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Lecture Notes plus clicker questions. Get an A on your Test !

by: Kevin Strong

Lecture Notes plus clicker questions. Get an A on your Test ! PSYCH 2410 - 01

Marketplace > University of Missouri - Columbia > Psychlogy > PSYCH 2410 - 01 > Lecture Notes plus clicker questions Get an A on your Test
Kevin Strong
Developmental Psychology
Ashley Groh

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About this Document

Detailed notes and clicker questions on Conceptual & Symbolic Development; Magical Thinking & Fantasy. Along with Theory of Mind.
Developmental Psychology
Ashley Groh
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kevin Strong on Friday October 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 2410 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Ashley Groh in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 10/16/15
Lecture Notes Developmental Psych 101515 1 Theory of Mind a Ability to understand that others have beliefs and desires that are different from one s own i Adults and older children 1 Beliefdesire theory of mind b Our behavior depends both on our i Beliefs 1 mom will be angry if 2 Goal make baby cry ii Desires or goals c What is necessary for theory of Mind i Others beliefs as different from our 1 True beliefs 2 False beliefs ii Others goals as independent of ours 1 What I know vs what she knows 2 Assessing theory of mind a Baroncohen et al W i Test 3 to 4 year olds ii Sally and Anne and basket and box scenario a Sally has some chocolate and put it in the basket to keep for later b Sally leaves c When sally is gone anne takes the chocolate out of the basket and puts it in the box instead d Then she goes away e Where will sally look for her chocolate in Resuks 1 3 yearolds quotin boxquot where is it now 2 4year olds quotin basketquot where she it iv Conclusions From Children s Responses a They cannot simply articulate false beliefs b Maybe 3yrolds don t realize other can hold and act on false beliefs 2 However children actually look at different places then they point a 2yr look toward box where it now is b 3yr look toward basket where she put it i Conclusion 1 Children can look at the object but they have difficult saying the answer b Saying correct answer is too hard i Perner et al conduct a similar study 1 Asks children what they think is in a tube a Then tells them what s actually in the tube then asks them what they think the next kid will be in the tube i 4yr olds respond that the next child will think smarties are in the tube ii 3yr olds will respond that the next child will think pencils are in the tube 2 Gopnik amp Astington a Ask children i What did you say was in the box when you rst came in 1 3yr old Pencils 2 4 yr old says smarties ii Same results even when you ask about the child s own belief ii Why do children make these errors 1 False belief task is hard a Children can misunderstand the question b Children need to keep seperare 2 con icting representations of reality c Children don t know that i Seeing or being told knowing ii Not seeing or not being told not knowing d Children fail to understand and integrate key elements of the story e Children cannot articular false belief iii Nonverbal false belief task 1 Onish amp Baillargeon a 15monthsolds b VOE Method 2 Basic Idea 1 Same as SallyAnne task b Familiarization task i Actor puts objects in green box ii Thenshe either sees it move True Belief iii Or Doesn t see if move 1 false Belief c Test Events i Oldbox event ii Newbox event d True belief i Look longer at oldbox event e False belief i Look longer at newbox event 3 Conclusion a Children come to have theory of mind at earlier ages than initially thought i Even 15montholds can succeed at nonverbal false belief task iv Interpret action as goaldirect 1 By Woodward 1998 2 9 amp 6month ods 3 VOE method 4 Habituated children to an event a A ball and a teddy bear sitting on two different pedestals i Experimenters grabbed a teddy bean b Then tested the children by grabbing the ball instead of the bear v Results 1 Both ages chose the newtoy event more often then the NewPath event 2 Interpretation a Assume toy acted on is goal b Expect actor to pursue same goal c Surprised if not d 0 Children at this age are shown to have a limited range of actions 1 Hand opping 9 mos 2 Hand opping amp pushing to new location 9mos ii Action viewed as goal directed if its causal signi cance is clear to infants e Finger pointing 9 mos f Finger pointing 12 mos 3 Predict action from gaze and emotional expression 1 By Phillips et 2002 a 8 amp 12 monthsods 2 Habituation a She looks and smiles at one kitty b Screen down c She is holding the one she looked and smiled at ii Then infants watch both b Results i 8moolds look equally at both ii 12moolds look longer at inconsistent event c 12moolds could use visual emotiona regard to predict following action i By Kuhlmeire et al 1 12month olds 2 Habituation a Triangle Helps b Square hinders d The infants watch both i Approach square movie ii Approach triangle movie 4 Results a Infants looked longer at quotapproach triangle movie b They attributed general dispositions to agents to predict action in new context i Triange helper ii Square hinderer 5 Studies of imitations a Even newborns imitate simple actions i Meltzoff amp Moore 1977 b Use imitation to study interpretations of others actions as goal directed 6 Imitation of intention of person a By Meltzoff 1955 b 18monthold c 3 conditions i Successful action ii Failed action iii Control no movement d Results i Successful action Yes lmitated ii Failed action Yes imitated iii Control No imitation 7 Interpretation a 18moolds inferred the actor s intended action as goal directed and use this information to inform behavior 8 Imitation of intention of machine a What about if a machine demonstrates action rather than a person i 18montholds ii Same 3 conditions 1 Successful action 2 Failed action 3 Control 9 Results a Successful action i Imitated b Failed action i No imitation c Control i No imitation ii Interpretation 1 18moolds did not infer intended action as goal directed when the actor was a machine iii More Evidence 1 By Gergely 2 14montholds a Adult demonstrates novel action i 2 conditions ii Clicker question 1 Did infants imitate head action orjust use hands 3 Results a lmitate head action more often if i Hands Free gtgt Hands occupied Interpretation 14month old could do two things a Evaluate rationality of means in relation to situational constraints b Selected behavior to achieve their own goals 1 Interpreting reasons behind actions a By Csibra et al b 9 amp 12 montholds c VOE method d Habituation task i Barrier is gone 1 Both ages looked longer at A A unexp Bexp a Young infants interpret reasons behind acUons ii Summary 1 Infants understand false beliefs at younger ages than originally thought 2 Use eye gaze amp facial expression to predict goals 3 Attribute general dispositions to agents to predict action in new context based on goals of agent 4 Interpret why means of action was chosen to meet goal 5 Interpret reasons behind actions to achieve goals


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