Week 8: Cell Signaling & Cell Cycle and Mitosis I
Week 8: Cell Signaling & Cell Cycle and Mitosis I Bio 107
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Johnson on Friday October 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 107 at Washington State University taught by William Davis in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 10/16/15
Cell Signaling II Signal Shut Down 339 Occurs when Response is completed Signal disappears 339 Cell needs chemical mechanisms to turn off eliminate signaling proteins Signal Amplification 339 The number of downstream proteins activated by a small number of receptors typically increases exponentially Example 10 receptors gt 100 TK1 gt 1000 TK2 gt 10000 TF 339 The signal expands Membrane Protein Recycling 339 Receptor mediated endocytosis Membrane pinches off fatty acids to form a vesicle Vesicle splits in half with the ligands in one half and the receptors in the other Ligands get broken down and the receptors return to the cell surface Cell Cycle and Mitosis Cancer 0 v Cancer cells turn off the protective mechanisms for damage control Chromosomes 339 Every organism has a characteristic number The typical human genome has 46 339 Structure when not dividing DNA is packaged into chromatin A complex of proteins histones and chromosomal DNA Alternates regions of tightly and loosely packaged DNA 339 Structure during cell division and mitosis Chromosomes are condensed and paired Held together by cohesion a protein complex Cell Cycle 339 2 major phases Interphase 3 distinct periods G1 phase S phase G2 phase Mitotic phase 2 distinct periods Mitosis Cytokinesis 0 v Control Cells divide at different rates and quality control is needed Checkpoints Allow cells to control the rate of division G1 G2 and M checkpoints Cancer cells overcome these checkpoints Major focus of cancer biology Different features are checked at each point