Week 6 Notes
Week 6 Notes FSCN 1112
U of M
Popular in Principles of Nutrition
Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Cummins on Friday October 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FSCN 1112 at University of Minnesota taught by Mashek, Douglas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Principles of Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 10/16/15
Week 6 Proteins Used for muscle development as well as many other things Structure 0 0 Contains Hydrogen Oxygen Carbon and NITROGEN Contains an amine group nitrogen a carboxyl group acid and an R group side chain that gives the amino acid its unique properties Classes of amino acids AA 0 O Nonessential body can make these so you do not need to get them from your diet but its still a good idea to eat these Essential the body can t make them or can t make enough so you need to get them from your diet Conditionally essential normally nonessential but the body is stressed so it can t make enough of them pregnancy growth Protein reactions 0 O Transamination transfers amine group from an AA to a carbon skeleton to form a new AA Deamination AA looses an amine group which is converted to urea in the liver and then excreted through the kidneys Protein makeup O 0 Complete proteins a good mix of AA are in the food all essential ones these are mostly found in animal proteins Incomplete proteins are missing some of the essential AA most plant proteins fit this category soy is the exception Complimentary proteins plant proteins are combined in foods to compliment each other to eliminate deficiencies ex pita and hummus beans are low in 2 AAs but the grain proteins have those 2 AA and are lacking others so together they are complete Protein synthesis 0 O O 0 AA are linked by peptide bonds Most proteins are polypeptides they are made up of at least 10 AAs Translation RNA is coded for proteins protein synthesis Steps to make a protein 1 Read the DNA it has to unwind first Transcription in nucleus mRNA is made mRNA leaves nucleus for cytosol ribosome receives mRNA and can begin protein synthesis transfer RNA tRNA is attached to a specific AA that can bind to the ribosome if the 3 letter code from the mRNA matches the protein is dropped off and attached to a running chain of other AAs 6 Once the chain is complete it breaks away from the ribosome and folds into the protein 9195 Genetic Mutation O Somehow the DNA has changed from normal o The change resultantly changes which AA are linked in the chain which changes the structure and function of the protein making ineffective Organization of Proteins 0 Primary chain of AA 0 Secondary chain begins to fold in on itself 0 Tertiary the folds fold in on themselves 0 Quaternary multiple proteins come together to make a complex ex hemoglobin Denaturing a protein 0 Acid heat enzymes or agitation can break the tertiary bonds of a protein 0 People can t absorb AA unless the proteins are denature Protein turnover in the body cells are constantly recycling proteins 0 The body goes through 200300g of protein per day but we only eat 65100g per day US gets much more of its proteins from animals than the rest of the world Evaluating protein quality 0 Biological Value BV nitrogen retained nitrogen consumed egg whites is 100 0 Protein Efficiency ValuePER weight gained compared to protein consumption used mostly in mice not very accurate 0 Chemical Score looks at the AAs in proteins the more variety a protein has and the more essential AAs the better 0 Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score PDCAAs not all proteins are 100 digestible so the chemical score is modified to account for how digestible the AA is Egg white is 1 soy beans are 099 Nitrogen protein balance 0 Positive gaining protein needed for growth pregnancy recovery from trauma body building people with hormone diseases 0 Equilibrium protein going out is about the same as protein going in most adults to middle aged people are in this stage 0 Negative loosing body protein occurs when you have an inadequate amount of protein in your diet can also occur if you don t consume enough carbs protein is converted to sugar for energy common in the bedridden elderly the US consumes more than enough protein but developing countries struggle to get enough Digestion and absorption 0 Cookingheating denatures proteins 0 Stomach acid denatures proteins pepsin is released to break up polypeptide chains 0 Small intestine absorbs most of the AA needed only chains of 1 2 and 3 AA can be absorbed 0 Branch chain AA are not processed by the liver and go straight to muscles good for body builders o The liver sees most AA after they enter the bloodstream o The liver can turn AAs into glucose to regulate sugar levels in the body Functions of Proteins Makes structures for the body collagen actin and myosin muscle structures that contract Maintain uid balance most of the blood is made of proteins so maintaining a balance is important Contributes to acid base balance along cell membranes Builds enzymes that do just about everything in a cell also act as neurotransmitters glutamate and hormones Helps immune function antibodies are made of proteins Can be converted to glucose for energy 4 kcalg Health concerns 0 Protein Energy Malnutrition O O O Marasmus and Kwashiorkor disease Immune systems become very weak Most prevalent in developing countries 0 High protein diets Atkins diet and other low carb diets Protein makes you feel full Long term affects can damage kidneys from increased urea levels in blood Inadequate vitamin intake because fruits and vegetables are replaced with proteins Intake of harmful substances increases cholesterol saturated fats 0 Protein allergies Some food proteins can cause an immune response 8 foods account for 90 of allergies peanuts tree nuts eggs fish shellfish soy wheat and milk during anaphylaxis the immune system overreacts to the protein to avoid allergies avoid eating the foods above while breastfeeding avoid feeding babies the foods above until they are older most kids outgrow allergies Vegetarianismveganism 0 Pros o Cons Smaller carbon footprint Positive health benefits Animal concerns Possibility of decreased antibiotic resistance Nutrient deficiencies iron B12 protein I Social aspects I Cost I False assumption of health a bag of potato chips is vegetarian but its not healthy 0 Types of diets I Vegan only eat plants I Lactoovovegetarians eat only plants milk and eggs I Lactovegetarian eats plants and milk 0 Nutrient concerns I Nutrient concerns vegetarians may not be getting enough calcium zinc protein ribo avin vitamin D and 312 I Special concern for infants and children on these diets because their growth and development may be impaired Alcohol 7 kcal g Made through fermentation starchy foods are given to bacteria that break them down into alcohol and C02 Alcohol content varies by drink Fermentation o yeast consumes carbs and converts them into alcohol and C02 0 product must then be distilled to isolate the alcohol Alcohol is absorbed very quickly into the blood stream Once it is absorbed into the blood the liver takes it out 0 liver removes alcohol from the blood and converts it to acetaldehyde which is very harmful this is then converted to acetyl CoA Some of this is used for energy but most is stored as fat an can lead to a very fatty liver Pathways 0 Alcohol dehydrogenase pathway in liver normal amounts of alcohol are processed o MEOS in liver excessive amounts of alcohol are quickly converted this method leaves more acetaldehyde laying around building up a tolerance to alcohol involves this channel always being open Factors affecting metabolism 0 Ethnicity gender and age Asians and women don t have as high a tolerance age makes it harder to process alcohol 0 A tolerance can be built up Rate of alcohol consumption the body can process half a drink every hour Negative effects of alcohol other than the obvious o Hypoglycemia the liver gets messed up when it has to process alcohol so blood sugar can t be regulated o Dehydration causes hangovers Most Americans consume alcohol and 70 of college students consume it with half of those binge drinking drinking a lot in a short amount of time Risks 0 Alcohol effects many parts of your body but the liver suffers the most other problems occur in the brain heart and can lead to high blood pressure 0 Cancers especially of the digestive tract are common 0 Cirrhosis of the liver fat builds up over time and can cause damage and even cancer 0 Long term alcoholics can also develop an inability to absorb nutrients Effects on nutrition 0 Proteinenergy malnutrition alcoholic beverages replace other foods 0 Water soluble vitamin deficiency thiamin niacin B12and foliate are used in excess to repair the body after consumption so these nutrients are needed 0 Fat soluble vitamin deficiency vitamins ADE and K are all lacking because of all the fat stored in the liver Pregnancy and breastfeeding o 3 of babies are born with alcohol related complications 0 most severe damage occurs in the first 1216 weeks of pregnancy 0 fetal alcohol syndrome impairs the growth and development of the baby and can lead to mental retardation 0 alcohol can also pass from the mother to baby through breastfeeding if the mother consumes a alcoholic beverages Alcohol abuse signs a person will not fulfill responsibilities so they can drink Alcohol dependency a person gets cravings for alcohol and will suffer withdrawl symptoms if they stop drinking Risk factors for alcoholism o Genetics account 50 of risk 0 Gender makes are 4x more likely to become alcoholics 0 Age of drinking onset the earlier you start the increased risk there is Diagnosis treatments for alcoholics 0 First the person must realize they have a problem 0 Recovery options include support groups and drugs Health effects 0 Moderate drinking has been linked to longer healthier lives 0 This is most likely caused by phytochemicals in wines and beers polyphenols antioxidants