ANT 304 - Week 8
ANT 304 - Week 8 ANT 304
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Bruederlin on Saturday October 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 304 at University of Texas at Austin taught by F, Valdez in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Intro to Archaeol STDS: Prehistory in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 10/17/15
ANT 304 Intro to Archaeological Studies October 14 2015 Earliest Farmers Other groups more advanced in farming techniques 0 Ancient China Today if you were to travel Southwest many ancient ruins or monuments to visit 0 Chapel canyon or casa grande or anything to show proof of ancient times 0 Pueblo ruins cliff dwellings etc o Testimony of what was accomplished in this desert area of the American Southwest Certain skills needed to be mastered to succeed and survive there Some of the inspiration for the American Southwest came out of Mexico 0 Pottery making cultivation of certain crops religious ideas etc o Rejected idea of priest rules the notion of having power centers that require tribute o No kind of military political structure 0 Actions that are adaptations taken to benefit society and others that are not as beneficial are ignored or rejected The American southwest is a relatively small cultural area by continental standards Those boundaries expand a bit you can find some artifacts in West Texas towards El Paso area In this region you have one of the most complex stages of early American societies 0 Both the prehistoric past and into more recent times Most people were gardeners 0 Excellent exploiters of land and water Principle crops corn beans squash and cotton 0 There are other plants such as weeds tomatoes 0 Encouraged and cultivated but not quite domesticated What is often forgotten are all the wild species that were collected by these farmers 0 Hundreds were collected 0 The things that are domesticated allow for a denser population 0 The wild stuff supplements the culture When you get to the point where you can provide a staple food supply you feed and add more people o More people more labor accomplish more for group Remember Because of the amount of material that is gathered from the environment it is clearthat we Because of the environment you need special agricultural or horticultural techniques 0 Ex Corn is usually planted early and in a particular spot in rather deep holes I Depth protects from frost and keeps seeds moist I 1012 kernelsseeds dropped into each hole I Irregularly spaced so that they get their share of water I Because it s arid corn will only grow to about 34 feet in height I All seeds grow together and look like a bush I Seedlings are called I 6 7 8 stocks of corn plants come up I The internal part allows harvest of a few years of corn Number of major traditions of cultural groups that are interacting 0 Three important ones I Hohokam I Mogollon I Anasazi I Perhaps out of Mexico 0 0 At some point shortly after stimulus all of these societies are producing their own food and pottery 0 When you have societies creating pottery you know you have a more stable society I Pottery is to heavy and fragile to carry around 0 Provide evidence for the transition from archaic stage to horticultural stage 0 Able to see that early man starts and moves into society that makes ceramics and own food 0 Area that dwells from Arizona New Mexico border all across New Mexico and at some point into West Texas 0 Primarily in western to central Arizona F o Developed or implementation of irrigation agricultural o Flourished more to north in Colorado plateaus 0 Generally overlap with other two a little later in the sequence
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