Week Eight (12-16 Oct. 2015) Community Ecology
Week Eight (12-16 Oct. 2015) Community Ecology BIOL 2040
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chris Hicks on Friday October 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2040 at Bowling Green State University taught by Daniel Pavuk in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Concepts in Biology I in Biological Sciences at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 10/16/15
Week Eight 1216 Oct 2015 Community Ecology Predationinvolves coevolution adaptations of predators and prey interaction Predator Prey most predators have acute senses for finding prey rattlesnakespit viperspits on head that are heat sensors sense prey at night ambushsit and wait predators owls acute vision nocturnal many rods in retinagtlow light turn head 270 degrees layer of re ective material tapetum lucidum for extra light stealth ying feathers many predators have adaptations to subdue prey as well claws fangs venompoison fast and agile pursuing pursuit cats vs sit and wait vipers wheel bug often camou aged tigers are fast but also have camo prey also have adaptations to avoid being captured and eaten common behavioral defenses hiding getting away eeing herdsschools ocks buffaloherds active behavioral selfdefense involving fighting is less common animals also display other adaptations to avoid predators morphological form or function of animalsmechanical defenses or physiological chemical defenses adaptations toxins can be synthesized by animal or accumulated through feeding eX Monarch Butter y gets toxins from Milkweed Aposematic coloration warning no effort to hide but have bright colors and bold patterns coloration is adaptive ex Poison dartarrow frogs have bright colors skin has poison secreting glands Crvptic colorationcamou age some prey species are protected by looking like other animals mimicry Batesian Mimicrvmodel is toxic mimic is nontoxic eX Eastern Coral Snake venomous and Scarlet Kingsnake non venomous Mullerion Mimicrvtoxic species look alike eX Yellow jacket and cuckoo bee the more unpalatable prey is the quicker predators learn ex Of convergent evolution predators also use mimicry ex Snapping turtle With worm tongue eX Mimic octopus can mimic more than a dozen animals intelligent uses mimicry to approach prey frighten predators like When attacked by damselfish Herbivory herbivore terrestrialaquatic plant or multicellular alga most herbivores are invertebrates and many are in oceans like sea urchins or manatees plants can t run Instead physical defenses like thorns or chemical defenses secondary compounds that give defense against herbivorespathogensallelopathy molecularlevel defenses tannins terpenoids alkaloids other chemicals precocenes cause insects to develop into adults too soon juvenile hormone mimics make insects stay as juveniles tannins oaks etc are phenolics unpleasant taste inhibit protein breakdown often have enhanced induced synthesis ex Red Oak defoliated by herbivores early because of low tannin concentration The Opium Poppy Papaver Somniferum heroin morphine codeine accumulate in laticifers cells Where drugs accumulate could be physical defense as well stickiness hinders insects nontoxic but distasteful defenses many are liked by humans like cinnamon dried inner bark of many trees of genus cinnamomum Physical defensesTrichomeson leaves and stems inhibit chewing insects can also trap insects ex Trap insects to attract predators Who also eat larva of other insects spines and thorns modified leaves and stems respectively Symbiosiscloseintimate interspecific interactions Parasitism parasitehost endoinside ectooutside Mutualismboth benefit Commensalism neither benefit or are harmed