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Week 3 Notes

by: Jenna Kovsky
Jenna Kovsky
GPA 3.68
Discovering Romans
Dr. Gurval

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10/12, 10/14, and 10/16
Discovering Romans
Dr. Gurval
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Kovsky on Friday October 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Classics 20 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Gurval in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Discovering Romans in Classical Studies at University of California - Los Angeles.

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Date Created: 10/16/15
10l12l15 Lecture 7 Lauqhinq at Plautus Roman Comedv 0 Reading Roman Comedy 0 Dramatic elements I plot I characterization I word play eg puns I cultural attitudes I moral ethics 0 Origins of ancient comedy 0 disputed 0 according of Aristotle comedy came from the songs and jokes during the procession in which phalluses were featured 0 music drinking and sex were key themes 0 by end of 5th century BCE established genre of civic ritual and dramatic performance in Athens alongside tragedy 0 Old Greek Comedy I Aristophanes only surviving Old Greek Comedies I Themes political satire of contemporary figures 0 Greek New comedy 4th century3rd century Hellenistic cosmopolitan world areas that Alexander the Great conquered became Greek kingdoms more travel goes on than did before Menander leading writer of new comedy I 344292 BCE I wrote 100 plays I papyri discoveries found one complete play one almost complete play and 5 partial plays 0 Conventions of New comedy 0 setting mostly in Athens urban outdoors in the street 0 not much room for creativity followed a formula 0 st e 23 houses with doors two side entrances exit stage LForum exit stage Rharbor or country 0 m domestic life of private citizens cultural realities of Hellenistic world lost or kidnapped children fatherssons business trips abroad mercenary soldiers foreigners prostitutes issues of citizenship almost always ends in marriagehas happy end 3 Main Types of Conflict I Generational father v son son usually in love and had no money I Gender husband and wife almost never happy married couples wife takes son s side over husband s I Social master and slave slaves thwarting authority of their master Humor against paterfamilia father of the house everyone making a fool of him Regular Cast of Stock Characters I young man adulescens hero always in love often not very bright I old man senex father authority figure opposed to love interest often represented in ridiculous terms and faults O 0000 I male slave servus sides with hero usually smartest character real hero in Plautine comedy thwarts master fighting for his freedom vound woman viroo bride heard more than seen sometimes never seen old woman matrona wife source of conflict with senex allied with son female slave of nurse ancilla or nutrix also smart I prostitute meretrix love interest very clever Minor characters I braggart soldier MILES gloriosus male pimp leno female pimp lena parasite parasitus moneylender cook I eunuch Masks of Greek New Comedy I exaggerated features I used to indicate the character I women did not act men and boys performed female roles as well Costumes I stock character could be identified by what they wore I free characters 0 tunics to ankles men 0 tunics to ground women I wigs were used Structure of plays I prologue 0 often a monologue o actor in the play or minor god who informs audience of the plot and characters I fiveact division 0 formal choral interludes 0 NO chorus as in old Greek comedy in which commentary would be given 0 Origins of Ancient Roman COmedy O O O 0 Greek tradition inherited obscure and disputed Livy suggests that the Etruscans first introduced comedy to Rome Native ltalian Drama I Atellan Farces and Mimes I Atellan farce masked drama largely improvised not literarywritten down mime mimus not silent improvised sketches in Rome and Italy annual performances at Floralia no masks performers pupular included women famous celebrity actresses I scandalous women considered akin to prostitutes Roman literary comedies I drama in Greek dress I Roman authors like Plautus translate plays of Greek New Comedy with Greek characters and settings 0 Plautus 0 all we really know is the name 0 Titus Maccius Plautus I Titusfunny praenomen for nonelite I Maccuscharacter from local ltalian farces I Plautusflatfooted or floppy may be a stage name Birthplace Sarsina Umbrian town wrote during the wars of Hannibal 2nd Punic war 0 20 out of21 plays survive 0 Characteristic Features of Plautine Drama 0 prominence of clever slave eg Tranio in The Haunted House I Tranio boasts that he is equal to famous men like Alexander the Great 0 exuberant language I puns jokes exaggerated diction I invented words 0 whipresistors o nutcrackers teeth o greek itup mockeverything alliteration collection of words with same consonant sound tongue twisters would invent names for characters that were puns o Philematium kissykissy o Callidamates conqueror of beauty 0 Theopropides son of prophecy o Misargyrides silver hater 0 Greek culture I tensions between dominant Greek and emergent Roman culture I Greek settings and names used c cantica musical verses original Plautus plays were musical 0 Popularity of Plautus o enormously successful in antiquity plays performed often adapted Roman New Comedy became a dead art form and they would just reperform Plautus lost favor in Middle Ages Rediscovered in the Renaissance Big influence on Shakespeare 000 00000 10l14l15 Lecture 8 Beginnings of Latin Literature 0 earliest texts were not great works of literature 0 Latin Language earliest examples 0 legal docs 0 Twelve tables Duodecim Tabulae I foundation of Roman law I composed by Decemviri during Struggle of the Orders 451450 O O O ratified by Century of the Assemblies 499 plebeians demanded the law be written down so everyone knows what the crimes and punishments are wooden tablets later inscribed on bronze tablets set up in the Forum originals destroyed by sack of Gauls no original text services codification of existing practice and custom didn t write new law just wrote down the old one I make distinction in the crime itself when it happens and what social status the perpetrator holds as that changes the punishment I capital punishmentgtlose his caput head religious formulae and rituals carmen incantation or spell later the word for poem or song funeralburial inscriptions I epitaph from family of Scipio Barbatus I identify elite men by name father s name appearance and morality I never modest o Predecessors to Latin Lit O O Livius Andronicus Greek citizen from city of Tarentum Italy I perhaps came to Rome as a slave I 1st performance of a drama in Rome 240 BCE comedy or tragedy I translation of Homer s Odyssey I textbook for school children I only fragments of his epic and plays survive Plautus I last years of Second Punic War I earliest surviving complete work of Latin lit I slapstick comedy 0 Production of Roman Plays O 0000 only 2 festival occasions in 5th century Athens few opportunities for performance Rome had a larger festivalslarger venue for dramatic performances plays were often repeated religious association not as important but plays also produced at private expense for celebration of military victories or even funerals eg Terence s The Brothers plays generally put on by producers who financed production commissioned playwright organized the group of actors and then sold whole production to city officials aediles aediles gained political popularity for putting on shows male slaves freedmen and citizens performed Where they were staged I Rome did not have a permanent stone theater unlike any other city until 55 BCE I first staged at various location audience stood or seats were steps in front of a temple or temporary wooden platforms I may have been blocked by conservative element in Rome because they considered plays immoral or indecent I really prevented by competition among aristocrats who didn t want one elite family to put up a theater and have ownershipdominance over the theater scene of Rome I Theater in Epidaurus bestpreserved Greek theater built into hillside even Pompeii had two stone theaters built into hollow hillside I Theater of Pompey 55 BCE 1st permanent theater in Rome to celebrate dedication of Temple of Venus steps to temple were the theater seats dedicated on his birthday restored by Augustus Terence AFER 0 00000000 born in Carthage but not Carthaginian African indigenous person of Carthage described as dark slave of Roman Senator Terentius Lucanus reflects change of Roman culture from Greek influence and thought 6 playsall extant tradition ascribes first play to 165 Girl of Andia if he did write them all he would have started writing at 20 years old The Brothers I 2 fathers brothers 2 sons I contrast of education I traditional vs modern I am a human being and I think that nothing of human interest is alien to me The SelfTormentor I emergence of Greek philosophical attitudes of Rome I humanitas human condition I noble sentiment placed in the mouth of busybody neighbor ironic Scipionic Circle more an invention of later age looking back 0 Scipio Aemilianus naturalborn second son of Aemilius Paullus I aka Scipio the younger I patron of Terence Quintus Ennius 0 00000 1st of great poets of Rome born in Rudiae Greek Latin and Oscan 1st serious epic poem Annaes poetic version of Livy Annals yearly records I list of magistrates religious festivals deaths of famous citizens supernatural events natural disasters wars etc Cato the Elder O 0000 10l16l15 in terms of intellectual achievement Greece was superior cultural superiority Greece conquered Rome culturally though not militarily Rome first came into close contact with the Greeks that settled in southern Italy Campania during the war between the tribes of the Samnites and Oscans 1st to write Roman history in Latin predecessor of Livy Origines 7 books complained about Greek philosophy rhetoric medicine diet medical practices predicted Rome needed another Scipio to destroy Carthage Lecture Greece and Rome o Tarentum o coastal town in Apulia founded by Spartans according to legend around the time of Rome originally an aristocracy later democracy legendary founder Taras son of Poseidon and nymph Satyrion rich and prosperous leading city in southern Italy lots of economic power and control over trade in that area 0 Treaty between Tarentum and Rome said that Roman ships were not allowed in Tarentum s harbor 0 Some Roman ships broke the treaty and Tarentum attacked the Roman ships I madness of democracy fury and violence of the mob I types of political government Rome saw itself as a mixture of these three 0 aristocracy Senate 0 democracy popular assemblies 0 tyranny consuls I Pyrrhus of Epirus o from northwestern Greece 0 arrived in Tarentum 280 BCE with cavalry archers elephants etc o clever general and strategist second only to Hannibal in regards to Rome s enemies c at the outset victorious against Romans 0 won strategically but lost a lot of men 0 pyrrhic victory won the battle but lost the war I Tarentum surrendered to Rome I this battle gave notice to Greece that Rome was a powerhouse of the Mediterranean 0 3 Empires of the Greek world during the 2nd Punic War 0 Macedon Greece 0 Seleucid Syria 0 Ptolemaic Egypt 0 Philip V of Macedon o successor to Alexander the Great 0 promised support to Hannibal during 2nd Punic War 0 although they never gave him aid Rome did not forget and wanted to punish him 0 Rome and Macedon defeated Philip V of Macedon remained in Greece 197194 Titus Quinctius Flaminius said that they were fighting for the liberty of those oppressed by Philip V didn t establish garrisons in Greek cities 0 only helped them in issues of foreign policy and defense o Criticism of Flamininus o fluent in Greek 0 fascinated with Greek culture 0 according to his enemies he was conquered by the Greeks Romans avoided direct involvement in Greece Perseus son of Philip V of Macedon o at first ally for Rome 0 Fought Romans and was defeated in 3rd Macedonian War 0000 00000 O Macedon became Roman province Lucius Aemilius Paullus MACEDONICUS O 0000 O conqueror of Perseus prominent patrician family spoils of victory Perseus s library Paullus 2 wives 4 sons gave his two older sons away to two families that did not have sons I Fabius Maximus I Scipio Africanus his younger sons died before him I 14 yearold dies 5 days before his victory I 12 yearold dies 3 days after his victory Very influenced by Greek philosophical thought Tale of 2 cities 0 O Destruction of Carthage 146 BCE great commercial power of N Africa Destruction of Corinth 146 BCE great commercial power of Greece Alexander the Great 0 O O O greatest conqueror of antiquity Greece Egypt Persia lndia spread of Greek culture throughout these areas Romans often compared themselves to him but are different because they had many conquerors not one single man Greek intellectuals O O Timaeus of Sicily I 1st to predict Rome as emergent power Polybius I historian prominent in political affairs particularly league of Greek citystates brought to Rome as hostage 1st Greek historian to try to understand Rome new kind of history pragmatic history study of primary documents written memoirs geographical maps 1sthand knowledge eyewitness accounts I concludes that the Roman Empire is predestined and intentional I Tyche Greek goddess of Fortune or Fate Roman Imperialism OOOO lmperium absolute power held by consuls and military generals modern concept Romans never asserted imperialismconquering as a reason or cause for war Roman motivations of Empire I greed an economic policy driven for need to accumulate wealth profits slave capitalistic calculated and cruel I ambition a militaristic policy belligerent violent nature compulsive drive for expansion and world supremacy a national habit of resort to arms I defensive nature of warfare an almost unconscious machinelike routine aimed not at conquest but at the security afforded by eliminating all rivals a species of isolationism Origins Consequences I Posidonius of Apamea city in modern northern Syria o Greek philosopher greatest polymath of his era student of Stoic Panaetius physics logic rhetoric ethics completed Polybius s history Rome civilized the world Rome brought law and order where there was only political unrest and poverty Benefits of Rome outweighed loss of freedom I Romans brought centuries of peace for the most part to Greece Roman attitude faithful and constant adherence to Roman virtues and institutions the way of their ancestors Roman Decline I when did it begin Roman historians destruction of Carthage Hollywood the age of the dictators birth of Christ Edward Gibbon Joaquin Phoenix modern historians I decline comes from conservative generations trying to strictly keep the status quo Cato the Elder s opinion of Roman decline I women gained greater control over their own personal affairs I slaves bought their own freedom and sometimes became among the most powerful and wealthy in Rome foreigners Spaniards Africans Gauls Syrians and Greeks would become citizens I Carthage rebuilt by a Roman Julius Caesar and became one of the most important cities in the Empire I Marcus Aurelius 0 Roman emperor o Stoic philosopher wrote his moral essay Meditations in Greek


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