Week 7- Renaissance and Reformation
Week 7- Renaissance and Reformation ST 150 - 20
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Savannah Tipton on Saturday October 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ST 150 - 20 at Ball State University taught by John Stanley Marsh (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see The West in the World in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 10/17/15
Renaissance Begins in Italy both philosophical and artistic elements then spreads begins there because Italy recovers economically and makes money from trade and the crusades Rebirth of classical learning in art and science inspired by GrecoRoman Writers and philosophers blend Christianity with GrecoRoman classical approaches Referred to as the birth of the modern west coming together of the cultures that created the western world Humanism emphasis on the individual their will and actions have power and are worth focus and study of what an individual can do Politics 0 Not a lot of political discussion throughout the middle ages 0 Discussion of political philosophy 0 Asking questions about government how it is structured and what it is based on what is the best policy how do we create justice Writings of Machiavelli from Florence Italy 0 Wrote The Prince 0 This book written for his ruler giving his theories on how government should run almost used as a sort of resume 0 He straightforwardly states his ideas and The Prince is passed down and continually read even today in political science classes 0 The goal was good government Good government meaning government is rmly in control stable country is not being threatened by outside power and the ruler has a hand on his people Says a ruler cannot behave virtuous in every way you will have to do unpleasant things for control of your people and your power be sure to make it LOOK like you are entirely virtuous Be feared Make rational use of force using force when it is good for your state whether it is defense on for conquering ONLY use it when it bene ts the state In public appear to follow Christianity does not matter if you actually believe it or live it ensure your people follow Christianity to keep them united BIG IDEA Do what you need to get there the end justi es the means Brings back Plato39s concept of the noble lie it is okay to lie if it39s for the good of your people Art 0 Techniques o Invention of oil paints takes longer to try easily manipulated creates depth with layering allows more colors glazes to add more depth lasts longer than other paints o Improvements and formalization in the study in rule of perspective and composition 0 Study of the human form better representation of dimensions muscles etc 0 Subjects 0 Middle ages subjects were largely religious o Renaissance subjects include a lot of Christian subjects but ALSO landscapes everyday scenes usually of upper classes occasionally of the commoners portraits of a range of people still life and some depictions of classical GrecoRoman mythology stories and scenes 0 Economy improving and expanding more people can pay to get portraits Inventions The printing press created byjohannes Gutenberg o The invention of moveable metal type 0 Letters on pieces of type laid out print page one take it apart and repeat for each continuing page 0 Revolutionized the expansion of knowledge before that people only had the very few hand written books that existed 0 Print religious writings scienti c research and studies philosophy mathematics 0 Gun powder invented in China 0 Makes its way on the silk road to Europe 0 Little guns personal weapons Guns could pierce metal armor End of the knight Cannons o Topple castle walls 0 End of the castle for protection from here it is only for looks 0 Changes warfare as well Literature Scenes from Shakespeare Plays based on historical events Humanistic aws Different perspectives The characters are timeless Humanism focus on the individual Tragedies have to do with a fatal aw Reformation In 1054 Christianity broke into Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Movement then begins in 1517 by Martin Luther as the Roman Catholic Church being split into Roman Catholic and Protestant Background causes to the split in 1517 Some felt the church had become too wealthy and powerful o Concerns coming from within the church 0 Fears of corruption Church too involved in worldly affairs 0 Politics 0 Supporting certain rules 0 Focus should be simply spiritual Selling of indulgences forgiveness of sins 0 There were some bishops and leaders who had begun using selling of indulgences to get people to donate to the construction of cathedrals for example The bubonic plague 0 Disaster for the church 0 Churches purpose was to interpret the will of god now a horrible plague comes and a third of Europe dies even priests and bishops affected 0 Church supposed to keep people in good standing with God the people now think they are doing something wrong because God must be angry Some try to appease God by walking around whipping themselves When Pope dies elect a new one 0 Sometimes they could not decide and there were schisms formal division in or separation from a church or religious body So they split in groups and have two popes Martin Luther German Monk teacher in a small college in Germany As a young man Luther went through a long religious search led by his terrible fear of going to hell In this time Luther intensely studies the Bible and comes up with different interpretations with what the church is teaching He writes a list of his concerns so he could discuss them He shares his thesis with his students and they like his 95 theses Take them to the printing press and quotspread the wordquot which starts the Reformation Summarized points he made 0 Church Faith WorksSalvation Bible Church Authority Doctrine Man to Church to God 0 Luther Faith Salvation Bible Authority Doctrine Man to God The printing press allows for the bible Luther s ideas other interpretations can be spread Other reasons the reformation spread Luther made it clear this was not for political rebellion his ideas were not meant to split the church Made this a strictly religious movement Some members of the nobility support the reformation John Calvin Another reformation leader who agrees with Luther at heart salvation based on you aloneindividuals should be able to read and interpret the Bible Writes on how a society can live under these principles People at liberty to connect personally with God but should still not harm thy neighbor drink etc still keep a godly community Puritans are Calvinists Spread of the Reformation Germany great deal of bloodshed and warfare between Catholics and Protestants continues for half a century 0 Germany declares Peace of Augsburg whoever rules his religion if your local ruler is Catholic you are Catholic if your local ruler in Protestant you are Protestant 0 Northern Germany largely protestant 0 Southern Germany largely catholic France Bloody struggle between Catholics and Protestants 0 Royal government remains Roman Catholic throughout 0 At times they tolerate Protestants and at other times they persecute them 0 St Bartholomew Dav Massacre in 1572 a targeted group of assassinations followed by a wave of Catholic mob violence both directed against the Huguenots French Calvinist Protestants during the French Wars of Religion 0 Church holds a Mass to thank God for getting rid of heretics o Edict of Nantes revoked in the next century signed probably on 30 April 1598 by Henry IV of France granted the Calvinist Protestants of France also known as Huguenots substantial rights in the nation which was at the time still considered essentially Catholic Spain no success for protestants Switzerland Protestant Calvinism Scandinavia Lutheran Protestant England King Henry VIII helps suppress Protestants and gets an award from the Pope Henry asks the pope for an annulment from his wife because he did not have a male heir so Henry asks again and the Pope still refuses Henry39s wife was a daughter of the royal family of Spain and the pope is also from the royal family of Spain Creates the Church of England grants himself divorce from his wife Split not over religious issues so ceremonies look very similar Counter Reformation Churches response to the reformation Stopped selling indulgences People within the church try to stop the spread of Protestant Inquisitions sent out inquisitors to see where people may be Spanish inquisition went after anyone who was not in the faith From the perspective from many within the church they are doing people a favor by torturingkilling them because in the view of the church if you are outside the church you cannot be saved and you will go to hell So if you are tortured and you recant your heresy and come back to church allows you eternity in paradise instead on eternity in hell Can39t leave them to infect others with their ideas to you have to kill them if they don39t come back to the church Results of the Reformation Reformation will have a broader reach than religion 1 Destroys the religious unity of Europe countries ghting over religion 2 Creates a lot of religious decenters religious minorities PS People want to practice their own religion Founding of America would be very different without Strengthens growing power of monarch church lost power Growth of selfgovernment Protestantism gives people practice in selfgovernment because decisions are made within congregations themselves Help in the spread of scienti c revolution Church had stronghold on scienti c exploration and statements Explore scienti c principles that don39t agree with the churches views