Ch. 7 Political Parties
Ch. 7 Political Parties P SC 1113
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca Hurlburt on Friday October 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to P SC 1113 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr. Tyler Johnson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see American Federal Government in Political Science at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 10/16/15
Chapter 7 Political Parties Week 6 Notes for American Federal Government P SC 1113 Chapter Notes Vocabulary a nickname for the Republican Party grand old party political pa y a group of individuals who organize to win elections operate the government and determine policy realignment a process in which the popular support for and relative strength of the parties shift and the parties are reestablished with different coalitions of supporters dealignment among voters a growing detachment from both major political parties coalition an alliance of individuals or groups with a variety of interests and opinions who join together to support all or part of a political party s platform majority party the political party that has more members in the legislature than the opposing Party minority party the political party that has fewer members in the legislature than the opposing Party primary a preliminary election held for the purpose of choosing a party s nal candidate electorate all of the citizens eligible to vote in a given election national convention the meeting held by each major party every four years to nominate presidential and vicepresidential candidates write a party platform and conduct other party business national party chairperson an individual who serves as a political party s administrative head at the national level and directs the work of the party s national committee national party committee the political party leaders who direct party business during the four years between the national party conventions organize the next national convention and plan how to support the party s candidate in the next presidential election party activist a party member who helps to organize and oversee party functions and planning during and between campaigns and may even become a candidate for of ce party identi er a person who identi es himself or herself as being a supporter of a particular political party party platform the document drawn up by each party at its national convention that outlines the policies and positions of the party party ticket a list of a political party s candidates for various of ces In national elections the party ticket consists of the presidential and vicepresidential candidates patronage a system of rewarding the party faithful and workers with government jobs or contracts precinct a political district within a city such as a block or a neighborhood or a rural portion of a county the smallest voting district at the local level solidarity mutual agreement among the members of a particular group m a local unit of a political party s organization consisting of a division or district within a city third party in the United States any party other than the two major parties Republican and Democratic twoparty system a political system in which two strong and established parties compete for political offices A Short History of American Political Parties The First Political Parties Even though the Founding Fathers warned against political parties need for campaigns and differences in ideals made them necessary The original political parties were the Federalists who were in favor of a strong central government and the antiFederalists who were in favor of states rights The AntiFederalists evolved into Jefferson s Republicans who continued to be in favor of more power to the states and Congress as the leading power in the federal government From 1796 to 1860 With the election of Thomas Jefferson Jefferson s republicans took the power They would hold the majority for the next twenty years During this time the Federalists became the first political party to cease to eXist Jefferson s Republicans split into the Democrats and the National Republicans later the Whig Party The parties attempted to ignore slavery until the Whig Party fell apart the northern Whigs being absorbed into the new Republican Party which fought against slavery and got Abraham Lincoln elected From the Civil War to the Great Depression During this time Republicans were the most successful in maintaining control of the White House They were known as the party that could handle the country s economy After the Great Depression The Great Depression destroyed the belief that the Republicans could handle the economy and FDR won the presidency for the Democrats Starting with Roosevelt s New Deal the Democrats began running on a platform of civil rights bringing more African Americans and other minorities who had typically been Republican to their side Conservative Democrats were not pleased with the direction the Democratic party were going and began to vote for Republicans America s Political Parties Today Red States versus Blue States Geography tends to have a great effect on party identification Since the 2000 s the press has made much of red states vs blue states However in reality most states are purple states and could lean either direction depending on the situation Trouble for the Parties Because of the seemingly endless war in Iraq and the great recession of 2007 Republicans began to lose support leading to the election of Barack Obama However within a year of his inauguration the lack of change in unemployment rates caused people to lose faith in the Democratic party as well In the past decade or so the parties have become more and more divided to the point where even friendships between Congress members of different parties have become rare This division makes it extremely difficult for the parties to reach compromises meaning nothing gets done in Congress Realignment Dealignment and Tipping With the rise of Independents it is possible that realignment may no longer be the case and Congress could go into dealignment where everyone could change sides depending on the issue What Do Political Parties Do Selecting Candidates and Running Campaigns Voter turnout is much lower for primary elections than for general elections People who do vote tend to be very strong supporters of their party For this reason Republican candidates run very conservative primary campaigns and Democratic candidates run very liberal campaigns During general election their campaigns will become more centralized Parties help to run campaigns by getting party members registered and recruiting new voters Informing the Public The parties present their views through the media to inform voters of issues and let them consider proposed solutions Coordinating Policymaking Parties help to connect the various types of government officials and levels of government federal state local through shared policies In an ideal government the parties work to gather to reach compromises However compromise has become very uncommon in Congress today Checking the Power of the Governing Party The minority party checks the majority party by informing the public of the majority party s shortcoming and in uencing future elections Balancing Competing Interests The parties are basically coalitions of many interest groups They must keep their platforms broad enough to satisfy many opinions How American Political Parties Are Structured The Party in the Electorate The party electorate consists of party identi ers those who identify as member of the party and party activists those who work for the party sometimes even running for of ce Most members of the party in the electorate are ordinary citizens However their are elite groups consisting of more well known and in uential persons People join parties for multiple reasons solidarity mutual agreement material incentives purposive incentives to support ideals The Party Organization Party organization is very loose and decentralized Generally state organizations are built around a central committee and a chairperson Local organizations form in every district where elective of ces have to be lled At the national level the organization consists of the national convention the national committee the national chairperson and the congressional campaign committees The Party in Government Developing Issues The party in government helps to organize agenda by convincing its own party members in of ce to vote for its policies The Dominance of Our TwoPartv Svstem The Self Perpetuation of the TwoParty System Most new voters absorb their political views fro their parents or whoever taught them about politics For this reason most voters identify as one of the two main parties Election laws make it easier for the two main parties to get on the ballot They need far fewer signatures than a third party candidate Third Parties in American Politics An issueoriented third party forms to promote a particular case or timely issue Ideological parties form to support a particular political doctrine or set of beliefs Splinter parties develop out of a split in a major party The Effects of Third Parties Even though not many people vote for third parties they bring important issues into the public eye They can affect elections by stealing the win from one party and giving it to the other They also provide a voice for Americans who do not feel represented by the Republican or Democratic parties Lecture Notes Ideologies 39 Ideology related set of beliefs about goals of society 39 Also about how to achieve that order 39 Liberalconservative spectrum often used in shorthand by elites Survey Findings on De ning Liberal and Conservative 1 in 4 spending related answer 1 in 4 capitalism vs social programs answer 1 in 4 change vs status quo answer l in 7 abortion answer moralityreligion answer workingbusiness answer Party Identi cation 39 An attachment to a political party Term originated with Michigan School Campbell Converse Miller Stokes 39 Research done across 195 Os ask people about their party attachment at regular intervals 39 The most stable of attitudes they found Where Does Party ID Come From Socialization 39 Group identi cation Running tally of recent outcomes Why Does It Change The tally might change An issue might topple it Who leads the party might cause you to rethink What Party ID Does 39 Serves as screen for information causing selective exposure changing relationships with those around us 39 Strong predictor of issue positions 39 Serves as strong cue in voting CCMS funnel of causality argument 4 20th Century Independent Successes 1912 Theodore Roosevelt gets 274 percent 88 EV 1924 Robert Lafollette gets 166 percent 13 EV 1968 George Wallace gets 135 percent 46 EV 1992 Ross Perot gets 19 percent 0 EV Why Did They Succeed Name recognition 39 Coherent messagemovement Money to spend Roadblocks to Third Party Success 39 Public attachment and record of voting for l of 2 parties 39 Voters must see third party as a credible alternative and not just a spoiler Ballot access laws drain time money 39 New party is a startup needs candidate organization media and tons of money 39 Cooptation of their ideas by eXisting parties 39 What would the message be beyond the eXisting parties woes Pure Independence and Leaning Independence the Questions Traditional 7 point question asked by ANES reveals much Do you consider yourself a Republican Democrat or Independent 39 For those who claim a party Would you consider yourself a strong or a not very strong RepublicanDemocrat 39 For independents Do you thin of yourself as closer to the Republican or Democratic Party 39 Gives us 7 points SD WD LD I LR WR SR Pure Independence and Leaning Independence The Answers Number who initially say they39re independent rising 39 However most of these people say they lean 39 Only 11 percent say they39re independent and have no leaning Two Types of Independents 39 Some are educated and have interest Dalton s apartisans 39 Some aren39t as educated have little interest Dalton s apoliticals Apartisans more political knowledge constantly gathering information active on issues Apoliticals opting out entirely