Week 8 of Philosophy Notes
Week 8 of Philosophy Notes PHIL 1000 - 01
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PHIL 1000 - 01
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by William Bartek on Friday October 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 1000 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Matthew McGrath in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see General Introduction to Philosophy in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 10/16/15
Philosophy 1000 The FineTuning Argument 0 An instance of the argument from design 0 Unlike other arguments from design doesn t face competition from evolutionary theories Basic Argument 0 Inference to best explanation 1 If a fact E stands in need of explanation and hypothesis H provides a satisfactory explanation of E that s better than any alternative explanation available then E provides significant evidential support for H 2 The universe being hospitable to life is a fact that needs explanation 3 God adjusting constants so as to make the universe hospitable to life provides satisfactory explanation 4 There s no comparably satisfying explanation of this fact 5 Therefore God exists 3ssues 0 Does the fact that our universe is hospitable to life need explanation o If so is theism a satisfactory explanation o If so are there better explanations of this fact than theism o Scrabble example 0 Flipping a table with Scrabble letters to have them form a word is more meaningful to us than when we flip the table and the letters make gibberish When does a fact require explanation 1 It must be extremely improbable 2 It must have some further salient feature that makes it strikingly different from the other alternatives Multiverse Hypothesis 0 Multiple universes exist with different natural constants Ours is one such universe 0 We quotwon the lottery in getting this hospitable universe Pascal s Wager Practical v Theoretical Reasons A theoretical evidential reason to believe a proposition is evidence that the proposition is true A practical reason to believe a proposition is evidence that it s beneficial to believe the proposition Epistemic v Practical Rationality Pascal Your belief is epistemic if it has strong theoretical reasons to believe something Your belief is practically rational if you have strong practical reasons to believe something There are some things we value utilities There s choices you have actions There s some ways the world has a bearing on outcomes of your actions states Game example 0 Your friend offers you a game They flip a coin if it s heads you win 1 if it s tails you lose S2 IS it rational to play Expected Utility Weigh the outcomes of the states by the probability of the states 0 EU Playing 51 52 5 1 5 0 EU Not playing 50 50 0 0 Higher expected utility of not playing then playing it s irrational to play the game Rational Choice Theory It s rational to do the act that has the highest expected utility When an act has higher utility in every way it dominates the other acts
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