PSYC 4220 Week 9 Notes
PSYC 4220 Week 9 Notes PSYC 4220
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlin Conner on Friday October 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4220 at University of Georgia taught by Kacy Welsh in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/16/15
PSYC 4220 WEEK 9 NOTES October 12 2015 Chapter 9 Cognitive Development in Preschool Stages of cognitive development Preoperational 27 years 0 Symbolic function improves and language becomes more complex 0 Pretend symbolic play becomes more complex Ex Using banana as a phone playing doctor Children with imaginary companions are more social and creative Pretend play allows kids to practice 0 Language Adult roles Dealing with emotionscon icts Social skills 0 Errors Piaget focused on errors in thinking such as Appearancereality distinction children concrete in thinking assume if appearance changes so do underlying qualities 0 Ex Masks 0 Lack of conservation 0 Don t understand that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement physical appearance of objects 0 Why do kids have these problems Cant quotdecenterquot Decentration ability to focus on 2 aspects of reality or dimensions of a problem simultaneously 0 Instead display centration focus on single aspect of realityproblem Haven t mastered reversibility process of mental undoing or reversing an action But even at 4 years children can be trained to conserve o Egocentrism tendency to view world solely from one s own 0 perspective 3 mountains task 0 children assume everyone sees what they see from their perspective also egocentric psychologically think everyone has same thoughts feelings desires as they do 0 Are children really as egocentric as Piaget thinks NO 0 Mountain task too complicated 0 Performance vs competence 0 Kids have a difficult time with scale models 0 On simpler tasks children appear less egocentdc Ex Dogcat card experiment What about psychological egocentrism Gradual reduction over toddler preschool and early childhood 0 Ex Broccoli vs crackers At 14 months give researcher food child prefers By 18 months give researcher food researcher prefers Separate research paradigm from preoperational Theory of Mind 0 knowledge and beliefs about how mind works and in uences behavior gradual increase in understanding from infancy through the preschool years 0 at age 3 rudimentary ToM but don t understand that actions are based on individual perceptions of reality that can differ often studied using false belief tasks 0 3 year olds fail 45 year olds pass 0 by age 4 start understanding that beliefs may not match reality but still in uence actions attempts at deception increase become more complex 0 October 14 2015 0 Theory of Mind Continued 0 4 year old theory of mind still incomplete Do not understand that people are thinking even when it is not obvious o 4 year olds think you are thinking the EXACT same thing as them 0 Factors that contribute to development of ToM Language development has a big impact 0 More the language to think abut thinking ability to think about it more Pretend Play 0 Complex pretend play kids are better at ToM Social Experience 0 Secure attachment to mother predicts better ToM because mother spends more time talking to children and commenting on their mental state 0 Having siblings that are still kids child age siblings do better on false belief tasks 0 Talk with siblings and see that people think different things and have different days than themselves 0 Parents help kids learn vocab by re ning words and saying word in many sentences 0 Preschool Language Development 0 Vocab continues to grow rapidly 1015000 words by 6 years old 0 10 new words every single day Fast Mapping connecting a new word with its meaning after only brief encounter So hear word make hypothesis use word and then see feedback to see if it s right 0 Assume new word is the whole object and not just the part 0 Use shape of object to learn Syntactical Bootstrapping gure out meaning of words by observing how they re used in structure of sentence using syntax to gure out what word means even 23 yr olds use it o Sentences slowly become more complex and less holographic Children can say all words in sentence Around 3 start using grammatical modi ers o Overregulation applying rules of grammar to exceptions where rules do not apply Ex saying quotDaddy goedquot instead of quotDaddy wentquot gooses instead of geese Relatively rare more likely with words use less often 0 Error to word not used word that much 0 Begin mastering pragmatics of language Louder voice if speaking to someone further away I Change voice when explaining things Learn politeness By 4 adjust talk to t age gender and social status of listener 0 Effects of the Environment on the Language Development Poverty 0 Children living in poverty Hear fewer words 0 By age 4 heard 14 million less words 0 Are spoken to and interacted with less often 0 Less likely to be read to Are more likely to hear simple sentences and prohibitions such as no and quotdo not to thatquot Have smaller vocabulary Difference begin early slower verbal processing at 18 months learn fewer words between 18 to 24 months lower SES at 18 months in language when regular SES is at 24 months 0 Lower le by age 5 less ready for school For children to not fall behind talk a lot with them 0 October 16 2015 0 NO CLASS Vygotsky and Language Development Vygotsky s Sociocultural Perspective 0 Main idea Cognitive development is highly in uenced by social interaction culture Kids are seen as apprentices 0 Culture affects cog devel Tools of intellectual adaptation methods of thinking problem solving passed on in a culture Because of tools values beliefs of cultures are different cog devel is not universal Instead cog skills are contextspeci c Culture determines speed AND content of skills developed Social interaction affects cog development 0 Most skills acquired through social interaction 0 Zone of proximal development gap between what person can accomplish alone vs with assistance of skilled partner 0 best opportunity for cog growth tasks just beyond child s capabilities alone but possible with assistance 0 more skilled person engages in scaffolding carefully tailoring help to level of learner Evaluation of Vygotsky 0 Pros Emphasized impact of social interactionculture on cogdeveL Evidence supports importance of social interaction forcogdeveL Useful in education 0 Cons Focus on verbal interaction scaffolding as most important Western bias Lack of attention to impact of basic cognitive perceptual motor devel Not very precise so hard to test 0 Pg 224230 0 InformationProcessing Approaches to Cognitive Development 0 Information processing approaches focus on changes in the kinds of quotmental Programsquot that children use when approaching problems For many child developmentalists represents the dominant most comprehensive and ultimately the most accurate explanation of how children develop cognitively Preschoolers Understanding of Numbers 0 Average preschooler is able to count in a systematic consistent manner 0 When shown a group of several items they know they should assign just one number to each item and that each item should be counted only once Preschoolers may demonstrate a surprisingly sophisticated understanding of numbers although their understanding is not totally precise By the age of 4 most are able to carry out simple addition and subtraction problems by counting and they are able to compare different quantities Memory Recalling the Past 0 Autobiographical memory memory of particular events from one s own life achieves itte accuracy until after 3 years of age 0 Accuracy then increases gradually and slowly throughout the preschool years 3 yos can remember central features of routine occurrences 0 sequence of events involved in eating at a restaurant typically accurate in their responses to open ended questions accuracy is partly determined by how soon memories are assessed 0 meaningfulvividmore likely to be remembered not all autobiographical memories last into later life affected by cultural factors 0 Chinese college students memories of early childhood are more likely to be unemotional and re ect activities involving social roles 0 US college students earliest memories are more emotionally elaborate and focus on speci c events Memories of familiar events are often organized in terms of scripts broad representations in memory of events and the order in which they occur 0 Ex Eating in a restaurant talking to waitress getting food and eating w age scripts become more elaborate o bc events that are frequently repeated 0 tend to be melded into scripts particular instances of a scripted event are recalled less accurately preschoolers have difficulty describing certain kinds of info 0 complex causal relationshipsmay oversimplify memories are susceptible to the suggestion of others Forensic Developmental Psychology Bringing Child Development to the Courtroom Forensic developmental psychology focuses on the reliability of children s autobiographical memories in the context of the legal system Considers children s abilities to recall events in their lives and the reliability of courtroom accounts where they are witnesses or victims Memories are susceptible to the suggestions of adults asking them questions Prone to making inaccurate inferences about the reasons behind others behavior and are less able to draw appropriate conclusions based on their knowledge of a situation Some events recalled with seeming accuracy never actually happened Error rate is heightened when same question is asked repeatedly 0 Also when questions are highly suggestive Most accurate recollections Question them right after event has occurred 0 Speci c questions are answered more accurately than general ones 0 Asking questions outside of courtroom is preferable o InformationProcessing Theories in Perspective Cog devel consists of gradual improvements in the ways people perceive understand and remember information Quantitative advances in information processing not qualitative changes suggested by Piaget that constitute cog devel Reliance on wellde ned processes that can be tested with relative precision by research is one of the most important features Provides a comprehensive logical set of concepts Contribution of mental skills like memory and attention to children s thinking Pays little attention to social and cultural factors Pays so much attention to detailed individual sequence of processes doesn t paint a comprehensive picture of cog devel o Vygotsky s View of Cognitive Development Taking Culture lnto Account Viewed cog devel as result of social interactions in which children learn through guided participation working with mentors to solve problems Social and cultural world is source of devel Children gradually grow intellectually and begin to function on their own because of assistance from adults and peers Culture and society establish institutionspreschools and play groups that promote devel by providing opportunities for cog devel Social expectations about gender also play a role The Zone of Proximal Development and Scaffolding Foundations of Cognitive Development Vyg proposed that children s cog abilities increase through exposure to info that is new enough to be intriguing but not too difficult for the child to contend with 0 Zone of proximal development level at which a child can almost but not fully perform a task independently but can do so with assistance from someone more competent For cog devel to occur new info must be presented within ZPD o Scaffolding assistance or structuring provided by others support for learning and problem solving that encourages independence and growth Mexican mothers provided more scaffolding than fathers Cultural tools actual physical items as well as an intellectual and conceptual framework for solving problems 0 Language used within a culture alphabet and numerical system math and science systems and religious systems Evaluating Vygotsky s Contributions Consistent theoretical system and can help explain a growing body of research attesting the the importance of social interaction in promoting cog devel Consistent with research Lack of precision in conceptualization of cog growth Broad concepts Virtually silent on how cog processes like memory and attention develop and how natural cog capabilities unfold