Week 3 Notes
Week 3 Notes Life Sciences 2
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenna Kovsky on Friday October 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Life Sciences 2 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Cooper/Dr. Esdin in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Cells, Tissues, and Organs in Biology at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 10/16/15
10l12l15 Lecture 7 Lauqhinq at Plautus Roman Comedv 0 Reading Roman Comedy 0 Dramatic elements I plot I characterization I word play eg puns I cultural attitudes I moral ethics 0 Origins of ancient comedy 0 disputed 0 according of Aristotle comedy came from the songs and jokes during the procession in which phalluses were featured 0 music drinking and sex were key themes 0 by end of 5th century BCE established genre of civic ritual and dramatic performance in Athens alongside tragedy 0 Old Greek Comedy I Aristophanes only surviving Old Greek Comedies I Themes political satire of contemporary figures 0 Greek New comedy 4th century3rd century Hellenistic cosmopolitan world areas that Alexander the Great conquered became Greek kingdoms more travel goes on than did before Menander leading writer of new comedy I 344292 BCE I wrote 100 plays I papyri discoveries found one complete play one almost complete play and 5 partial plays 0 Conventions of New comedy 0 setting mostly in Athens urban outdoors in the street 0 not much room for creativity followed a formula 0 st e 23 houses with doors two side entrances exit stage LForum exit stage Rharbor or country 0 m domestic life of private citizens cultural realities of Hellenistic world lost or kidnapped children fatherssons business trips abroad mercenary soldiers foreigners prostitutes issues of citizenship almost always ends in marriagehas happy end 3 Main Types of Conflict I Generational father v son son usually in love and had no money I Gender husband and wife almost never happy married couples wife takes son s side over husband s I Social master and slave slaves thwarting authority of their master Humor against paterfamilia father of the house everyone making a fool of him Regular Cast of Stock Characters I young man adulescens hero always in love often not very bright I old man senex father authority figure opposed to love interest often represented in ridiculous terms and faults O 0000 I male slave servus sides with hero usually smartest character real hero in Plautine comedy thwarts master fighting for his freedom vound woman viroo bride heard more than seen sometimes never seen old woman matrona wife source of conflict with senex allied with son female slave of nurse ancilla or nutrix also smart I prostitute meretrix love interest very clever Minor characters I braggart soldier MILES gloriosus male pimp leno female pimp lena parasite parasitus moneylender cook I eunuch Masks of Greek New Comedy I exaggerated features I used to indicate the character I women did not act men and boys performed female roles as well Costumes I stock character could be identified by what they wore I free characters 0 tunics to ankles men 0 tunics to ground women I wigs were used Structure of plays I prologue 0 often a monologue o actor in the play or minor god who informs audience of the plot and characters I fiveact division 0 formal choral interludes 0 NO chorus as in old Greek comedy in which commentary would be given 0 Origins of Ancient Roman COmedy O O O 0 Greek tradition inherited obscure and disputed Livy suggests that the Etruscans first introduced comedy to Rome Native ltalian Drama I Atellan Farces and Mimes I Atellan farce masked drama largely improvised not literarywritten down mime mimus not silent improvised sketches in Rome and Italy annual performances at Floralia no masks performers pupular included women famous celebrity actresses I scandalous women considered akin to prostitutes Roman literary comedies I drama in Greek dress I Roman authors like Plautus translate plays of Greek New Comedy with Greek characters and settings 0 Plautus 0 all we really know is the name 0 Titus Maccius Plautus I Titusfunny praenomen for nonelite I Maccuscharacter from local ltalian farces I Plautusflatfooted or floppy may be a stage name Birthplace Sarsina Umbrian town wrote during the wars of Hannibal 2nd Punic war 0 20 out of21 plays survive 0 Characteristic Features of Plautine Drama 0 prominence of clever slave eg Tranio in The Haunted House I Tranio boasts that he is equal to famous men like Alexander the Great 0 exuberant language I puns jokes exaggerated diction I invented words 0 whipresistors o nutcrackers teeth o greek itup mockeverything alliteration collection of words with same consonant sound tongue twisters would invent names for characters that were puns o Philematium kissykissy o Callidamates conqueror of beauty 0 Theopropides son of prophecy o Misargyrides silver hater 0 Greek culture I tensions between dominant Greek and emergent Roman culture I Greek settings and names used c cantica musical verses original Plautus plays were musical 0 Popularity of Plautus o enormously successful in antiquity plays performed often adapted Roman New Comedy became a dead art form and they would just reperform Plautus lost favor in Middle Ages Rediscovered in the Renaissance Big influence on Shakespeare 000 00000 10l14l15 Lecture 8 Beginnings of Latin Literature 0 earliest texts were not great works of literature 0 Latin Language earliest examples 0 legal docs 0 Twelve tables Duodecim Tabulae I foundation of Roman law I composed by Decemviri during Struggle of the Orders 451450 O O O ratified by Century of the Assemblies 499 plebeians demanded the law be written down so everyone knows what the crimes and punishments are wooden tablets later inscribed on bronze tablets set up in the Forum originals destroyed by sack of Gauls no original text services codification of existing practice and custom didn t write new law just wrote down the old one I make distinction in the crime itself when it happens and what social status the perpetrator holds as that changes the punishment I capital punishmentgtlose his caput head religious formulae and rituals carmen incantation or spell later the word for poem or song funeralburial inscriptions I epitaph from family of Scipio Barbatus I identify elite men by name father s name appearance and morality I never modest o Predecessors to Latin Lit O O Livius Andronicus Greek citizen from city of Tarentum Italy I perhaps came to Rome as a slave I 1st performance of a drama in Rome 240 BCE comedy or tragedy I translation of Homer s Odyssey I textbook for school children I only fragments of his epic and plays survive Plautus I last years of Second Punic War I earliest surviving complete work of Latin lit I slapstick comedy 0 Production of Roman Plays O 0000 only 2 festival occasions in 5th century Athens few opportunities for performance Rome had a larger festivalslarger venue for dramatic performances plays were often repeated religious association not as important but plays also produced at private expense for celebration of military victories or even funerals eg Terence s The Brothers plays generally put on by producers who financed production commissioned playwright organized the group of actors and then sold whole production to city officials aediles aediles gained political popularity for putting on shows male slaves freedmen and citizens performed Where they were staged I Rome did not have a permanent stone theater unlike any other city until 55 BCE I first staged at various location audience stood or seats were steps in front of a temple or temporary wooden platforms I may have been blocked by conservative element in Rome because they considered plays immoral or indecent I really prevented by competition among aristocrats who didn t want one elite family to put up a theater and have ownershipdominance over the theater scene of Rome I Theater in Epidaurus bestpreserved Greek theater built into hillside even Pompeii had two stone theaters built into hollow hillside I Theater of Pompey 55 BCE 1st permanent theater in Rome to celebrate dedication of Temple of Venus steps to temple were the theater seats dedicated on his birthday restored by Augustus Terence AFER 0 00000000 born in Carthage but not Carthaginian African indigenous person of Carthage described as dark slave of Roman Senator Terentius Lucanus reflects change of Roman culture from Greek influence and thought 6 playsall extant tradition ascribes first play to 165 Girl of Andia if he did write them all he would have started writing at 20 years old The Brothers I 2 fathers brothers 2 sons I contrast of education I traditional vs modern I am a human being and I think that nothing of human interest is alien to me The SelfTormentor I emergence of Greek philosophical attitudes of Rome I humanitas human condition I noble sentiment placed in the mouth of busybody neighbor ironic Scipionic Circle more an invention of later age looking back 0 Scipio Aemilianus naturalborn second son of Aemilius Paullus I aka Scipio the younger I patron of Terence Quintus Ennius 0 00000 1st of great poets of Rome born in Rudiae Greek Latin and Oscan 1st serious epic poem Annaes poetic version of Livy Annals yearly records I list of magistrates religious festivals deaths of famous citizens supernatural events natural disasters wars etc Cato the Elder O 0000 10l16l15 in terms of intellectual achievement Greece was superior cultural superiority Greece conquered Rome culturally though not militarily Rome first came into close contact with the Greeks that settled in southern Italy Campania during the war between the tribes of the Samnites and Oscans 1st to write Roman history in Latin predecessor of Livy Origines 7 books complained about Greek philosophy rhetoric medicine diet medical practices predicted Rome needed another Scipio to destroy Carthage Lecture Greece and Rome o Tarentum o coastal town in Apulia founded by Spartans according to legend around the time of Rome originally an aristocracy later democracy legendary founder Taras son of Poseidon and nymph Satyrion rich and prosperous leading city in southern Italy lots of economic power and control over trade in that area 0 Treaty between Tarentum and Rome said that Roman ships were not allowed in Tarentum s harbor 0 Some Roman ships broke the treaty and Tarentum attacked the Roman ships I madness of democracy fury and violence of the mob I types of political government Rome saw itself as a mixture of these three 0 aristocracy Senate 0 democracy popular assemblies 0 tyranny consuls I Pyrrhus of Epirus o from northwestern Greece 0 arrived in Tarentum 280 BCE with cavalry archers elephants etc o clever general and strategist second only to Hannibal in regards to Rome s enemies c at the outset victorious against Romans 0 won strategically but lost a lot of men 0 pyrrhic victory won the battle but lost the war I Tarentum surrendered to Rome I this battle gave notice to Greece that Rome was a powerhouse of the Mediterranean 0 3 Empires of the Greek world during the 2nd Punic War 0 Macedon Greece 0 Seleucid Syria 0 Ptolemaic Egypt 0 Philip V of Macedon o successor to Alexander the Great 0 promised support to Hannibal during 2nd Punic War 0 although they never gave him aid Rome did not forget and wanted to punish him 0 Rome and Macedon defeated Philip V of Macedon remained in Greece 197194 Titus Quinctius Flaminius said that they were fighting for the liberty of those oppressed by Philip V didn t establish garrisons in Greek cities 0 only helped them in issues of foreign policy and defense o Criticism of Flamininus o fluent in Greek 0 fascinated with Greek culture 0 according to his enemies he was conquered by the Greeks Romans avoided direct involvement in Greece Perseus son of Philip V of Macedon o at first ally for Rome 0 Fought Romans and was defeated in 3rd Macedonian War 0000 00000 O Macedon became Roman province Lucius Aemilius Paullus MACEDONICUS O 0000 O conqueror of Perseus prominent patrician family spoils of victory Perseus s library Paullus 2 wives 4 sons gave his two older sons away to two families that did not have sons I Fabius Maximus I Scipio Africanus his younger sons died before him I 14 yearold dies 5 days before his victory I 12 yearold dies 3 days after his victory Very influenced by Greek philosophical thought Tale of 2 cities 0 O Destruction of Carthage 146 BCE great commercial power of N Africa Destruction of Corinth 146 BCE great commercial power of Greece Alexander the Great 0 O O O greatest conqueror of antiquity Greece Egypt Persia lndia spread of Greek culture throughout these areas Romans often compared themselves to him but are different because they had many conquerors not one single man Greek intellectuals O O Timaeus of Sicily I 1st to predict Rome as emergent power Polybius I historian prominent in political affairs particularly league of Greek citystates brought to Rome as hostage 1st Greek historian to try to understand Rome new kind of history pragmatic history study of primary documents written memoirs geographical maps 1sthand knowledge eyewitness accounts I concludes that the Roman Empire is predestined and intentional I Tyche Greek goddess of Fortune or Fate Roman Imperialism OOOO lmperium absolute power held by consuls and military generals modern concept Romans never asserted imperialismconquering as a reason or cause for war Roman motivations of Empire I greed an economic policy driven for need to accumulate wealth profits slave capitalistic calculated and cruel I ambition a militaristic policy belligerent violent nature compulsive drive for expansion and world supremacy a national habit of resort to arms I defensive nature of warfare an almost unconscious machinelike routine aimed not at conquest but at the security afforded by eliminating all rivals a species of isolationism Origins Consequences I Posidonius of Apamea city in modern northern Syria o Greek philosopher greatest polymath of his era student of Stoic Panaetius physics logic rhetoric ethics completed Polybius s history Rome civilized the world Rome brought law and order where there was only political unrest and poverty Benefits of Rome outweighed loss of freedom I Romans brought centuries of peace for the most part to Greece Roman attitude faithful and constant adherence to Roman virtues and institutions the way of their ancestors Roman Decline I when did it begin Roman historians destruction of Carthage Hollywood the age of the dictators birth of Christ Edward Gibbon Joaquin Phoenix modern historians I decline comes from conservative generations trying to strictly keep the status quo Cato the Elder s opinion of Roman decline I women gained greater control over their own personal affairs I slaves bought their own freedom and sometimes became among the most powerful and wealthy in Rome foreigners Spaniards Africans Gauls Syrians and Greeks would become citizens I Carthage rebuilt by a Roman Julius Caesar and became one of the most important cities in the Empire I Marcus Aurelius 0 Roman emperor o Stoic philosopher wrote his moral essay Meditations in Greek 10I12I15 Lecture 7 Membrane Structuretcont amp Enerqv Enzvmesand Energetics Effect of Osmosis on cell shape 0 Hypertonic o Isotonic o Hypotonic bursts due to too much pressure osmolarity sum of all the ions and solutes o eg blood plasma 300 mosmolL o hypoosmotic lt300 o hyperosmoticgt300 o 09 saline NaCl simple diffusion through an aqueous channel pore 0 ions eg Na being charged do not readily cross membranes can pass through waterfilled pores created by intrinsic membrane proteins channels regulation of channels 0 ligandgated channelby binding of a specific molecule don t stay open for very long ligand changes conformation of the protein 0 voltagegated channels important in nervous system open and close depending on concentration of ions on either side of the membrane Aquaporins 0 increase membrane permeability to water 0 makes water diffusion faster and easier Facilitated Diffusion 0 allows polar and large molecules to be transported into cells 0 certain molecules eg glucose bind to carrier proteins in the membrane and are transported across 0 movement is passive net movement is in the direction of the lowest concentration aka going down the concentration gradient in order to uniformly distribute molecules to reach an equilibrium 0 specifica particular carrier transports only certain molecules eg glucose carriers only move glucose across the membrane 0 the cell may become saturated if all the protein carriers are in use Active Transport 0 transport across a membrane by a carriermediated process aoainst the concentration gradient this requires expenditure of chemical energy ATP 0 movement against concentration gradient means that the molecule or ion is moving from a region of low concentration to one of higher concentration ie uphill o classifications I primary active transportrequires direct participation of ATP I secondary active transport does not use ATP directly but rather the energy in an ion gradient established by primary active transport more Na sodium on the outside of the cell more K potassium inside The sodiumpotassium NaK pump moves 3 Na ions out of the cell for every 2 K ion it moves in uniport protein that moves one molecule in one direction symport moves multiple moleculestypes of molecules in the same direction antiport moves multiple types of molecules in opposite directions eg NaK pump Endocytosis o transports macromolecules large particles and small cells into eukaryotic cells 0 plasma membrane envelops materials and forms a vesicle inside the cell 0 3 types I phagocytosis celleating large particles or cells are engulfed eg in the immune system when phagocytes a type of white blood cell engulf foreign substances I pinocytosis celldrinking small dissolved solutes or fluids enter I receptormediated endocytosis a speci c membrane receptor binds to a particular macromolecule at sites called coated pits that contain clathrin o eg uptake of cholesterol in association with LDL o Exocytosis materials in vesicles are secreted from the cell when vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane INTRODUCTION TO ENZYMES AND ENERGETICS 0 Energy the capacity to do work 0 kinetic energy workassociated I water molecules moving in a river have kinetic energy I if they flow through a dam into a lake with an electrical turbine that kinetic energy is interconverted into another form via the turbine 0 potential energy stored energy 0 All of the Activities of a cell are driven by energy 0 energy flows into the biological world from the sun stored as potential energy in the chemical bonds of sugar molecules formed by photosynthesis 0 first law of thermodynamics energy cannot be created or destroyed it can only undergo conversion from one form to another 0 second law of thermodynamics during any energy interconversion some energy is released as heat which adds to the entropy increasing disorder of the system 0 life converts energy from the sun to other forms of energy to sustain life the energy is never lost but as it s used more and more becomes heat I you generate heat when you exercise because the work put in for muscle movement by ATP is not 100 efficient I some of the work escapes in the form of heat 0 Cells Carry out a variety of chemical reactions to sustain life 0 metabolism the sum of all chemical processes occurring within a cell or organism o metabolic pathway reactions often occur in series product of one reaction becomes a reactant in the next reaction 0 chemical reactions establish equilibrium and the equilibrium constant Keq is the ratio of the concentration of products and reactants at equilibrium a high KeOI indicates that the reaction favors the productsgoes far towards completion a low KeOI indicates that the reaction favors the reactants Gibbs free energy energy that is free for use by cells changed when chemical bonds are broken in the course of chemical reactions Usable EnergyUnusable EnergyTotal Energy AHAGTAS or AGAHTAS GGibbs free energy Ttemperature Achange in Henthalpy basically heat Sentropy disorganization 0 0000000 10l14l15 Lecture 8 Mondav Lecture cont and lecolvs amp Cellular Respiration CONTINUATION OF MONDAY39S LECTURE 0 energy stores in human body 0 carbohydrate storeglycogen o libid storetriglycerides o Adenosine Triphosphate ATP 0 ATP HZO gt ADP Pi energy 0 called hydrolyzing which releases the energy associated with breaking the bond of one of the phosphate groups Takes a lot of energy to make ATP so then breaking the bonds releases a lot of energy standard conditions 1 M 25 degrees Celsius AG7 kcalmol I in cell AG much higher 12 kcalmol 0 cells can make ATP in 2 ways I substratelevel phosphorylation simplest way 0 direct transfer of phosphate group to ADP from another molecule need a very energetic molecule written as xp ADP gt ATP x denotes a high energy covalent bond enzyme used to speed up this reaction last step in glycolysis converting 1 glucose to 2 pyruvate using pyruvate kinase I chemiosmosis majority made this way in inner mitochondrial membrane requires oxygen 0 more complicated o EnergyCoupling Cycle of ATP 0 exergonic reactions create energy cell respiration catabolism o endergonic reactions release energy active transport cell movement anabolism making more complex proteins of simple ones 0 bioluminescence uses molecule called luciferin o luciferin O2 ATP gt light 0 eg fireflies 0 Activation Energy 0 before a rxn reaction can proceed an energy barrier must be overcome 0 energy must be supplied to break existing chemical bonds 0 the energy required to destabilize existing chem bonds and start a chem rxn is called the activation energy 0 a catalyst lowers the energy barrierlowers the activation energy required to start the reaction 0 they increase the rates of reactions but do not affect the final equilibrium 0 Enzymes 0 proteins that carry out most catalysis in cells some catalysis is by RNA ribozyme 0 usually relatively specific in their choice of reactant moleculessubstrate o substrate molecules bind at the active site 0 enzymes have an optimum pH and temperature at which they function most effectively I eg lysosomes work best at pH 55 acidic 0 some require coenzymes to function eg NAD I coenzymes are nonprotein organic molecules 0 Role of enzymes in Metabolism 0 may couple exergonic and endergonic O allosteric enzymes multiplesubunit proteins I allodifferent I stericshape I when plotting reaction rate against concentration of substrate you get a sigmoidal Sshaped curve I allows you to modulate the activity of an enzyme in a metabolic pathway through a small change in substrate I eg Hemoglobin not an enzyme but is an allosteric protein 4 subunits 2 alpha 2 beta each subunit has heme group with Iron so oxygen can bind reversibly when the 1st oxygen binds it changes the shape which makes it easier for its adjacent subunit to bind oxygen 2nd easier to bind 3rd even easier 4th not quite as easy 0 cooperativity in binding oxygen molecules to the subunits competitive inhibitor directly competes with the substrate to bind to the enzyme binds at active site noncompetitive inhibitor binds to protein not at active site this binding changes the shape of the protein so the substrate cannot bind at the active site irreversible inhibition most inhibition is reversible but some are not GLYCOLYSIS AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION using chemical energy to drive metabolism 0 0 sources of energy I autotrophs use light energy to synthesize food molecules I heterotrophs and autotrophs extract energy from food extraction of energy from food occurs in states I enzymes break large molecules into smaller ones digestion Glycolysis O 0 conversion of glucose to pyruvate followed by cellular respiration Cellular Respiration O O 0 conversion of pyruvate to carbon dioxide and water in the presence of oxygen pyruvate converted to Acetyl Coenzyme A Acetyl CoA in the mitochondrial matrix Acetyl CoA is a key intermediate ingredient C6H1ZO6 602 gt 6C02 energy 2 ATP 10l16l15 Glycolysis glucose gtpyruvate pyruvate then enters the mitochondrion within the mitochondrion s innermost compartment pyruvategtAcetyl CoAgtCO2 and H20 Redox Reaction and Energy Transfer 0 O O 0 Lecture 9 lecolvs amp Cellular Respiration reduction gain of one or more electrons by an atom ion or molecule oxidation loss of one or more electrons Transfer of electrons is an oxidationreduction redox reaction Reduced Compound A Oxidized Compound B gt Oxidized Compound A Reduced Compound B Coenzyme NAD is an electron carrier in many redox reactions OOOO important for the breakdown of glucose NAD Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide nicotinamide ring covalently linked to sugar and phosphate with a nucleotide electrons in NADH are very energetic Generation of ATP by Oxidative Phosphorylation O O 0 ATP formation in mitochondria results from flow of electrons through the respiratory chain NADH molecules transfer electrons to a series of membrane protein complexes the respiratory chain In conjunction with e transport down the respiratory chain protons are pumped across the membrane from the matrix energy of this proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane is used to drive ATP synthesis chemiosmosis Return of protons to the matrix is coupled to synthesis of ATP via an ATP synthase allows protons to flow back into matrix via a protein channel the final electron acceptor is molecular oxygen Electron Transport Chain 0 0 Electron travels in the following chain NADHQ Reductase complexgtUbiquinonegtCytochrome c Reductase ComplexgtCytochrome cgtCytochrome c Oxidase Complex gt H20 Professor Boyer from UCLA 0 0 first said that ATP Synthase could move people didn t believe him until Japanese researchers proved it Chemiosmosis OOOOO Termed by P Mitchell not confined to mitochondria done in chloroplasts and bacteria as well same thing as oxidative phosphorylation but only in mitochondria experiment 1 I put mitochondria in pH 8 I then changed the outside medium to pH 4 I outer membrane is fairly leaky but inner membrane is less permeable experiment 2 I used totally artificial system I Flnding ATP synthase is needed for ATP synthesis I Halobacteria contain bacteriorhodopsin retinal linked to a protein 0 when oxygen levels are low bacteriorhodopsin uses the protein lightdriven proton pump to harvest light purple photons strike it and the energy of the photon is absorbed allowing the bacteria to create a proton gradient Glycolysis O O O O oxidizes glucose to pyruvic acid anaerobically occurs in 10 separate enzymatic reactions in the cytoplasm net gain of 2 ATP form 2 NADH Krebs Cycle 0 also called citric acid or tricarboxylic acid cycle pyruvate enters mitochondria and is oxidized forming acetyl coenzyme A high energy compound Acetyl 00A 20 unit combines w oxaloacetate 4C unitto form citric acid tricarboxylic acid and 00A results in complete oxidation of acetyl units to 002 Oxidation of NADH theoretically yields 3 ATP in practice 25 ATP per NADH FADH2 yields 15 ATP cellular respiration yields much more energy than glycolysis net yield approx 32 ATP moleculesglucose ENERGY OF ELECTRON NADH l NADHQ Reductase H Nonpolar Ubiquinone Coenzyme Q Cyt c Reductase H Cyt c Cyt c Oxidase H
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