Bio 207 Week 6 Lecture Notes
Bio 207 Week 6 Lecture Notes 207/41320
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by email@example.com Notetaker on Friday October 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 207/41320 at University of St. Thomas taught by Lewis in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views.
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Date Created: 10/16/15
Biology Week 6 Lecture Notes 0 Eukaryotic membrane enclosed organelles and membrane bound nuclear envelope 0 Prokaryotic bacteria lack membrane inside skip RNA processing o In Eukaryotic Cell DNA undergoes transcription to produce 1 strand of pre mRNA which then undergoes RNA processing to produce mRNA All of this occurs inside the nuclear envelope mRNA is then sent to a ribosome where it undergoes translation to produce polypeptides which forms amino acids RNA substitutes Uracil for Thymine 0 DNA template strand 3 ACCAAACCGAGT 5 TGGTTTGGCTCA Transcription to produce mRNA UGGUUUGGCUCA Translation to produce a protein Each segement of 3 nucleotides codon Amino acids make a protein Trp Phe Gly Ser 0 Mutations Point mutation miscopying or deletion of one nucleotide base happens in one base pair Silent mutation results in the same amino acid Frameshift mutation all blocks screwed up by one Bad Any non group of 3 is a mutation frameshift 0 Active site of protein if a mutation occurs there mostly messes up function completely 0 Templatesense strand one you read from 0 Non templatemissense strand one you don t care about Practice Template ATTCATTGCGCTTA mRNA UAAGUAACGCGAAU o Epigenetics things that are happening around the genetics but not to the DNA Addition of a methyl group Changes the reading of DNA without being a mutation to DNA Health endpoints cancer diabetes mental disorders Environmental effect that changes the readability of the DNA Anything that effects DNA without changing it environmental Disadvantages Human diseases Advantages Fast evolutionary changes between phenotypes Ex switching between levels of melanin in the skin Identical twins really are not identical Different readability Evolution is a little Lamarckian What happens to parents happens in offspring Things you expose yourself to affect your kids O 0 Quantitative genetics Polygenic traits multiple genes affect 1 phenotype and the environment any change in the readability of DNA Includes traits like height skin color and some cancer Bell shaped curve polygenic or environmental Ex IQ average 100 T Test measures the difference in the means between 2 groups taking into account the variants Looks at the variants how wide is the curve and the means 2 means ANOVA analysis of variants 3 or more means Formula signal noise difference between group means variability of groups shape of curve Don t need to do the calculation but need to know how to do it what it means Polygenic Punnet Square count capital letters Epigenetics 934 3 genes 6 different possibilities identical twins monozygotic same then split 0 dizygotic 2 separate eggs same as any other sibling combo Concordance o if one of the twins has what is the probability that the next twin will have it If it s found in one it s found in the other MZ monozygotic identical grew together 0 DZ dizygotic fraternal grew separately 0 Genetic influences alcoholism intelligence religion sexual orientation in males 20 40 of the trait is genetic A All of the variability is due to environment 3 Both genetic and environmental component most common C All of variability due to genetics D No variability Nature vs Nurture 0 Equation Phenotype P genotype g environment E 0 VP VG VE o HA2 heritability VG VP Not a squared value only symbol Measure how wide the curve is not where the line is Interested in variability not the mean Problems 1 Genetic variation is 12 of the total phenotypic variation and the total variation is 14 cm What is the variation from genetics Average value 12 x 14 X 7 cm can t find the average only about variation 2 In a situation where the mean beak size is 39 cm and the variability due to genetics is 5 cm while the overall phenotypic variation is 25 cm what is the heritability of the trait a 39 b 5 c 20 d 44 525 15 2 C New variation requires mutation otherwise it is just reshuffling the genetic deck Base pair Chromosomal Ploidy extra sets of the chromosomes Almost all mutations are bad but in large populations a few will be neutral and maybe very few will be useful Sex chromosome nondisjunction Example of ploidy mutation Klinefelder Syndrome XXY Genotypically male but some phenotypically female characteristics Infertile learning disabilities heart defects and taller Turner Syndrome X Do not get a second chromosome Infertile shorter in height scoliosis webbed neck Women with syndrome do not go through puberty Have average intelligence Trisomy X XXX and XYY Syndrome Phenotypically female XXX morphologically male XYY Tall stature learning disability no infertility Not as serious Causes of mutation Chemical replace bases cause them to rearrange link ex THC tobacco smoke benzene Viruses insert segments UV radiation Ionizing radiation Random error