BSC 450: Wk 8 Notes
BSC 450: Wk 8 Notes BSC 450
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordana Baraad on Friday October 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 450 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Ramonell in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Biochemistry in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 10/16/15
BSC 450 1016 Nutritional Polysaccharides Starch and Glycogen Starch Heavily hydrated lots OH groups Starch amylose unbranched and amylopectin branched Storage molecule for plants in chloroplasts Glycogen Our storage liver muscles Lots branches l more nonreducing ends for enzymes to work Slightly more complex Both helix alpha 14 Tight granules Lowest E Macro Amylopectin helix with amylose of self Polarity nonreducing and reducing ends Why 1 enzymes work at nonreducing ends a wants lots nonreducing ends l enzymes l glucose released 2 helix packs very nicely 3 Osmotic pressure a Equilibrium across membrane b Free glucose 4 M in cell c Glycogen 01 microM in cell i Hold lots glucose without disrupting osmotic pressure concern for animals bc no cell wall d Helix structures associate in granules condensed helices Structural Polysaccharides Cellulose and Chitin cellulose Fibers strong durable water insoluble Beta link chain most stable 1 most abundant 2 chitin cotton pure v wood complexed w lignin l lignin Hbonding Reinforce straight chain Tough form crystalline structure Metabolism Fungusbacteriaprotozoa microorganism cellulase Biomechanics push cellulose l biofuel Problem eliminating crosslinked proteins ie lignin Chitin lnsect exoskeleton crab shrimp shell fungal cell wall hyphae Nacetylglycosamine Beta14 straight chain Complexed with other molecules harder than cellulose Insoluble more exible than cellulose in wood polymer 2 most abundant slightly different structure substitution C2 part of agella conserved for all pathogens general elicitors generalized immune response Glucosaminogens ECM extracellular matrix Nacetylglucose More complex Lots negative charge l long bers Extended hydrated molecules minimize charge repulsion Heparin most negatively charged biomolecule Attract water Form gels cushioning lter mesh Hyaluronic acid lubricant ofjoints strength elasticity Long hydrated gel quotrooster shotsquot chondroitin sulfate walls of aorta shorter proteinlinked tissue more for strength heparin inhibits blood coagulation binds to thrombin to inhibit added to donated blood Unique to animals bacteria not plants Nucleic Acids Central Dogma DNA l RNA protein Info messenger machine Replicate Nucleotide and Nucleoside Phosphate beta position to attach to purinepyrimidine base Attached to 5 end Core ribose 2 OH or not quot 39 quot s on sugar regular s on base Nbase Purine 2 rings pyrimidine 1 ring R1 R9 Sitel Multiple phosphate groups attached Dinucleotide Phosphodiester Condensation rxn 3 OH attacks 5 phosphate polarity Purines 2 A amp G Pyrimidines 3 C U v T U missing methyl group common mutation deamination of cytosine Spontaneous C I U DNA repair mechanism Hbond AT 2H GC 3H HigherT denaturation Weak forces Pi bonding if stacking Hbonds base binding EXTREMELY stable Complementary Pairing RNA obs mRNA transcription ribose rRNA tRNA siRNA regulate gene expression discovered w full gene sequencing ie quotsmall interferingquot or silencing ribozymes RNA as enzymes phosphodiester bonds polarity single stranded RNA complex structure Due to single strand Ex tRNA elaborate loop Complementary sections Bulges small parts where don t match Large mismatches hairpins Improper folding Impairs functioning Other Functions ATP GTP signaling GTP synthetic pathway CTP GTP UTP activating molecules CTP amp UTP bring sugars into cytosol 39ITP critical part of dehydrogenase Other Functions Coenzymes Carry electrons NAD detaches from enzymes amp FAD doesn t CoA important activated nucleotide High E bond from Sulfur Molecular Mechanisms Deamination of cysteine Spontaneous deamination depurination Enviro UV l thymine dimers large bulge l polymerase falls out Cut out w excision repair Elaborate correction mechanism
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