PSYC 316 Week 8 Notes
PSYC 316 Week 8 Notes PSYC 316
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sara Karikomi on Friday October 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 316 at Northern Illinois University taught by Simon Jencius in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Intro-Psycpathology in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 10/16/15
Chapter 7 Suicide and Parasuicide cont d Monday 12 October Where we left off last week 7 Triggers a Major Life Stressors 1 Combat stress among the more common 2 w of a loved one unemployment natural disaster 3 Social isolation lack of social support 4 Serious illness particularly in individuals in severe pain or with severe disabilities 5 Abusive environments 6 Occupational stress a Psychologists physicians nurses dentists lawyers police farmers and unskilled laborers 7 Mood changes can be subthreshold levels a Increased feelings of sadness anxiety tension frustration anger or shame b Shneidman called this a psychache 8 Thought changes becoming preoccupied loss of perspective a Linked with a sense of hopelessness about the ltUI C b Some psychologists identify hopelessness as the strongest predictor of intent 0 Others have noted dichotomous rigid thinking marked by fourletter word only 9 Drugs and Alcohol a As many as 70 drink alcohol before the suicidal act and approximately 35 of those are legally intoxicated autopsy reports b Other drugs may be involved opiates other depressants but research is still ongoing 1 OMenta1 Disorders a Greatest risk are among those with MDD SUDS andor schizophrenia Monday 12 October I Suicide A Triggers 1 Modeling seen particularly in teenagers 3 b C One suicidal act serves as a model for another Familyfriends celebrities other publicized suicides coworkers are particularly common triggers in this category Some have argued for more responsible reporting that doesn t sensationalize suicide particularly those that are bizarre or unusual B Suicide in the Elderly the highest risk group for committing suicide C Treatment 1 Psychotherapy or Drug Therapy after the individual is medically stable a Unfortunately many do not receive systematic followup care 2 Goals a Keep the individual alive b Reduce psychache c Provide a sense of hope d Improve the individual s coping skills 3 Coqnitive and Coqnitive Behavioral approaches may be the most helpful D Prevention 1 The US has hundreds of prevention programs including suicide hotlines a Many are staffed by Paraprofessionals 2 These programs provide crisis intervention With the general goals of a Establishing a positive relationship b Understanding and clarifying the individual s problem c Assessing suicide potential ideation intent access d Assessing and mobilizing the individual s resources e Formulating a plan andor contract 3 Is it Helpful a Hard to tell 1 Hotlines are somewhat successful in reducing the number of suicides of people Who call Again this is hard to determine b More public education Why can it be dangerous 11 W A Misconceptions Regarding SelfInjury 1 Individual may be trying to get attention B Parasuicide is on the Rise 1 Most common forms include burning cutting bruisingbanging 2 Whv do Deonle SelfIniure a Make the emotional pain physical and tangible b Punishing oneself c Affect Regulation d Release of endorphins may calm the individual and elevate their mood Chapter 8 Somatic Symptoms and Disorders 1 Somatic Symptoms A Symptoms are based on the belief that psychological factors can lead to illness or bodily complaints in many different ways B This belief has a long history but it does not get much attention in the US 1 Increasing proponents of this view in the 20th century C DSM5 has a number of disorders in which bodily symptoms concerns are the primary feature Factitious Disorder Conversion Disorder Somatic Svmptom Disorder Illness Anxiety Disorder Psvchonhvsioloqical Disorders 9999 II Factitious Disorder A There are no medical explanations for symptoms professionals consider either 1 Malingering the individual is faking the illness for secondary gain a more rare than believed 2 Factitious Disorder individual intentionally produces or fakes symptoms because they desire to play the role of a patient B Munchausen Svndrome 1 Individual goes to extremes to create the appearance of an illness 2 Might selfmedicate with toxins 3 Often impressively informed about their illness C Munchausen by Proxy 1 One Ton Teen LINK 2 The Sixth Sense LINK D Prevalence is hard to determine because patients typically hide the true nature of their issues 1 Some evidence to suggest it is higher in women and often begins during early adulthood 2 More common in a Individuals with extensive medical histories often in childhood b Individuals with a grudge against medical professions c Individuals who have been nurses lab technicians and medical aides Wednesday 14 October E Factitious Disorder 1 Not popular or understood by medical professionals a Often believe that the patients are wasting their time or are overly attentionseeking However b Those with the disorder feel out of control misunderstood and very distressed F Conversion Disorder 1 Symptoms related to voluntary motor control e g paralysis or sensory functioning e g blindness with no medical cause a Neurologicallike symptoms with no neurological bias b Doctors make sure there are no medical illnesses c Check thyroid can cause other medical illness Called conversion because it is believed that psychological needs are being converted to physical symptomsneeds a Example severe motor vehicle accident person becomes blind Hard to Detect as a doctor you would never want to overlook something a Use oddities in medical history to try to rule out explanations b Or oddities from a medical perspective e g glove anesthesia only one side should experience abnormality if there is a problem How Does it Differ from Factitious Disorder a Individual consciously wants or induces their own symptoms Onset and Prevalence a Typically begins in late childhoodearly adulthood b Woman Men 21 c Often appears suddenly under extreme stress d Rare lt 0005 of individuals suffer from this at some point in their lifetimes Somatic Symptom Disorder Signi cant distress and concern over bodily symptoms look for clip from the movie Cake a 2 Patterns 1 Briauet s Svndrome Somatization pattern longlasting ailments that often includes pain GI sexual and neurological symptoms Example LINK a Overrepresented in medical practices b Symptoms present in dramatic exaggerated manner c Often lasts many years d May increase and decrease over time but rarely completely disappears without treatment e 012 women in US in a year lt02 in men f Runs in families g Begins in adolescence and young adulthood 2 Predominant Pain Pattern pain is the key feature Example LINK a m to estimate the prevalence but it is fairly common b Often develops m an accident or illness that caused actual pain c Can begin at any age but is more common in women b Causal Explanations 1 Odd individual experiences hysteria strong emotions lead to bodily symptoms 2 Other models have also been used but they did not have a lot of empirical support and the disorders are not well understood G Conversion and Somatic Symptom Disorder 1 Psvchodvnamic Model hysteria leads to conversion of emotions into physical symptoms a Predominantlv women with problems during the phallic stage of development 35 years old b Electra Stage sexual feelings love for father must compete with mother but this is repressed because the mother is too powerful 1 When parents overreact to these feelings the complex remains unresolved and leads to converting sexual feelings into physical symptoms 2 Behavioral Model sick behaviors lead to rewards a Rewards lead to a recurrence and increase of the behaviors over time 1 Negative Reinforcement excused from unpleasant activity 2 Positive Reinforcement attention from others H Coenitive Model symptoms are a form of communication individual wants to express extreme feelings but are unable to verbalize them 1 This model or any of the others does not have a lot of support I Multicultural Model These disorders revolve around a western bias that sees the expression of physical symptoms as inferior to the expression of psychological symptoms a Western Bias its okay to talk about medical issues There is a lot of stigma attached to mental illness Many have the shake it off opinion 2 More Common to express somatic symptoms in nonwestem cultures 3 Central Tenant of this Approach culture in uences both psychological and physical reactions to stress J Treatment its hard to say if most people improve 1 Psvchotheranv as a Last Resort and only after other medical options have failed 2 Approaches a Dynamic develop insight to the individual s true struggles b Behavioral do exposure to trauma or troubling events that triggered the symptoms 0 d Drug Therapy antianxiety or antidepressants Focus on thsical Svmntoms l Suggestion often through hypnosis that offers emotional support 2 Contingency Management reinforcing nonsick behavior and extinguish sick behavior 3 Confrontation Presentation present the patient With the medical information a Typically Phase 1 of Treatment education Effective It is unclear Whether or not the treatment methods are effective III Illness Anxiety Disorder A B Also known as Hypochondriasis chronic anxiety about health and concern believe that they are developing a serious illness despite the absence of physical symptoms Constantly checking their bodies for symptoms and misinterpret their bodily signs as indicative of serious illness 1 Symptoms are usually innocuous Lack Of Insight Some individuals realize that the recognition of symptoms are excessive but others do not Inability to Tolerate Uncertainty some individuals may visit many hospitals hoping that one Will reaffirm their beliefs that they are indeed ill Prevalence l Often appears in early adulthood a 15 lifetime prevalence Men and women have equivalent rates Cyclical pattern of presentation is common WEB MD LINK FOR FAULTY DIAGNOSES Causal Explanations l Behavioral operant or classical conditioning mainly Modeling lots of empirical support and provides an explanation for the development and duration of the disorders 2 a RewardsPunishments for behavior Cognitive oversensitivity to bodily cues G Treatment a lot of empirical support for the following methods 1 2 3 Antidepressants sometimes the first treatment Exposure ResDonse Prevention Cognitive Restructuring presenting the individual with different ways to think about their responses to their bodily cues IV Psychophysiological Disorders A A group of illnesses that seem to result from biopsychosocial factors psychosomatic disorders B DSMS calls them psychological factors affecting medical condition C There is actual physical change in these disorders separating them from those discussed earlier D Examples 1 M 2 Asthma 3 Insomnia 4 HeadachesMigraines 5 High Blood Pressure 6 Coronarv Heart Dise V Psychoneuroimmunology A amines the Link Between Stress and Infection 1 2 Lymphocytes the most important cells in the immune system that attack invaders m interferes with lymphocyte activity a slows activity thus increasing risk for infection Immune Svstem Suppression a NE Nelease b Endocrine Svstem c Behavioral Chm lack of sleep poor eating habits no exercise smokingdrinking d Lack of Optimism Effective Coping Resilience personality types high in resiliency vulnerability Social Isolation Notably those who feel socially isolated tend to have poorer immune functioning Social Support and Affiliation appear to be a protective factor that prevents stress and poor immune functioning as well as aid in recovery from illness or surgery B Intervention 5 Relaxation Training good adjunct to therapy Biofeedback monitor how their body reacts and learn to control it Meditation good adjunct to therapy Hypnosis a Open to Susceptibility more able to become hypnotized and respond positively to the treatment Cognitive Restructuring think about the negative anxiety provoking thoughts differently rational logical Support Groups normalizing what the person is going through knowing that they are not alone Awareness and Acceptance aware of their situation understand that their feelings are just feelings and that they are okay to have Many intervention approaches fall into what is known as behavioral medicine combining psychological and physical approaches These are typically the best approaches to take when faced with these disorders 10 Friday 16 October
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