This Week's Notes
This Week's Notes Hist 101
Popular in World History to 1500
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeri Horner on Friday October 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 101 at Radford University taught by Mary C Ferrari in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see World History to 1500 in History at Radford University.
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Date Created: 10/16/15
To live the Spartan lifestyle means to have a very simple life active physically fit hard lifestyle no luxuries and you actually like it Military is everything begin at age 7 Die before surrender not allowed to surrender Women run day to day operations at home Encouraged same sex relationships for men Young men were supposed to have older mentors and those relationships were very often sexual All about democracy Structure of government 1 Ten of them handled all military affairs handled legal affairs like city managers would have the job for one year so they wouldn t turn into dictators They were elected officials 2 500 of them called a counsel equivalent to the modern day Senate and this was the Upper House 3 Lower House consists of the people of Athens War with Persia between the disunited Greeks and the united Persians Page 175 of the textbook is a color coded display of these wars Persian King who led the troops attacked Athens and won land battle but lost naval war because Greeks were better at Navy Greeks realized they had to at least unite militarily so they formed a league called the which is like the current NATO Collected tax money from all city states for league and also used that money to build up Athens 494426 BCE e ruled Athens Wars between Athens and Sparta were called the 431 404 ME Neither side won these wars they just sort of clobbered each other during the fight Pericles invested in art and built up acropolis of Athens Had various temples to Gods One huge goddess of reason intelligent thought art and literature daughter of Zeus was called the Believed Gods lived upon Mount Olympus and the statue of Athena stood over them Forced rich people to sponsor plays the result was several famous Greek Playwrights Plays told people how they should live most were tragedies wrote Oedipus the King King in Latin is Rex s09 Oedipus Rex a child s desire to have sexual relations with hisher parents In the play he had sex with mom and killed his father Thought the Gods tricked him into doing this and the images were so awful that he blinded himself comedy used comedy to get to people and leaders to do what they re supposed to do Religion Greek Gods of Mythology lots of infighting among Gods didn t seem to have any ethical code and also didn t have a religious text Priests were not upper crust of society They had great philosophers but not so much on the religious aspect looked at what caused disease and thought it was caused by He believed these needed to be in balance If people are sick you bleed them or induce vomit Either lessen or increase whatever you have too much of his student was and his student was Socrates believed to question everything Take a general topic and narrow it down Knowledge is the way to happiness Like Confucius Socrates believed leaders should rule for the good of the people He was executed due to his criticism of leaders believed in What we can see and look at imperfect or flawed What we can imagine perfect imagined perfect justice just like looking at stuff and so he believed knowledge came from observing natural phenomena and thinking about those observations Even though they were students and mentors of each other they disagreed a lot but they did come together in agreement about knowledge and observation of the world around them died at a young age conquered Persians and united Greece Were not just a bunch of city states conquered all land all the way over to India This was called the 350150 BCE Greece will remain united even after Alex s death 305 30 Bc Ptolemy was a Macedonian Greek this empire ruled for 275 years During which time religion develops they still have their Greek Gods but now have which means you have to join the group before they tell you what you will be believing in You have to become united with God so you can have an afterlife They also believed in a deity who died and rose from the dead all so you can have an afterlife They were good at math excelled in Physics Mathematician good at his trade Professor Ferrari was a little bit all over the place here so I looked up these guys individually and Euclid was not just good at math he was a geometry genius Remember Greek language was the language of trade Page 175 of the textbook is a timeline that will help with the test Roman republic 50927 BCE Etruscans Rome Geography Gaul Invasion Secrets to Conquering Roads Roman Government Senate Counselors Dictators Roman Citizens Patricians and Plebeians there again she was a bit all over the place so I m not sure she answered my question or if I wrote it down the way she explained it but I THINK she said she would put all three and we pick two and then talk about three points in each Archemenid Classical China Gin and Han Mauryan Dynasty Greek Polis Roman Republic Zoastroism Jainism Hinduism Buddhism Christianity which she will go over Friday in class and that which I will send to you that night Confucius Daoism Legalism 3 Greek Philosophers Socrates Plato and Aristotle Evolved from city states known as Were not IndoEuropean speakers but did use Greek alphabet Romans spoke Latin Sold iron to Greece and in return Greece sold them luxury goods Etruscan kings ruled Rome wore togas Romans overthrew Etruscans and began to trade independently Invasion from Gaul France weakened Etruscans which allowed Romans to spread out By 265 BCE Romans controlled most of Italy on map Carthage ruled all of the purple areas was in the way of Romans taking over completely Once Romans conquered territory they built roads Roads help move armies and facilitate trade and communication Some of those roads are still there today Senate consisted of 300600 people they set all the policy and laws Government officials elected by Senate 9 Two Counselors who served for one year so nobody gets too big for their britches and become dictators Counseled military Collected taxes Built roads In an emergency Rome could be ruled by a dictator but only if it came down to straight up anarchy Citizens were in two forms 90 of the population were ordinary people soldiers in the army and farmers These were called The other 10 were who were wealthy landowners To be in the Senate one had to be a Patrician and they were not allowed to marry Plebeians Rome always seems to have class issues So in 494 BCE Plebeians rose up they didn t protest with signs These were military people and they literally walked off of their military posts strike Changed marriage laws so Plebes could marry Patricians Allowed them to elect people called One issue was that Roman laws were never written down so they changed that and began writing them down Allowed to testify in court in their own defense whereas before they could not Plebeians will eventually get their own Senate were 264146 BCE First war was a naval war for Sicily 9 Rome won Second attacked Rome by way of Spain used war elephants 9 somehow managed to cross Andes with these elephants and very nearly defeated Rome Hannibal had a 20000 man army Rome had 750000 men Third Romans attack Carthage and destroy the city they either killed all the citizens or kept them alive and sold them into slavery Eventually conquered Greece and Macedonia These things caused Roman Army to be away from home a lot9 farms were all messed up because there was no one to take care of them so they sold their properties to wealthy landowners who turned them into plantations called The landowners in turn used slave labor to fix the properties which left the veteran soldiers without homes and jobs The soldiers begin moving into the city and wind up overcrowding it As situation gets worse the Republic weakens which caused civil wars social unrest unstable Republic and Generals who fight each other Julius Caesar came to power in all this and the people loved him He used his power to overtake Iberian Peninsula and Gaul Estimates show Julius Caesar s army killed one million people and enslaved one million more Used his charm to conquer Egypt where he met fell in love with and produced a child with Cleopatra he was married to someone else the whole time This helped him in his fight to conquer Egypt These wars kept Caesar away from Rome for many years which led to becoming ruler of the Senate Caesar was still more popular with the people and won during the next election He instilled reforms and gave everyone citizenship He built government structures solely to create jobs for unemployed soldiers and urban poor Caesar became vindictive called himself a dictator and stole land to give to his family March 15 44 BCE Ides of March the people walk right into the Senate and stab Caesar to death They did this with the hope of reestablishing the republic but all they got out of the deal was 13 years more of civil war After all this power belonged to Octavian who was Caesar s nephew and adopted son He joins up with Mark Antony The only thing that stopped those two from killing each other was that Mark Antony married Octavian s sister But since Mark was stepping out with Cleopatra who bore him three children he and Octavian did not get along well Octavian declared war on Cleopatra who declared Mark a traitor civil war broke out and Cleo and Mark fled to Egypt where they committed suicide together and this becomes the Roman Empire He very gradually took power from the Senate and because a dictator Augustus rejected all things monarchial and declared himself a Princeps Civitatis which means First Citizen and basically was the First Roman Emperor Roman Empire 27 BCE476 AD Extended the empire and expanded into Britain to Germany9 Danube River and Serbia Under the empire the people were professionalcareer soldiers They intermixed with the locals wherever they were stationed and married them Whatever land they conquered they built roads to move their armies Didn t force their culture on the people instead the people sought out the Romans to learn and become a part of that culture In the city of Rome they built temples stadiums and encouraged the arts The story of written by tells the story of an emperor in love with the Queen of Carthage but gave it all up for the empire Moral Empire first pleasure later and also could be ironically and loosely tied to Augustus when he was Octavian and his love affair with Cleopatra After Augustus there were 22 different emperors some goodsome bad and 15 of which either were murdered or committed suicide bad emperor casual incest with his sister kept books with lists of names of the people he wanted to kill bad emperor some sources paint him as bad others paint him good famously dubbed the emperor who fiddled while Rome burned He was the first of the 15 to commit suicide and he really only did that to escape execution This time period was known as the peace of Rome 25 BCE 235 CE Rome was peaceful for 200 years even with the series of bad and good emperors Trade and prosperity increased Had a good economy Army was a paid professional fighting force for life Upon retirement they just stayed in the place they were stationed Government Structure divided huge territory into 40 different provinces and had governors who were appointed by the emperor They were responsible for collecting taxes The army kept a check checks and balance system on the governors sort of like the satraps of Persia 50000 miles of good quality roads built that had mile markers They also created road maps in a you are here sort of way Lots of access to mines and natural resources Created coins copper tin silver and gold Roman law was written down and that which is the basis of our own legal code In these laws are principles that we value right here today Such as Innocent until proven guilty Everyone is entitled to a fair trial Romans spoke Latin but in the Eastern part they spoke Greek Rome itself is a legacy in Augustus day the population was 750000 which would eventually grow to one million people most of whom were poor Romans were engineers and built sewer systems and hundreds of miles of aqueducts to move water These were above ground and huge stone structures The citizens were given free food olives bread and wine because they did not want unrest among the poor Lots of entertainment in Rome chariot races coliseums the basis of which we used to create our own football stadiums public executions which believe it or not were actually a spectator sport They could fill the coliseums with water and have mock naval battles Sometimes they put lions in them and made POWs and slave fight them as a form of punishment Romans brought architecture sidewalks and roads all of which met at right angles to every place they conquered Forum was in the center of town and used for politics religion and open markets Big into fitness and health they had baths In Bath England there is actually a museum with one of these in it she didn t go into a whole lot of detail but I enclosed a link for you to look at to get a better idea of them So it was like a spa or sauna of a sort pretty cool httpwwwromanbathscouklvenuehire Pompeii was very well preserved because of the Mount Vesuvius volcanic eruption was able to offer a glimpse into how they lived what they ate and the things they used at the time Britain and Belgium produced grains and was a great place to raise sheep so they had lots of wool for clothing France was known for wine Spain and Northern Africa important for the olives and olive oil They ate wheat grown in Egypt and traded with the Chinese The moral here is that they made very good use of different environments that gave them the best of everything This was the world into which Jesus was born In the year 03 not 0 as others have claimed He was raised in Galilea and didn t write down any of his beliefs Preached life after death devotion to a single God and to love one another Jesus only spoke to Jewish crowds in the Aramaic language The Jews get the heat for this but the Roman Pontius Pilate was actually the one who ordered Jesus execution Paul of Tarsus was the one who spread Jesus word Christianity The Bible is full of mostly letters from Paul to various peoples throughout the land His letters to the Church in Corinth are in the Bible as I Corinthians and II Corinthians The massive road system helped get the word out about Christianity The people liked this religion as it was not as inclusive as the mystery religions and anybody who wanted to join could Supported women the poor and orphans Christians developed institutions and a hierarchy had a Bishop who lived in Rome 4 Patriarchs Jerusalem Alexandria Antioch and Constantinople and under them the Bishops and under the Bishops were the diocese which were just like the satraps of the old days
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