Popular in Funds of Organismal Biology
Popular in Liberal Arts
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicholas Petrusevski on Friday October 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio209WeekOneNotes at Northern Illinois University taught by a professor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Funds of Organismal Biology in Liberal Arts at Northern Illinois University.
Reviews for BIOS209Week7Notes.pdf
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/16/15
Friday October 16 2015 Animals General Characteristics Eukaryotes Multicellular Heterotrophic ngest food enzymes help digestion Kingdom Animalia NO CELL WALL Diploid or 2N is MOST of life cycle gametes are only in 1N or Haploid cells organize by tissues muscles allow mobility and nerves information about environment mobile Major Way To Group Animals Vertebrates this includes humans makes up only 5 of the species Invertebrates 95 of species BIAS TO VERTEBRATES Body Plan General Layout Or Organization 1 Badially symmetrical adults can be cut in four equal pieces no right front back freefoating or attached to sessile aka substrate Friday October 16 2015 example Blue Jellyfish 2 Bilaterally symmetrical adults cut in half down the middle left right front back including dorsal ventral lateral includes directional mobility and cephalization headbrain example Cardinal has male female chromosomes Embryo Development of Sea Urchin zygote 2 4 8 Gastrula stage gut begins to form also cell differentiation starts here Blastual round like ball 1 ectoderm skin nerves 2 mesoderm muscles skeletoncirculatory 3 endoderm gut linning Separate Mouth and Anus example opens at other end through body a derived trait NOT found in all animals meaning that it evolved after animals diverged from other eukaryotes and began to diversify Ancestral trait stop here example one opening sponge Jellyfish Derived trait two openings not ancestors Protostomes occurs 1st cleavage fixed early cell types mouth forms 1st Deuterstomes occurs 2nd intermediate cleavage early embryo cells can each form complete organism Friday October 16 2015 mouth forms 2nd Why would ONE cell have TWO nuclei Answer SPERM AND EGG Ways Of Grouping Animals Kingdom Animalia aka Metazoa Clades Metazoa Eumetazoa Sponges considered animals NO TRUE TISSUE NO HOX GENES Aquatic mostly marine meaning oceandwelling some in freshwater Dolphins used them to protect their snouts developed on rocks in Illinois Structure jello like vase with cells in its epidermis outer skin layer they are suspension feeders meaning filter have specialized feeding cells that beat flagellum then they draw from water past food articles are ingested not through the mouth but by the cell membrane ENGULFING the food for internal digestion PHAGOCYTOSIS Sponge is sexual and asexual reproduction sperm and eggs produced fuse to form zygotes Hermaphrodite perform both male and female functions not usually at the same time they cannot self fertilize Invertebrates Cnidarians Phylum aquatic marine invertebrates Friday October 16 2015 includes manowar Hydra Sea Anemones Coral Characteristics single body opening Mouth Anus together comes in two forms 1 polyp attached tentacles mouthanus up 2 medusa floats tentacles and mouthanus face down radia symmetry some species repercussion includes both asexual and sexual reproduction asexual new polyps can form and bud off sexual produce sperm and eggs that fuse to form zygotes body layers tissues epidermis gastrodermis stomach skin layer ON TEST 2 tissues layers diploblastic includes ectoderm and endoderm but NOT mesoderm Coral Reef corals are polyps with exoskeleton of calcium often hard live and grow on old skeletons build up dinoflagellates give coral color only four din clear water because symbiosis with photosynthetic algae Flatworms includes tapeworms Friday October 16 2015 cysts in meat muscle unencyst in vertebrate gut where attach with hooks out of host via a segment sac of sex organs or eggs produced by segment eggs include trematodes which are blood dukes causes by schistosomiasis fatworms live in human gut aso in freshwater ponds and rivers planarians they can regenerate well because of stem cells throughout the body which can differentiate their flat so they can get oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide through molecules own diffusion simple organ for proper dilution protonephridia does same jobs as our kidneys Segmented Worms Annelids includes earthworms and leeches aso scavengers predators and bloodsucking ectoparasites eech anticoagulant is produced commercially by inserting that gene into unicellular fungi aka yeasts separate mouth and anus get round by locomote earthworms bristles leeches use front and hind suckers segmented via dividers septae repaired units this is repeated by body cavities repeated by nephridia maintains proper dilution like our kidneys repeated blood vessel rings front one pumps hearts repeated nerve clumps includes somewhat of a brain in the head Friday October 16 2015 Molluscs body plan very similar mante surrounds visceral mass secretes shell gastropods snails slugs and sea slugs scrape algae with toothed tongue can also be negative to herbivores in agriculture Bivalves clams oysters mussels scallops 2 she halves suspension feeders strain food from water that passes over feeding filters if sand or other irritant get under shell bivalve makes secretion pearl Cephalopods octopus squid generaly fast moving predators tentaces made up of modified part of foot welldeveoped complex brain most intelligent invertebrates with apparent memory problem solving abilities Friday October 16 2015