bundles of bers 9 connecting cerebellum to the brainstem quot39 m tnFo From brain 9 Push WK 0in COOrdi node3 Movement 9 H does not Unam 9 o gte C line Crude C erebellum Amer lobe PHCL 2600 Page 5 Anterior lobe Primarv ssunc Q 7 Posterior lobe Horizontal 1amp3 Vennis ee i39 lee QWCluxrcs Planning of movement Posture control Functions of the cerebellum Equilibrium control Limb movement control Helps integrate voluntary muscle movement or coordination Maintains smooth movement of balance with directed movements v0 help From MGom h VI S cows a Kn baJocrNce Cr 39CC 5 Damageto cerebellum jerky uncoordinated movements as seen in drunks alcohol affects the cerebellum tremors which increase with movement feeding oneself inability of judgment where body is in relationship to other things in space hand goes toward an object but overshoots or undershoots the item tremors of eyes beating All of these abnormalities are not evident unless there is movement not seen at rest mlcoho dcpvcsses cmxacuucm 0o vacl S C r Ms W odouHRes hoF smkths yamh hokdi gameHm39inaj bog VQVULW MOVle Food quotl owm WORK Ns mus dizziness C Be thing 0 f COGSFe angom s is ac core MOVW PHCL 2600 Page 6 9 No l coovdiroc ow e le39brioc ovx Lecture 23 Tuesday October 13 2015 1200 PM Part of the forebrain telencephalon Largest part of brain 80 of brain tissue Contains nerve centers governing sensory and motor activities Contains areas responsible for reason memory and intelligence Core of white matter dotted with gray matter nuclei surrounded by gray matter cortex 35 mm thick quot mum mcxlccs us diFfelr r H rom o l her var ireme oxxxmoqs makes 0L decisions Halloquot SUPERCP RJSTE IIOQ ANIERJOH Se mm anus64m a F Diana Pha 0n 6 above hwwdeOUW DIENCEF HALON 39Mlamui quoty r hdnu BRAIN STEM Midbran CENEBELLUM 6 P00 Momma otkmgxa 53mm 011 HFEPICR b Sagmal 1amp1ch mecelvuew id 01 F s Cerebrum Cortex rolls on itself folds are referred to asor convolution Gyri is distinguishable in a pattern and serve as landmarks in the brain Grooves are also landmarks Shallow groove is Deep groove is COWFCX is a pacc in m Ccvcbmm gt cud1ch quot Ficus Wad Mauccs dccjsiovxs Deep furrow extending from front to rear of I 44 r I A PHCL 2600 Page 1 F Deep furrow extending from front to rear of the cerebrum which divides it into two hemispheres left and right Anatomically appear as same but hemispheres have some very speci c differences size speci c boundaries greater control of speci c functions Each hemisphere has centers speci c for sensory and motor activities Large ssuregrow in Wiw quot Wk ouo W Z WKSPWeS Fla 1506 valal wequot in war Prepmgrmmed Wis NM I Some nerve pathways cross in the medulla allowing the cerebrum to have control of motor activities of the opposite side of body dosoondli ng i Ascending tracts cross over at the medulla or in spinal cord quot 907 o decschdina Weeks w cross over 39 207s oP h m will no l Si aw on Same side PHCL 2600 Page 2 a One hemisphere may take more control of a ipaihticular functicih lMc hanicai ii i ir39tiStill 1 Mathematical Ii cc w s Fine motor control Pathways cross here as well Left hemisphere controls right side 80 of all individuals have left hemisphere dominance over ne motor control right handedness 10 of all individuals have right hemisphere dominance left handedness 10 are u equal control s Language and analytical ability Almost all right handers and about 70 of left handers have language and analytical ability dominated by the left hemisphere Other 30 of lefties right hemisphere or both and ambidextrous is a 601030 split for left right both Ec WW is i ig has dominoch in one hexwig pineie AMbid X H OLks eqml com vol of bol Ii hands quot Pabalom Occakence PHCL 2600 Page 3 Other examples tasks faces arranging blocks drawing 30 right hemisphere Mathematics left hemisphere Creative ability may be related to interaction between hemispheres which is greater in lefties Injury to one hemisphere often leads to the development of the corresponding area in the opposite hemisphere to gain control of those functions There is cross talk between the 2 hemispheres by nerves called the largest tracts are in the this allows sharing of learning and memory functions between the two hemispheres d gt anUklr iCS SKACJn as S rroKC Neurological disease and diagnosis In the 21St century neurological disease may be able to be diagnosed by simple methods such as physical exams More and more however tests are necessary to show or complete a diagnosis Three possible tests are Show5 gac magnetic resonance imaging positron emission tomography electroencephalography 70qu Show loch isue Uses high energy Used to show ne detail Not used for bone Can be used to NLL magnetic waves of softer tissues differentiate between abnormal and normal tissues also measure blood ow sagmal sechm i brain quot V V lava ma he owe used l eot blood PHCL 2600 Page 4 LEE Used to study physiology of a structure Positron emitting substance is injected and used in the tissues when it does the image is more colored indicating activity of that tissue sci Electrodes are used to record electrical activity in the brain Detect brainwaves or activity in the brain Alpha beta theta and delta waves have speci c origins 9 kn cream a a iquot 1quotquot Mn Input EN 39rtwwm an M Na MVM W 1 MV jwm WMMM WN 39I cow s on Hne mc iodooUSM 09 m UQ00xerC mom Wad gub win he used quot EKG Pow law s Brain waves activity found in adults while awake quot quiet and resting still awake m thinking waves shows mental usually found in children can mean stress or mental disorders in adults usually mark deep sleep in adults occur in infants while they are awake and can mean brain damage if Sleep smicS Calm hep vol Hm Wh A hev Dir hisk someth is mW awake PHCL 2600 Page 5 l Liter layer of gray matter is lrell39ierred to as cortex or cortical tissue 1 Integrating center for processing afferent information received from body 1 ividecl into 4 major lobes or sections Howl named f lr39 the skull bones that covers 2 OCLipH OA 3 3939c mporoJ Ur Peoriated Four major lobes of cerebral cortex anterior portion of each hemisphere quot posterior to the frontal lobe far side lobe of each hemisphere most posterior portion of the hemispheres Lei Motor area particularly controls voluntary movement Controls reasoning and intellect thinking Controls emotions and behavior sexual Controls aids olfaction Controls speech articulation writing of words motor activity PHCL 2600 Page 6 Prcccntral gyms gu tqah ggii rgc i a onlal lobe 3 an I r w 391 u w 1 6 l u l Broca s area of speech Receiving area for ne sensory stimuli Allows for discrimination between stimuli eceives sensory impulses related to pain taste touch and temperature Language center M association cortex involving ang age Postccntml evrus Parietal lobe PHCL 2600 Page 7 Lecture 24 Wednesday October 14 2015 1203 PM Receives auditory stimuli Involved in hearing memory learning of language understanding speech deciphering words Involved in oral and written communication Olfaction center OW acF h oe Separated from frontal and parietal lobes by 0 56 93 3mg APP4Lolr as 0 pair o F W3 Lateral ssure 8 Temporal lobe a Receives visual stimuli Allows discrimination of visual stimuli Separated from parietal lobe by the m PHCL 2600 Page 1 7 Visual area lt L u39l arid other regims 1 Cau udate mugEMS u Lentitullar nucleus I m Glnbus palliatile internal capsule 2 basod x I an 0 on h Side 0 haamu PHCL 2600 Page 2 Zareas Qov 2 ngCS Functions of basal ganglia l Motor Entirva l f39 slow smooth movement a Cerebellurn maintains after initiation ii originate in brain stem and synapse on basal ganglia neurons 1 lReleses inhibitory neurotransmitter essential for function of basal ganglia s I l winvolves degeneration of neurons in Substantia nigra Leads to less dopamine release Leads to less inhibition of dopamine on the basal gangha Leads to rigidity and tremor at rest Leads to extreme dif culty in initiating movement Leads to unemotional face mask because of gt inability to change rigidity Can be bedridden and have dementia 1015 and m make up area of the diencephalon Acts as a relay system for sensory impulses without involving the cortex Act to regulate many activities that do not reguire cortical tissue input INOst 0 diagnose Can Sce le0ovv CubbecAKves PHCL 2600 Page 3 iihilimui Two masses of gray matter just below the corpus callosum Functions of the thalamus Relay of sensory input other than olfactory olfactory rst must go through the cortex 0 Crude identi cation of some stimuli without k cortical input pain W Several ti htl packed nuclei ju be ow the thalamus Functions of the hypothalamus Regulate body temperature ix Control fullnessnunger W Metabolism Emotional expressio and behavror L l y 1mg Endocrine function y produces hormones that control pituitary secretion Individual components of the brain can function together hypothalamus thalamus portions of frontal and temporal lobes all connecting neurons Involved with expression and integration of strong emotions Fear aggression depression rage and regulation of sex drive and behavior know Scherod Qle Cannd pin pow PHCL 2600 Page 4 Cavities in the brain that are continuous with similar cavities in the spinal cord containing contains 0 Lateral ventricles 3rd ventricle u 4 ventricle Interventricular foramen ml 94 mm View Cerebral aqueduct gDescriptions 39 2 irregularly shaped cavities located deep inside cerebral hemispheres smaller slitlike cavity in the diencephalon M lies between the cerebellum and the pons and medulla structures Descriptions g 2 Channels connecting the lateral ventricles and the third ventricle 39 quot quot quot channel running lengthwise threuglh the midbrain cannectingi the rd and fauirth ventricles The 4th ventricle enntracta at its peaterier ant to farm the he llew central canal that runs threugih the medulla and the spinal tart PHCL 2600 Page 5 i Fills the ventricular system and the subaraehneid space surreunding the brain and spinal cercl CSF is celorlessf cnsists mlestly of water and traces of inunatelinir sugar hermenes and a few lympihectrtes is Only 15 milliliters int 100 milliliters of CSF is found in the 39uimsr39i eiles rest is in the su arachnoid space Formation of CSF Activer secreted by capillaries which line the ventricles Tissues that surround the ventricles and secrete CSF is the CSF circulates in the ventricles and is reabsorbed into the brain via large blood vessels called CSF makes its way back into the vascular system through oneway valves in the sinuses that are projections of arachnoid CSF 1 Cerebrespinal fluid is constantly being made and there is continuous reabseriotien intro the vascular system of the CSF t i The movement of the CSF is aided by pressure Chanes due to circulation aresioirat39inn and posture Flow 01 C8 PHCL 2600 Page 6 tread chapter 13 V Consists of gray matter in an Hshaped core surrounded by white matter Gray matter is cell bodies of efferent peripheral neurons and the nonmyelinated axons of afferent neurons small neurons and glial cells White matter is myelinated axons running longitudinally through the spinal cord the ascending and descending ber tracts PHCL 2600 Page 7 Lecture 25 Thursday October 15 2015 1154 AM 522 s read chapter 13 Z 39iii Consists of gray matter in an Hshaped core surrounded by white matter is cell bodies of efferent peripheral neurons and the nonmyelinated axons of afferent neurons small neurons and glial cells is myelinated axons running longitudinally through the spinal cord the ascending and descending ber tracts Fiber tracts that are found in the spinal cord are two types which do not synapse on way from cortex to motor neurons which synapse once or twice on the way to the brain from the periphery Fro M bruitx CVOSSeS med Hoe a CMSOC KOV1 received enor tvvpud Wornx bodxl crosses G Wuhm symme C2 mst owe gt usucoJMOCZ mtaws F awn 30 cornex Descending tracts Ascending tracts PHCL 2600 Page 1 i Spinal cord Baseol Poxx names of ihe weir iebm Colpuww 0th 0f m f0r 31m 0f Ceyui Cat L2 spinal peripheral nerves moiwe Li I Functions 5 Transport of information to L Ame 39 aCrocl LS brain centers 39 39 r l 39 Transmit information to the periphery from brain Some afferent information can lead to direct activation if of an efferent neuron and stimulation of an effect0r 9 A39 re ex LIIill Example of an instance of direct activation of an efferent neuron without the participation of the brain is a motor re ex motor re ex example is monosqnocPHcsz one 94 MpSQ the knee jerk re ex strike patellar gt lowered in spiked Lord tendon with mallet and get a jerk of leg A Morgans WM aspen c5 gums in response very quick 39a 146 Seen131132 Exiensor muscle Neurolendinous organ Muscle spindle t 439 AI 39 lt 1 Paiellar ligament PHCL 2600 Page 2 ovemg i isorders 393 iui Frederick E Williams PhD 0 Typical symptoms mistaken as depression no smile worse handwriting tremor at rest pillrolling rigidity advanced tremor enbloc turns postural instability dementia 1 Arm o f braith Woe F sevxo S slswds o loosOJ awal k 6h39 tom mmg 39 V6443 ovo angled Movemen ls wwme books MHS Q W wcn a39 movie starring Robin 13933611 De Niro 0 5g new People With rigid form of Parkinson s Disease thought to hate an encephalitis Treated patients with and woke them up Later could not control themselves and a decided to go back to their rigid state Hlsl er claws a bushel fesskarma More side es cks urs rpe need both because IZHDOPA is metabolized 39 39 39 Ropinorole Requip and Pramipexole Mirapex these act at the dopamine receptors in the Basal ganglia t nMTan nMT PHCL 2600 Page 3 y HMS Cowuoinodiovx blc L39DoPA is MWVM 00 we UPHWWW nuiww and Pramipexole Mirapex these act at the dopamine receptors in the Basal ganglia HOMTam COMT inhibitor e i beOmal domnw maf imcleus 1055 of G39ABA39neurotransmitter to the globus pallidus inhibitory Results in chorea uncontrollable writhing movements and early dementia 40 s 0 Problem is trinucleotide repeats on gt chromosome 5 Ck MCJ IwAH Wm9Fcr09L quot mc iodooisvv enszW k lelmllai rS his heredi l ocns does wol dead val sex Cells all o l hels HULnHna ton 3cm quot mosk PromoMoch 103 rem quot lav sur a o C aMiwo acids OK pro kebth m iwCarYeC l mct poorly effective 39 Atypical s antipsychotics Risperidone Risperdal 39 Lorazepam usually not very helpful COUUSQS ll iUK Farina 2 wow 0amp0va toq rs Seroth 2 dopowlnc dlSmp l39S ow OF N39l s usualho yaw DUQS drown V i treated longterm with drug like halop ridol IIaldol which is a dopamine antagonist will get this disorder It Shows up as tics and chorea like movements of face and tongue would be to replace or not use a typical antipsychotic newer agents less likely to cause these symptoms mlking 2 is diF Fx39cmH PHCL 2600 Page 4 39 9035 SLR laclcvo amtmtwus omit HEWDH swim m Fall 33113 WE i What we will cover Anatomy of the ANS Sympathetic system Parasympathetic system Receptors involved and drugs used g The Nervous Systems PHCL 2600 Page 5 Controllable conscious I Works below our consciousness gm m Sensev a am a MW 4 mm Bar Sum We can use this to order our body to do something these functions are controllable Composed of brain and spinal cord afferent and efferent nerves L w u sensory transmits information from the muscle or other organ to the brain motor transmits information from the brain to the muscles usually skeletal as this is usually voluntary movement 55 h 04 2 e wV 3 I SCYTSOYN brain 9 modor SWW VWUWle6OVd5 Regulates bodily functions and other processes that are necessary for survival Regulates the functions of internal organs and the other viscera PHCL 2600 Page 6


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