SOCY 100 -- Notes Week 7
SOCY 100 -- Notes Week 7 SOCY 101 - 0201
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Stavisky on Friday October 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCY 101 - 0201 at University of Maryland taught by Dr. Nancy Forsythe in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at University of Maryland.
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Date Created: 10/16/15
Sociology Notes Week 7 Social stratification the ranking system in which we arrange people in a hierarchy based their social standing Principles of stratification Trait of society not simply a consequence of individuals it s systemic Not based off personal talent but based off of an individual s location in the social structure People who are located at the top of the stratification system aren t there bc they39re better people they re there bc systemically something has worked to their advantage to keep them there Passed down from generation to generation not inherited but heritable People are raised in a certain environment with a certain set of normsvalues that reproduce their place in the social structure It s not that individuals are more or less talented but the opportunitiesresourcestraits learned depending on social status keep people wi the same social category Social mobility capacity for individuals to move wli the classlcaste system Vertical Mobility moving up like Jay Z or down losing job prestige lost after recession in society Horizontal mobility changing jobs wli a class caste system Argument today that in the US we have lost the capacity to enable social mobility Stratification is Universal but what it looks like varies largely bt societies The extent of stratification and the parameters of inequality vary between societies but stratification exists everywhere There is always a belief system that justifies stratification in each society gt Just as there s variation between the parameters of inequality there s variation behind the beliefs that justify inequality as well What kinds of stratification exist Global stratification Economic stratification Gender stratification Racial stratification gt When people discuss economic stratification we use the term quintile to divide society into fifths and from there we compare individuals based on where they stand Ex study of income inequality Graph Economic Inequalitv in Selected Countries 1amp1 3cm 2cm 7 1331 In Game Share iratin of highest 20 to lowest 211 Equaif w All of the Countries with income inequality ratios that are gt101 are underdeveloped other than the US Inequality in the US is twice as high in the as it is in Canada and three times as high as it is in Sweden The US and Ecuador have the same level of income stratification but Ecuador is a 3rd world country while the US is the world s most developed country Correlation bt country s population and level of income stratification Sweden vs Brazil gt But then what about China China has the highest population but not the highest level of stratification Graph Distribution of global income and wealth gt Q5 have 77 of the world s wealth gt Richest 20 has 77 of world s wealth Q4 have 13 QB have 5 02 have 3 Q1 have 2 gt poorest 20 has 2 of the world s wealth Survival of the fittest Social Darwinism the idea that those who are at the top of society are there because they are the bestthe most fit to survive and that those who are at the bottom of society don t have the traits of success gt Follows the argument of natural selection because natural selection sees that those who survive do so because they are more fit to survive Spencer s ideas of social darwinism justified social stratification at the time gt Spencer s theories justify the position of Wealthy White Men WWM at the top of the stratification system by saying that they re better than those at the bottom of the stratification system Those who are working class poor black or women simply didn t have the qualities that WWM do gt Idea of meritocracy in America that continues to justify stratification in the US We continue to believe in the argument that the people who are wealthy and powerful are so bc they re supposed to be gt Because we believe in the equality of opportunity we apply meritocracy to everything and feed into the idea that if you work hard enough you can achieve anything l Sociology shows that stratification is not because of individual qualities but is the consequence of society amp structure StructuralFunctional Theory Behind Stratification The DavisMoore Thesis The structuralfunctional theory claims that social stratification is beneficial to society because it makes incentives for people to take the hard jobs Because intellectual jobs that need more education require more investment and more responsibility society must reward those who take these difficult jobs The functionality of the jobs that they do are unequal and therefore the wealth distribution in society is based off of the differentiation in difficulty in these jobs gt Think efficiency productivity competitiveness gt But how wi the structural functional argument can you justify those like teacherssocial workers who work very hard in socially important jobs for relatively little money the advantage that WWM have had throughout the history of America that has given them power Those who are currently at the top have long been completely disadvantaged from taking part in the social system that would allow them to move up while making it easier for the WM to move up in society WWM benefit from the advantages of institutions made for building their success while everyone else gt Is there social mobility in the United States We have an open system where people can move up in the social hierarchy but it is unlikely that people born into certain circumstances like poverty actually will move up in society Social Conflict Theorists Marx Class Conflict gt Marx explains that people have one of two relationships to productivity they either own productive property or labor for others This system benefits some at the expense of the majority gt People who have the means to become wealthy are already wealthy Inequality coming from previous social systems carries over and allows one to use that wealth to participate in new industrial society In the beginning there was a wealth gap and that gap continues to grow because the wealthy have systematic advantages Inequality is therefore built into the system because the system itself privileges people who have wealth and creates systemic disadvantages over the people who don t have wealth Stratification is not a problem with individuals but of society itself Those who are advantaged have more opportunities to invest in their wealth education etc The system is rigged against people who are not already born into advantage There are policies that prevent some group of people that prevent people from achieving to the best of their capacity Weber Class Status and Power gt Says that class status power exist all of the time Some people s privilege is based on class some on status some on power However each of these is primarily associated with a different form of social organization Status is much more important in preindustrial society nobility monarchy etc Privilege derived from status assigned at birth Class most important in industrializing societies Making a lot of money really did propel one to the top of the stratification system Power most important in postindustrial society The drivers of our econ are not nec industrial but also intellectual gt Growth of corporations and growth of government are sources of power in post industrial societies Symboliclnteractionist approach How placement on hierarchy influences how we interact w people gt Is there a way of interacting among the wealthy that differs from the interactions of the more disadvantaged gt Micro look at stratified behaviors gt Sociologists have noticed a trend called conspicuous consumption buying and using products because of the statement they make about social position Video Wealth Inequalitv in America l mun a l l l E x 4 CTUAL retribution Elf Wealth ialntt he Liaise What rneri ans 1 Th lama IDEAL rut on is 1 l i r r l r l H agtt nrwm seasoweme MIDDLE 310 lruurmaaci I in 1 1 2 a 1 L r I39n39 l l r E N f 39 a u H Most Americans want wealth dist to be more equal to what they think it is gt Actual wealth distribution only top 1020 better off top 25 have so much money they re off the charts 1 of America has 40 of America s wealth video made in 2009 today 60 80 of America has 7 of America s wealth A CEO makes 380x more than the average worker Avg worker would have to work a month in order to make as much as a CEO makes in an hour gt We re bought into the system but nobody s looking out for our interests Quintile Boundaries Q1 20000 Q2 38520 QB 62434 Q4 101582 Q5 No Limit gt Average household income of the incoming freshman class at UMD is 120000 dollars ll
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