crim102weekeight.pdf CJC 102 -2
Popular in Criminology
Popular in Criminology and Criminal Justice
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Eiseman on Friday October 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJC 102 -2 at Ball State University taught by Jonathan Intravia in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 10/16/15
1014 SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION THEORY 1 social ecology a focuses on how ecological conditions influence human interactions and behaviors i community disorder 1 areas where there are abandoned and deteriorating physically structures experience high crime rates 2 higher crime rates not because there is a vandalized building but gives the perception that that is okay in that community ii community fear 1 areas where residents are fearful decreases quality of life 2 stay indoors own guns etc iii residential instability 1 constantly changing areas residents have fewer opportunities to develop strong personal ties to one another iv poverty concentration 1 urban areas with greatest poverty are more prone to crime a the most disadvantaged members of society the poorest of the poor b higher crime rates due to limited resources v informal social control 1 non officialnonformal actions taken by residents to solve local problems 2 positive social connections 3 neighborhood watch programs vi social cohesion 1 cohesive communities based on mutual trust including the intervention in supervising children and maintenance of public order vii social order 1 greater police presence more police patrol b disorganization theory equations i disorganization poverty pop turnover crimedeviance ii neighborhood structure disorder forma control informal controlfear crime and deviance iii Neighborhood structure low ses neighborhood cynicisminjustice 2 Origins of Strain theory a Emile Durkheim i argued that modernization and rapid social change would result in a breakdown of social order norms of proper behavior called anomie 1 social consequences of this was crime and suicide 2 during industrial revolution 3 argued that societies become anemic anomie 4 before these social changes society was able to control the societies behaviors 5 these changes lead to disorder in society ii Strain theories 1 less avenues for success b Robert Merton Anomie i interested in why rates of criminal behavior differed between certain groups in the same society 1 ANOMIE a a state of normlessness and confusion that leads to strain 2 anomie results from a discrepancy between culturally approved goals and legitimate means to achieve these goals 3 ways to achieve american dream 4 because society promotes these culturally desired goals people are more likely to experience strain 5 are likely to adapt to it in 1 or 5 ways a conformity i accept goals ii accept ways to achieve it iii the ones that work hard follow the rules to achieve dream b innovation probs on test i a accept goals ii reject ways to achieve it iii unable to retain goals through legitimate means iv most closely associated with criminal behavior v don t want to work to achieve goals c ritualism i reject culturally desired goals ii accept ways to achieve it and means of society 1 realize they ll never own a nice home or car but work really hard to make ends meet 2 not criminals paycheck to paycheck 4 gave up on american dream 9 1016 a Retreatism i reject culturally desired goal ii reject the mean of obtaining goals iii withdrawn from society iv give up on life in general v drug users or drifters b Rebemon i rejected but substituted both goals and means ii reaction against corruption 2 Agnew a argued that not all sources of strain result are due to economic failure i broadens anomie b sources of strain i failure to achieve positively valued stimuli 1 goals such as wealth and power are impossible to achieve ii loss of positively valued stimuli 1 loss of boyfriend or spouse 2 moving to new neighborhood 3 getting kicked out of school iii presentation of negative stimuli 1 child abuse or neglect 2 hostile relationships 3 poor economic conditions c these sources lead to negative affective states L anger ii frustration iii disappointed iv depression v fear vi leads to antisocial behavior 1 drug abuse 2 deanuency 3 crime 4 violence 5 school drop out d higher dose of strain more likely they are to become antisocial 3 Strain theories a key empirical support for GST general strain theory i indicators of strain are related to crime 1 breakup unemployment dissatisfied with schoolfriends 4 SUBCULTURAL THEORIES i explains how people living in lowerclass neighborhoods react to social isolation and economic deprivation ii delinquentsubculture 1 a value system adopted by lowerclass youths that is directly opposed to that of the larger society iii Delinquentsubcultures 1 FOCAL CONCERNS 2 values that have specifically evolved to fit condition sin lower class enviros and may result in deviance and violence a focal concerns related to crime vi 5 Ferracuti and Wolfgang fate 1 attitude of guided destiney that encourages risky behavior autonomy 1 independent from authority figures such as police teachers parents smartness 1 street smarts 2 outwitting opponents toughness 1 lower class youths want a physically tough reputation 2 don t want to appear weak excitement 1 always look for fun and excitement such as stealing and gambling uouMe 1 gh ng 2 dnnMng 3 not being able to handle trouble RUINS REP YO a SUBCULTURE OF VIOLENCE i violent behavior is learned and is an adaption to certain environmental stimuli 1 such as anger frustration and conflict ii subcultures develop and adopt violent values that are separate from the larger more dominant culture 6 Cloward and Ohlin39s Differential opportunity a combined concepts from both strain and social disorganization theories to generate a gang sustaining criminal subculture b Differential opportunity view that lower class youths whose legitimate opportunities are limited join gangs and pursue criminal careers as alternative universal success goals type ofgangs 1 criminal a extortion b fraud c theft d smartgangs 2 conflict a means of respect and survival b gh ng c vandalism d assault 3 retreatist a doublefailures b drug use c petty theft 7 ELIJAH ANDERSON CODE OF THE STREET individual specifically young African Americans adopt a subculture of rules and regulations that promote the use of violence deals with the idea of respect and building a valuable reputation by achieving and maintaining respect amongst your a peers i respect makes it less likely that people will mess with you building respect is believed to reduce victimization individuals from impoverished neighborhoods who have unfavorable perceptions of police and judicial systems are more likely to adopt the street code 1 don t trust cops take law into own hands must take the law into their own hands and defend themselves and others from crime and victimization set of attitudes and beliefs that result in violence 8 Evaluating Social structure theories a Majorcriticisms social disorganization theory 1 ecological approach fails to consider bias in official crime stats 2 theory fails to account for crime in affluent neighborhoods Strain theory 1 research shows that strain is not always associated with crime 2 narrow focus on individuals who have limited economic opportunities iii subcultural theories 1 people never violate the norms of their own groups 2 only the norms of other groups 3 neglects variables that may prevent involvement in crime a self control 4 Bias against certain racial and ethnic groups