Cyberbullying, Online Harassment, and Cyberstalking
Cyberbullying, Online Harassment, and Cyberstalking CJ 290
Popular in Special Topics: Cybercriminology
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Kugler on Friday October 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 290 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Kellin Treadway in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Special Topics: Cybercriminology in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/16/15
Cyberbullying Online Harassment and Cyberstalking Technology and Online Harm 0 Facebook stalking gt usually harmless o Catfishing gt create fake social profiles build false relationships can be dangerous 0 Megan Meier case gt example of cyberbullying and its negative repercussions 0 Megan and her friend had a fall out o The friend s mom catfished and created a fake MySpace account posing as a boy who Megan later befriended unknowing that the account was a fake o This guy then began to post mean things about Megan and tell her to harm herself o This upset Megan to the point that she committed suicide Traditional Bullying o Intentional and repeated use of aggressive or negative behavior 0 Imbalance of power between the aggressor and target 0 Verbal threats physical harm o Produces negative emotional and physical results in the victims Cyberbullying o Involves intentional aggressive behavior performed through electronic means 0 Electronic means email forums web sites texting 0 Messages can be posted on at one CMC place and then reposted elsewhere I Revisiting and reposting the message revictimization of the victim o Cyberbullying is more repetitive than traditional bullying because online bullies can hide behind a mask of anonymity 0 Form of cyberbullying 0 Flaming gt online fighting Denigration gt post harmfulmean comments in order to degrade someone Impersonation gt someone impersonates someone else online to embarrassharm them Outing gt accidental or intentional revealing of personal info Trickery gt convincing others to share personal info type of social engineering Harassment gt intimidation via mean postscomments doesn t involve threats Stalking gt unwanted extra attention by one person to another involves threats 0 Trolling gt making deliberate inflammatory remarks to draw people into an argument 0 Cyberbullying is typically associated with juveniles o Cyberharassment and cyberstalking is associated more with adults 0 Disagreement over what constitutes bullying gt one incident or multiple incidents 0 Prevalence of cyberbullying o Victimization rates 1130 of US youth OOOOOO 0 Rates of involvement as a bully prevalence in US youth is around 20 0 Risk factors 0 Participation in social networking sites chatrooms and email 0 Sharing more info online 0 Real world bullying experiences 0 Characteristics of cyberbullies 0 Short tempers low selfcontrol o Easily frustrated o Relate to others in an aggressive way 0 Little compassion for victims lack of empathy 0 Spend lots of time online 0 Effects of cyberbullying on victims 0 Isolation anxietydepression stress truancy intentional absence at school work etc suicidal thoughts I suicide is the leading cause of death for juveniles and it is often the result of being bullied 0000 Online Harassment and Stalking 0 Online harassment doesn t usually involve a threat 0 Just mean posts or comments about someone o Cyberstalking leads victims to feel fearful 0 Fear for their personal safety or have emotional distress o In both cases the victim wants the offender to cease contact 0 Cyberstalking 0 May be accompanied by realworld stalking o Offender may monitor the online behavioractivity of the victim I Offender uses victim s online info to better stalk himher o Offender often sends hostile messages to the victim that imply threats to the victims person or property 0 May involve malware distribution impersonation o Stalkers may or may not know their victim 0 Prevalence of online harassment o Victimization rates 11 of youth 0 40 of youth have engaged in harassment 0 Colleges have an increase rate of harassment cases 0 Prevalence of cyberstalking o Victimization rates 6 of individuals 0 20 of individuals who were stalked also received online threats 0 Effects of cyberstalking on victims Feeling powerless gt unable to escape the offenders Shame Paranoia fear 0000 Reporting Online Harm o cyberbullying victims may not report their experience 0 online harassment and cyberstalking victims rarely file police reports 0 those that do are mostly women women report victimization more than men Regulating Cyberbullying 0 There are NO federal laws regarding bullyingcyberbullying in the US 0 States and bullying 49 states mandate that schools have policies against bullying 0 Some states recognize cyberbullying o 47 states include electronic harassment statues o 43 states require schools to punish bullies I 10 states allow offcampus bullying to be punished Regulating Harassment and Cyberstalking o 6 illegal acts involving telecommunication when dealing wonline harassment and cyberstalking 0 Making or initiating the transmission of requests or proposals that are obscene or involve child porn wthe intent to annoy threaten abuse or harass 0 Doing these same activities knowing that the recipient is under 18 years of age 0 Using a telecommunications device wo disclosing your identity wthe intent to annoy abuse threaten or harass an individual at the called number Cause another person s phone to ring continuously to harass or annoy that person Make repeated calls designed solely to harass that person 0 Knowingly permit a telecommunications device or facility to be used for any of these activities 0 Blackmailthreatsransom demands It is a crime to transmit any of the following four communications via interstate or foreign commerce methods including postal mailtelephoneinternet o A demand for a ransom for the release of a kidnapped person 0 A message w the intent to extort money 0 A threat to injure a person 0 A threat to damage property o It is illegal for a person to use a computer service or interstateforeign commerce to o engage in activities that cause a person to feel substantial emotional distress or place that person in reasonable fear of death or bodily injury to themselves or their family 0 travel across state lines wintent to kill injure harass or intimidate another person and place them or their family in fear of death or serious injury 0 caveat to all of these illegal stipulations there must be a true credible threat that makes a person fear for their life or property o If the threat isn t credible or true then the action isn t illegal o This provision was established in US vs Alkhabaz 0 Nearly all US states have legislation that speaks to stalking and harassment o 27 have legislation about both 37 have cyberstalking laws 40 have harassment laws Law Enforcement 0 Many cases of bullying harassment and stalking are handled at the local level 0 This is due to the fact that the victim and offender are usually in close proximity and thus in the same jurisdiction 0 Many notforprofit group promote the need to report online harm and provide victim support 0 Ex Working to Halt Online Abuse in US Cybersmile in UK Social Media 0 Many social media providers will accept complaints about online harassment 0 Facebook and Youtube have features where you can report other users o It is up to you the user to protect yourself online or make a reports Key Words 0 Catfishing 0 Creation and development of relationships through social media predicated on false info 0 Cyberbullying o Bullying in an online format 0 Cyberstalking 0 Online communication that may lead a victim to feel fear for their personal safety andor experience emotional distress o Denigration 0 Form of cyberbullying involving making comments about individuals characters or behaviors that are designed to harm their reputation friendships or social positions 0 Exclusion 0 Form of cyberbullying involving intentionally keeping others from joining an online group such as a network on Facebook or some other site online 0 Flaming 0 Form of cyberbullying involving engaging in online fighting where users directly target one another wangry or irritated messages often featuring vulgar language 0 Harassment 0 Repeated distribution of cruel or mean messages to a person in order to embarrass or annoy them Impersonation 0 Form of cyberbullying involving falsely posting as other people to harm their reputation or social status by logging into their existing accounts to post messages or by creating fake accounts to masquerade as that person Megan Meier case 0 Cyberbullying case that resulted in Megan s suicide Online harassment o Harassment in a digital format Outing 0 Form of cyberbullying involving the posting of real personal info about individuals to embarrass them this info is usually not known to the general public Stalking 0 Use of repeated and intense harassing messages that involve threats or cause the recipient to feel fear for their personal safety Trickery 0 Form of cyberbullying that involves convincing individuals to provide personal info about themselves in what they think is a personal conversation which is then revealed to the general public Truant 0 An individual who repeatedly skips school True threat 0 Term used in US law to identify statements where the speaker means to communicate a serious expression of intent to commit an act of violence against another person or groups
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