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CH 10 STUDY GUIDE What is intelligence What are some major debates regarding intelligence There are various definitions Intelligence is possession of knowledge and the ability to use it adaptively in different environments the ability to master information and the skills needed to succeed in a particular culture problemsolving skills the ability to adapt and learn from everyday experiences There are debates surrounding intelligence in individualist vs collectivist cultures There is also debate over whether there is one general ability or several specific abilities How do collectivist and individualist cultures generally differ Collectivist cultures tend to include social skills in intelligence What did the erlle people illustrate regarding culture and intelligence The erlle people illustrated that different cultures can have their own definition of intelligence They performed sorting tasks differently than Western cultures What is meant by general intelligence What evidence supports the existence of a general intelligence General intelligence means that there is one factor for intelligence Several distinct abilities tend to cluster together and to correlate enough to define a small general intelligence factor What is meant by multiple intelligences Multiple intelligence means that there are multiple dimensions of intelligence instead of just one Approximately how many different types of intelligences does Gardner believes exist Gardner believes 9 specific general intelligences to exist What are the domains of multiple intelligence postulated by Sternberg s Triarchical View Steinberg s Triarchical View of intelligence postulated three domains analytical creative and practical Analytical intelligence is traditionally measured on IQ tests Creative intelligence is the ability to come up with novel and useful ideas Practical intelligence is being able to solve problems in real world context street smarts and common sense What is emotional intelligence What does it predict better than IQ Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive understand express and use emotion accurately and adaptively It predicts marriage and parenting better than IQ What evidence supports the existence of multiple intelligences Learning disabilities problems with specific cognitive tasks while other tasks are natural Brain damage can affect some abilities but not others Savants phenomenal specific ability but they tend to have low IQ What evidence supports the existence of multiple intelligences Is there more to intelligence and success than what is measured by IQ tests What predicts academic success better than IQ There is more to intelligence and success than what is measured by IQ Being well connected energetic and conscientious predicts academic success better than IQ Is there a strong relationship between brain size and intelligence Doe having a larger brain cause a person to be more intelligent Size is not a good indicator of intelligence What is the relationship between synapses and intelligence More synapses means higher intelligence What part of the brain is active when people work on questions like those found on IQ tests What kind of memory is thought to be particularly related to intelligence The frontal lobes have high activity when working on IQ questions Working memory is thought to be related to intelligence it is the workbench to hold and manipulate memory How does efficiency of processing relate to intelligence Higher intelligence means a faster response to stimuli Who was Alfred Binet and what did he do Alfred Binet came up with a test for reasoning thinking and problemsolving skills What is mental age Mental age is the level of performance associated with a particular chronological age Who was Louis Terman and what did he do How was IQ originally calculated for the StanfordBinet test How were intelligence tests misused and misinterpreted Louis Terman brought the test to America IQ was originally calculated as MACA100 There was misuse when it was administered to World War recruits and immigrants because they did not share their AngloSaxon heritage What IQ tests are most commonly used today The most widely used tests today are the Wechsler scales WAIS Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WISC Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children WPPSI Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence How is IQ score assessed by tests today What are norms What is a normal distribution What is the average IQ IQ scores are compared to representative samples tests are given to large samples Norms are descriptions of the frequency of scores A normal distribution is a bellshaped curve The average IQ is 100 What criteria must one meet to be diagnosed with mental retardation To be labeled with mental retardation a child must have both a low test score and difficulty adapting to the normal demands of independent living What is reliability Validity Reliability is the extent to which a test yields consistent results Validity is the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to Content validity means it measures what it claims to measure Predictive validity means it predicts what it claims to predict Around what age do IQ tests become stable and predictive of later intelligence IQ tests start to become reliable at age 4 but they become very reliable at age 7 Is there a reliable means of assessing infant intelligence There is not a reliable means of assessing infant intelligence before the age of 3 In what way are IQ tests valid and not valid IQ tests have good predictive validity in the early school years but later on it weakens What evidence suggests a genetic role in intelligence There is higher correlation in closer relatives such as identical twins By what means do heredity and environment tend to influence intelligence in the same direction ie parents genes and environment Interaction of heredity and environment tend to amplify each other and push in the same environment Genetic factors that have a positive effect occur with environment factors that have a positive effect What evidence indicates an environmental role in intelligence Identical twins who are raised together tend to have similar IQ Fraternal twins tend to have similar IQ same age same time sharing things like rooms Children who are adopted from impoverished environments to better environments show an increase in IQ Why can t group differences in average IQ scores be assumed to be due to genetic differences flower example for instance Genes to not explain average IQ in different groups There is an environmental influence For example differences in growth within the same pot reflect genetic differences but growth in two different pots reflects environmental differences Whv can t vou predict an individual s cognitive performance based on their race ethnicitv or gender What factors explain the small differences in average IQ among ethnic groups in the United States What evidence indicates that these differences are not due to genetics Socioeconomic factors explain small differences in average IQ among ethnic groups in the United States Poverty is a factor there is a substantial difference in environments of different ethnicities However the poverty gap is decreasing as opportunities increase Stereotype threats anxiety about confirming a stereotype can result in poor performance Howwhy is family income related to a child s IQ There is a positive correlation between IQ and income There are several factors associated with poverty schools tend to be worse in lowincome areas poor nutrition financial problems to pay for school worse prenatal care Do females and males differ in average IQ scores Average scores are similar but there are small differences in specific cognitive skills Are there large differences in performance between males and females on specific tasks Are females better at all verbal tasks Are males better at all nonverbal tasks There are small differences in specific areas Females are better at some verbal tasks math calculations verbal fluency spatial positioning of objects etc Males are better at some non verbal tasks math reasoning verbal analogies geometric layouts etc What are some environmental factors that might account for the differences observed Parents and society might influence children to play with different toys or do different tasks Boys are encouraged to do athletics and sports spatial skills and in science and math Girls are encouraged to do sedentary activities fosters verbal skills and nurturing development and in English When comparing groups based on ethnicity or gender are there more similarities or differences as regards IQ There are more similarities and small differences How do stereotypes influence performance What is stereotype threat Stereotype threat is anxiety about confirming a stereotype which affects selfconfidence Performing a task will confirm a negative stereotype to the group in which the person belongs which can result in poor performance ls there more to intelligence and success than what is measured by IQ tests What predicts academic success better than lg CH 11 STUDY GUIDE What is motivation Motivation is a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal What are the theories of motivation and how do they explain motivation There are four theories of motivation instinct drivereduction arousal and incentive Instinct theory states that behavior is based on instinct Drivereduction theory states that a physiological imbalance creates a need which leads to an aroused states and produces a behavior to reduce the need Arousal theory states that behavior is caused by a motivation to maintain an optimum arousal level Incentive theory states we are motivated to gain positive incentives and to avoid negative consequences What are instincts What are the problems with Instinct Theory Instincts are automatic unlearned involuntary behavior that is consistent within a species However the behavior of humans and animals are more flexible it does not explain the role of learning What is homeostasis and with which theory is it associated Homeostasis is a constant ideal internal state It is associated with the drivereduction theory What is arousal Arousal is a general activation level What is Maslow s Hierarchy Maslow s Hierarchy is a pyramid of priorities physiological food water safety nurturance money belongingness and love acceptance affection esteem respect and self actualization maximizing one s potential What is meant by a setpoint in terms of body weight What mechanisms does the body use to keep one s weight around the setpoint A setpoint is a homeostatic body weight The body resists deviations from the setpoint through control of food intake hunger energy output expenditure and basal metabolic rate amount of energy body burns at rest What is basal metabolic rate If people have their caloric intake cut in half do they lose a corresponding amount of weight Weight lossgain is not proportional to caloric intake Can one s setpoint change One s set point can change through slow gradual changes in weight What are some psychosocial problems faced by overweight or obese people in our culture Why do those who are overweight or obese face discrimination in our culture Overweight or obese people face psychological problems such as low selfesteem depression discrimination and bullying They face discrimination in our culture because they are seen as less sincere less friendly meaner more obnoxious and less worthy of hiring What are some of the causes of obesity Are there particular personality traits associated with obesity Are all people who eat healthily and exercise thin There can be a genetic disposition to obesity because children s weights are more like their biological parents weights Fat cells can be added but they cannot be subtracted Social influences also affect obesity such as the availability of cheap food There are no particular personality traits associated with obesity People who eat healthily and exercise are not all thin What are the features of anorexia nervosa bulimia nervosa How do these disorders differ How are they similar Are they found in every culture What characterizes the cultures in which they are found Are thin women considered attractive in all cultures What evidence links anorexia and bulimia with cultural standards of beautv Features of anorexia nervosa are selfstarvation 85 of normal weight an irrational fear of gaining weight and a distorted body image Features of bulimia nervosa are binging and purging Anorexia nervosa often begins in the teens but bulimia nervosa starts in the late teens to early twenties ln bulimia nervosa weight is often normal or slightly above normal In both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa females are preoccupied with food fear depression and anxiety and parents are often preoccupied with weight There is a cultural obsession with thinness and appearance What is the sexual response cycle How might it differ for females and males The sexual response cycle consists of four stages excitement plateau orgasm and resolution refractory period Females can go through the sexual response cycle many times while males can only go through it once Females also have a much shorter refractory period How does viewing imagg or videos of sexuallv attractive individuals affect one s feelings for their own partner see p 423 How strong of a role do hormonesgenerallv play in human sexual behavior How are hormone levels and the brain s response to hormones impacted bv psvchological factors What does the studv of different cultures indicate about human sexualitv How do cultures varv in terms of acceptable sexual behaviors and sources of arousal How effective are abstinencebased sexed programs Virginitv pledges see p 426 What role does testosterone play in human sexual arousal How do higher brain regions influence the human brain s response to hormones How strong of a role do hormones generally play in human sexual behavior compared to psychological influences Testosterone produces sexual arousal in males and females Higher brain areas in humans modulate how responsive the hypothalamus is to sexual hormones Psychological influences play more of a role than hormones What does the study of different cultures tell us about human sexuality Cultures have widely varying sexual rules What does research indicate regarding the effects of sexually explicit materials see External Stimuli section in the text Depictions of women being sexually coerced tend to increase acceptance of the false idea that women enjoy rape and tend to increase male s willingness to hurt women Viewing images of sexually attractive women and men may lead people to devalue their own partners and relationships What are some reasons why American teens have a lower rate of contraceptive use and a higher rate of teen pregnancy and abortion than do European teens see Adolescent Sexuality section in text Americans teens have a lower rate of contraceptive use and a higher rate of teen pregnancy and abortion than do European teens because of ignorance minimal communication about birth control guilt related to sexual activity alcohol use and mas media norms of unprotected promiscuity What is sexual orientation What are some myths regarding homosexuality Is there a genetic influence on sexual orientation Do hormone levels differ between those with a homosexual orientation and those with a heterosexual orientation Sexual orientation is an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one s own sex or the other sex There are some myths regarding homosexuality it is not considered to be a mental disorder it does not pose a threat to children less likely to abuse children and it is untrue that most gay men are effeminate and most lesbian women are masculine There are no differences in hormone levels Can we conclude that structural differences in the brain cause sexual orientation Why or why not We cannot conclude that structural difference in the brain cause sexual orientation because studies are inconsistent with their findings What is the older brother or fraternal birth order effect The fraternal birthorder effect states that the more older brothers a male has the more likely he is to be gay Have environmental influences been discovered that play a role in sexual orientation Are children adopted and raised by gay or lesbian couples more or less likely to be have a homosexual orientation There is no influence of a shared environment or caregiver orientation Children raised by gay parents are no more likely to be gay than their parents Doe caregiver orientation have much influence on a child s later sexual orientation What do studies indicate regarding the effects of social rejection Rejectionostracism can cause an increase rate of aggression and depression decreased performance on cognitive tasks an increase in pain tolerance and less empathy for others What is the overjustification effect How does it relate to intrinsic and extrinsic motivation Under what conditions is it more or less likely to occur The overjustification effect is when external rewards result in the decline of intrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation is enjoyment Extrinsic motivation includes reward approval and avoiding punishment Extinction occurs when the reward is removed It is more likely to occur with concrete rewards creative tasks and anticipated rather than unanticipated rewards What is industrialorganizational psychology What factors are related to job satisfaction and productivity ndustrialorganizational psychology applies psychological principles to the workplace Increased worker satisfaction and productivity includes setting goals clear expectations praise and feedback and control and input What do human factors psychologists do see text p 442 454 How well do iob interviews predict performance p 444 What is the curse of knowledge I 455 CH 12 STUDY GUIDE What is the purpose of emotions Emotions motivate us tell us what to think and help tell other people what we are thinking What part of the nervous system is responsible for the physiological changes associated with emotion The autonomic nervous system is responsible for the physiological changes associated with emotion ls every emotion associated with a unique pattern of physiological changes Different emotions have different patterns of activation but sometimes emotions can have the same pattern What brain mechanisms are important in emotion The limbic system emotion and memory and the amygdala assesses the emotion of sensory stimuli are important in emotion Know the different theories of emotion how they explain emotion and how they differ from each other Know the phenomena associated with each theory There are three theories of emotion the JamesLange Theory CannonBard Theory and Schachter and Singer s Two Factor Theory The JamesLange theory states that when an emotional event occurs the body shows a specific pattern of physiological changes and these changes cause us to have a particular emotion The CannonBard Theory states that when an emotional event occurs we experience a physiological arousal and emotion at the same time Schachter and Singer s TwoFactor Theory states that when an emotionally arousing event occurs it causes a physiological arousal in our body and our brain tries to perceive it and we then experience an emotion based on our cognitive interpretation What is one of the major problems with the JamesLange Theory In the JamesLange Theory different emotions can have the same patterns What is the behavioralfacial feedback phenomenon The behavioralfacial feedback phenomenon states that making a facial expression will produce an emotion changes in behavior change emotion What is a polygraph What does it measure What are the problems associated with it How accurate is it How is it most likely to err A polygraph is a lie detector that measure autonomic activity multiple autonomic changes at once It assumes that only a guilty person will show physiological arousal There are problems associated with it it lacks validity nonspecificity no specific changes to lying and individual variations some can control physiological changes It is only accurate 75 of the time What is transferred excitationthe spillover effect Transferred excitationthe spillover effect is when arousal from one situation carries over into another situation which intensifies our emotion How do primary and secondary emotions differ Primary emotions are innate unlearned show up within the first 6 months of life are the same crossculturally are apparent in animals and they are expressed in the same way with people who have been blind since birth They include surprise interestexcitement joy anger sadness fear and disgust Secondary emotions show up between ages 1 12 to 2 12 do not show up crossculturally are not apparent in animals and one must be aware oneself is distinct from others to somewhat express the emotions They include empathy jealousy embarrassment pride shame and guilt What is the mirrorandrouge test The mirror and rouge test is a selfrecognition test that identifies a human child s ability to recognize a reflection in a mirror as his or her own Does venting one s anger typically provide a catharsis Venting one s anger does not provide a catharsis instead it increases anger What factors are and are not related to happiness Wealth is related to happiness What is the relationship between money and happiness What is meant by diminishing returns There is a negative correlation between money and happiness Diminishing returns means that once you have enough money for your own comfort gaining more money adds less to happiness What is the adaptationlevel phenomenon The adaptationlevel phenomenon is our tendency to adjust to new circumstances until it becomes normal