Ch 9 Notes on Concept Checks, Textbook, and Videos
Ch 9 Notes on Concept Checks, Textbook, and Videos PSY 101
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Notetaker on Friday October 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at Arizona State University taught by Professor Goldinger in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 10/16/15
Chapter 9 Notes READ Chapter 9 from beginning summary 92 o Sensory memory gt The incoming information or signals gt Large capacity gt Brief duration a second or less as long as the neural activity produced by a sensation continues gt Separate channels for different sensory types acousticsounds and words also called echoic memories visual images also called iconic memories haptictouch and body senses etc gt It is translated or transduced into several types of codes or representations or mental models of bits of info that exist even when the info is no longer available 0 Shorttermworking memory gt Limited capacity 59 bits Once filled new information will displace the old gt Limited duration 30 sec maximum gt Expansion of capacity through chunking group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit and rehearsal repeating verbally or mentally gt Without rehearsal information in shortterm memory will quickly decay gt Consist of four components Central executive handles the limited amount of info that a person can hold at one time while reasoning and making decisions visuospatial scratchpad allows people to temporarily hold and manipulate visual images episodic buffer allows these components to integrate information it is the interface between working memory and longterm memory phonological loop the acoustic recitation system of all of short termmemory 0 Longterm memory gt Moves to longterm from short term through rehearsal 0 Maintenance rehearsal simple repetition of material 0 Elaborative rehearsal involves the linking of new material to things you already know gt Very large capacity gt Very large duration 0 How we retrieve memories gt According to Sternberg we search through shortterm memory one item at a time rather than retrieving its contents all at once gt Cues any stimuli that helps you access target information affect the ability to retrieve information 0 Complete cues such as multiple choice or truefalse questions where the answer is on the page in front of you 0 Recognitionrecall tasks such as essay exams provide fewer cues 0 Most effective cues are those we create ourselves o Cues are often recorded during encoding specificity leading to context dependent memory gt Partial recall quottip of the tongue remember the first letter or number of syllables or incorrect words that sounded similar Could block retrieval of the correct item or could be a cue gt When we retrieve a bit of store info it flows from longterm memory back into working memory The mind is reconstructing or a memory out of the stored bits by blending retrieved info with new content present in working memory rather than simply reproducing some memory trace Changes made to the original memory usually while the memory is recent and fresh will update the memory as the real truth gt External and internal sources can produce false memories 0 Three types of level processing the deeper the better retention gt Shallow structural encoding that emphasizes the physical structure of the word gt Intermediate phonemic encoding that emphasizes what a word sounds like gt Deep semantic encoding that emphasizes the meaning of verbal input WATCH ASU Video 91 0 Examples of memory Recognition of people remembering how to do certain skills retaining information for exams and school 0 Different structures in the brain work together to form memory 0 The brain creates a memory through encoding which sets off a reaction in your brain 0 Basic model of memory systems 1 Sensory input 2 Sensory Memory gt gt gt For every sense in your body there is a memory storage made for that sense Visual systems hold onto a memory for a few seconds giving your brain time to perceive it and categorize it Also works for auditory systems example when you ask someone to repeat something but then you remember what they said Sperling studied visual memory with experiment showing letters for 50 milliseconds Whole report vs partial report Focusing on one row increased memory of it Sensory memory takes it all in but doesn t always let you retain it long enough 3 Short and Longterm Memory gt gt Primacy effect long term memory Recency effect short term memory gt Each word passes from sensory memory to short term memory but the short term memory has a limited capacity gt Primacy and Recency effects can be changed independently based on time and distractions gt Doubled dissociation affects one part of the curve but leaves the other alone Separate systems short and long term gt Shortterm working memory 0 What you re able to keep in mind at any given timeusuallyjust a few things at once doesn t last very long 0 Highly susceptible to interference Strategies such as chunking help handle more info Henry Molaison had epilepsy removed his hippocampus long term was unaffected short term was relatively normal but he could not form new memories 0 Clive Wearing had encephalitis extreme amnesia he lives in one moment of time over and over again thinking he s constantly waking up WATCH How We Make MemoriesCrash Course Psychology 13 0 Memory is learning that has persisted over time stored and remembered o 3 Steps to learning recognition recall and relearning gt Recall how you reach back into your mind and retrieve information fill in the blank gt Recognition Identified old information when presented with it multiple choice gt Relearning Refreshing old information studying for final exam 0 3 Steps 1 Encoded Sensory memory 2 Stored Short or long term memory 3 Retrieved 0 Short term is often formed using rehearsal o It typically can hold between 4 and 7 bits of info at a time and either decays or transfers into long term 0 Explicit constantly and actively o Implicit transfer of learning without trying 0 Automatic processing Procedural memory actually doing things effortful at first 0 Episodic things that happened in your life 0 Mnemonics chunking familiar units acronyms 0 Shallow processing basic auditory or visual levels based on structure of the word Deep processing actual meaning associated with word or meaningful personal expenence Concept Check Ch 91 with Quiz Correct order of the steps of the information processing continuum that flows from bottom up and top down is attention sensation perception learning memory thinking problem solving According to levels of processing theory the person who takes turns with a friend defining and explaining each vocab term will remember the most definitions Priming is a change in a response to a stimulus as a result of exposure to a previous stimulus According to the levels of processing theory the depth shallow to deep of processing predicts the ease of retrieval Professor Radcliffe prepares an exam but doesn t realize she made a spelling error Top down processing causes this oversight A computer stores exact copies of data but a brain stores bits of data that are reconstructed for later use Working memory processes information as visuospatial memories allowing someone to remember a phone number and email address even after losing the paper Serial position effect graph is a Ushaped curve The hippocampus plays an essential role in the formation of new memories Process of memory encoding storage retrieval Atkinson and Shiffrin model of memory where info flows through 3 stages Sensory memory shortterm memory longterm memory Memory the ability to retain knowledge Negative emotions can enhance or impair memories An implicit memory for carrying out a motor skill or action is a procedural memory READChapter 9 from How is LTM Organized to end Forgetting Motivated forgetting gt The failure to remember or retrieve unpleasant or threatening information gt Motivations can distort the memories we retrieve and can be so extreme that the original info is essentially lost Forgetting gt A decrease in the ability to remember a previously formed memory o Decay gt gt gt gt O O O 0 You can t forget something you never learned Retention the proportion of material remembered Three ways to assess retention 0 Recall reproducing info without any cues 0 Recognition selecting previously learned information from options 0 Relearning memorize information a second time to see how much time is saved by having previously learned it Stress illness time pressure and distractions can reduce our ability to recall information Forgetting allows us to prioritize the things we should remember fMRI functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown that the prefrontal areas of the brain appear to actively suppress memories that are used less frequently allowing for less confusion and reducing the amount of work required to recall higher priority memories Occurs when our ability to retrieve information we do not use fades over time Measuring the retention of material through method of savingscomparing the rate of learning the first time to the second time Interference The competition between newer and older info in the memory system In the window of time the memories are being processed but not yet fully consolidated they are subject to distortion loss or replacement by interference from other bits of info Synaptic consolidation takes minutes or hours and memory loss usually occurs when this consolidation is interrupted The memories are all there but newer information makes it harder to retrieve the old ones Works in both directions 0 Learning two things at once rather than spreading it out produces proactive interference reduced memory for target information as a result of earlier learning for the second thing Reduced memory for target information because of subsequent learning is known as retroactive interference Con nectionist Theories Tendency to group memories that share overlapping features The mind is an interconnected network made up of simpler unites Spreading activation model people form their own organizations in memory based on their personal experiences WATCH ASU Video 92 0 Stephen Wiltshire has autism known as human camera Hyperamnesia extremely exact photographic memory 0 Longterm memory 1 Declarative Explicit memory gt Memories that you are completely aware that you have retrievable and able to be verbalized gt Episodic memories specific events personal experience gt Semantic memories general knowledge acquired over the course of your life 2 Nondeclarative implicit memory gt Memory expressed through behavior gt Procedural memory ability to carry out learned skills gt Perceptual memory priming can t explain but can see it Improved perception for experienced stimuli 0 Retrieving a memory from long term a product of cues from the environment or other memories 0 Memories are formed by connections among items 0 quotTipoftheTongue almost remembering something but not quite Ideas are connected when formed 0 Encoding specificity when you form a new memory you are in a certain place with a certain person certain state of mind Likelihood to retrieve is higher if those cues are still in place 0 State dependent memory if you are sad when forming a memory you will be sad when retrieving it or another sad event can trigger that memory 0 The best place to study is in the room where you will take the test 0 Schemas understand what is supposed to happen in what order schemas explain how we optimize our uptake and retention of information by filling in what we don t remember Schemas can actually changereconstruct memories Allport and Postman Eyewitness memories can be changed easily Loftus by leading questions subtle suggestions schematic inferences 0 Memories don t decay they simply require more effort to retrieve o Interference so many memories it seems like we forget them Going forward and backward in time Selective forgetting Concept Check Ch 92 with Quiz 0 A classic method of measuring the retention of material in longterm memory over time is to A method to measure retention time of material in longterm is to compare the rate of learning the material the first time to the rate of learning the material the second time A set of expectations about objects and situations is called a schema Interference is the competition between newer and older information in memory Example of motivated forgetting Kevin forgets to send a quarterly check to his divorced wife The effect of our motivations on our retrieval of memories can distort the memories we retrieve n Elizabeth Loftus s experiment she superimposed participant family photos into a hot air balloon and 50 of participants falsely remembered having taken the balloon ride Forgetting helps prioritize the things we should remember Being unable to remember what happened leading up to an injury is because the synaptic consolidation of the memories were interrupted by the head injury Personal experiences determine how people organize knowledge The Somatovisceral Afference Model of Emotion SAME provides a middle ground between the JamesLange theory and the SchachterSinger twofactor theory Tipofthetongue retrieval as a stepbystep process moving closer to the target Flashbulb memory an especially vivid and detailed memory of an emotional event retrieval of this memory will be more accurate than everyday events around that time 75 of eyewitness accounts are mistaken The spreading activation model accounts for the results of the lexical decision experiments that demonstrate priming by explaining the quicker decision time with related words
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