VPHY3100: Week of 10/12
VPHY3100: Week of 10/12 VPHY 3100
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lorin Crear on Saturday October 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to VPHY 3100 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Li, Dr. Wells, Dr. Brown in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Elements of Physiology in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/17/15
Chapter 15 Immune System 0 Active Immunity o Requires previous exposure to vaccine I Vaccinations stimulate production of specific antigens Ag I Vaccines may use 0 Live weakened virus 0 Dead virus 0 Viral proteins 0 Passive Immunity 0 Results from transfer of active immunity transfer of antibodies to recipient o Quicker response than active immunity 0 May cause development of allergic response I Body recognizes transferred antibodies as nonself I Multiple injections of antibodies may cause self cells to attack antibodies Chapter 13 Heart and Circulation 0 The Circulatory System 0 Functions I Transportation 0 Of oxygen carbon dioxide nutrients and wastes I Regulation 0 Of temperature also transports regulatory hormones I Protection 0 Clotting and immunity presence of immune cells 0 Components I Cardiovascular system 0 Heart 0 Blood vessels 0 Systemic and Pulmonary Circulations I Lymphatic system 0 Lymphatic vessels 0 Lymphoid tissues 0 Lymphatic organs spleen thymus tonsils adenoids lymph nodes 0 Cardiovascular system 0 Anatomy of heart I Four chambers 0 Right atrium 0 Right ventricle 0 Left atrium 0 Left ventricle I Valves between atriums and ventricles o Prevent blood from going wrong direction 0 Systemic circulation 1 Oxygenated blood pumped out of left ventricle into aorta major artery 2 Travels throughout systemic arteries of body 3 Deoxygenated blood returns through vena cavae two major veins to right atrium 0 Superioranterior vena cavae carries blood from headneck o Inferiorposterior vena cavae carries blood from rest of body 0 Pulmonary circulation 1 Deoxygenated blood pumped out of right ventricle into pulmonary artery 2 Travels to lungs where oxygen diffuses in and carbon dioxide diffuses out 3 Oxygenated blood returns through pulmonary veins to left atrium 0 Composition of blood 0 55 plasma I Strawcolored liquid I 91 Water I 9 dissolved solutes 0 7 proteins 0 Albumin I Most prevalent I Heartshaped I Creates osmotic pressure to help draw water from tissues into capillaries maintains blood volume and pressure 0 Globulins I Alpha and Beta transport lipids and fatsoluble vitamins I Gamma antibodies AKA immunoglobulins o Clotting factors 0 2 others 0 Ions minerals nutrients wastes hormones o 1 Buffy coat I Leukocytes white blood cells and platelets o 45 erythrocytes I Red blood cells 0 Components of Buffy coat and erythrocytes considered formed elements of blood 0 Total blood volume is about 7 of an organism s weight Blood clotting o Hemostasis cessation of bleeding when a blood vessel is damaged 0 Damage of vessels exposes collagen fibers to blood producing I Vasoconstriction platelet aggregation formation of platelet plug 0 Collagen resides in tissues 0 Platelets escape through damaged area of vessel 0 Platelets bind to collagen and become activated sticky o Platelets release activators that cause vasoconstriction o Platelets adhere to damaged area 9 platelet plug I Activation of clotting factors formation of protein web clot 0 Clotting factors proteins 0 Fibrinogen converted to fibrin via clotting factor cascade 0 Two pathways 0 Intrinsic Clotting Factor Pathway I Factor XII binds to exposed collagen I Initiates cascade of clotting factors 0 Extrinsic Clotting Factor Pathway I Factor III released from injured tissue 0 Pathways converge and lead to fibrin clot formation 0 Step 1 first few minutes I Platelet plug formation 0 Step 2 10 minutes 24 hours later I Clot formation 0 Requires functional clotting factors Factors I XII o Hemophilia hereditary lack of a factor 0 Factor deficiency can also be caused by liver failure many factors made in liver 0 Step 3 1 5 days later I Tissue repair 0 Medical implications I Thrombus abnormal clot that forms and blocks blood vessel 0 Embolus thrombus that forms in one area and then travels elsewhere in bloodstream to block distance blood vessel 0 Ischemia tissue that lacks adequate blood ow and thus oxygen hypoxic tissue 0 Infarct tissue that dies due to lack of blood ow I Infarctions o Ischemic stroke brain infarct also called Cerebrovascular accident CVA or ischemic attack 0 Myocardial infarction infarct in heart muscle also called heart attack M1 or coronary 0 Made more likely by high cholesterol and hypertension high systemic blood pressure 9 build up of plaque in arteries 0 Blood Vessels 0 Same vessel types in pulmonary and systemic circulations but focus of notes is on systemic circulation 0 Structure I 3 layers 0 Tunica interna 0 Inner layer 0 Elastic on outside 0 Endothelial cells type of epithelial cells high surface area volume ratio inside 0 Tunica media 0 Middle layer 0 Circularly arrange smooth muscle cells enable I Vasoconstriction I Vasodilation o Tunica externa 0 Outer layer 0 Connective tissue and contractile cells pericytes I Lumen 0 Inner space through Which blood ows 0 Types I Arteries 0 Deliver blood to periphery Without change in pressurecomposition 0 Abundant smooth muscle and elastic fibers thick tunica media and extema o Compliant I Stretch as blood is pumped in during ventricular contraction ventricular systole 0 Elastic I Recoil when ventricles relax ventricular diastole o Keeps systolic pressure from being too high and diastolic pressure from being too low I Ensures blood is unable to ow into tissues and lungs throughout cardiac cycle 0 Too large to offer significant resistance to blood ow I Arterioles 0 Control blood ow 0 Often referred to as resistance vessels 0 Small diameter 0 Proportionately more smooth muscle than arteries 0 Innervated smooth muscle 0 Responds to ANS and humoral factors I Capillaries 0 exchange vessels 0 Facilitate exchange of gases nutrients and wastes between interstitial uid and blood 0 Smallest vessel 0 Thinwalled o Tunica interna I Epithelial cells but no elastic fibers 0 No tunica media 0 Tunica externa I Minimal or absent I Specialized pericytes in some 0 Astroglial cells in brain part of bloodbrain barrier 0 Podocytes in kidneys part of filtration barrier 0 Types 0 Continuous I Adjacent endothelial cells close together I Found in muscle adipose tissue CNS 0 Fenestrated I Pores in vessel wall allow greater transfer of water small molecules I Found in kidneys intestines and endocrine glands o Discontinuous aka sinusoidal I Gaps between endothelial cell that allow proteins to move through vessel wall I Found in bone marrow liver spleen I Venules and veins 0 Lower blood pressure than in arteries slow blood ow 0 Thinner walls less smooth muscle larger lumen than arteries 0 Functions 0 Collect and return blood to right atrium 0 Storage or capacitance vessels I At rest hold 23 of total blood volume I Innervated smooth muscle in walls controls vasocontractionvasodilation 9 increasedecrease rate of blood returning to heart 0 Assisting pumps 0 Skeletal muscle pump I Movement of muscles around veins enhances blood return to right atrium I Valves in veins ensure onedirectional ow 0 Respiratory pump I Inhalationinspiration increases blood return to thorax I Expiration increased blood return to heart Cardiac structure 0 Cardiac muscle fibers are striated and branched 0 Muscle fibers in atrium arranged circularly 0 Muscle fibers in ventricle arranged spirally 0 Heart valves I Valves open and close due to pressure gradients 0 Peak pressures 0 Left ventricle 120 mmHg 0 Right ventricle 25 mmHg 0 Left atrium 5 mmHg 0 Right atrium 5 mmHg 0 Lowest pressures 0 Left ventricle 0 mmHg 0 Right ventricle 0 mmHg 0 Left atrium 0 mmHg 0 Right atrium 0 mmHg I Atrioventricular AV valves 0 Have two or three lea ets 0 Separate atrium and ventricle o Tricuspid valve 3 lea ets right AV valve 0 Bicuspid valve 2 lea ets mitral valve left AV valve 0 Papillary muscles and chordae tendineae prevent eversion I Semilunar valves 0 Have three cusps 0 Pulmonary or pulmonic valve o Separates right ventricle from pulmonary artery 0 Aortic valve 0 Separates left ventricle from aorta 0 Heart sounds 0 Cardiac Cycle Produced by turbulence of blood due to openingclosing of valves There are separate ventricular and atrial systole and diastole but unless otherwise stated systole and diastole usually refer to that of the ventricles Ventricle contraction ventricular systole o lub 0 Caused by blood ow due to closing of AV valves and opening of semilunar valves 0 Occurs in early ventricular systole 0 1st heart sound or 81 Ventricle relaxation ventricular diastole 0 dub 0 Caused by blood ow due to closing of semilunar valves and opening of AV valves 0 Occurs in early ventricular diastole 0 2nd heart sound or 82 Systole clinically defined as time between 81 and 82 o Diastole 82 to SI 0 Diastole usually twice as long as systole Best heard at points of maximum intensity PMI or valve areas 0 Aortic area 0 Tricuspid area 0 Pulmonic area 0 Bicuspid mitral area Heart murmur o Abnormal heart sound produced by abnormal blood ow through heart 0 Caused by defective heart valves 0 Valve may not close completely valvular insufficiency 0 Valve may not open completely valvular stenosis o Repeating pattern of contraction and relaxation of heart chambers o Enddiastolic volume EDV or preload Total volume of blood in left ventricle at the end of ventricular diastole o Endsystolic volume ESV Amount of blood remaining in left ventricle after systole About 13 of enddiastolic volume 0 Stroke volume SV Amount of blood ejected by left ventricle SV EDV ESV Typically 23 of enddiastolic volume 0 Pressure changes during cardiac cycle 1 End of ventricular diastole semilunar and AV valves closed ventricles relaxed Isovolumetric contraction Ventricles contract and pressure rises but valves are closed so volume does not change Pressure builds semilunar valves open blood ejected into arteries Ventricles start to relax and pressure falls arterial pressure around 80 mmHg falls more slowly than ventricular pressure causing semilunar valves to close Isovolumetric relaxation ventricles relax and pressure falls but valves are closed so volume does not change When ventricular pressure falls below pressure in atria AV valves open and ventricles begin to fill With blood Moments later atria contract sending last 25 of blood delivery to ventricles
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