Anthro 2A WEEK THREE lecture notes
Anthro 2A WEEK THREE lecture notes Anthro 2A
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joyce Nguy on Saturday October 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Anthro 2A at University of California - Irvine taught by EGAN, J. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see INTR SOCIOCULT ANTH in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of California - Irvine.
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Date Created: 10/17/15
101215 WEEK THREE Anthro 2A 1 culture and human nature the anthropological perspective a an evolutionary perspective i chimpanzees ii had common ancestor 67 million years ago b are chimpanzees cultural creatures i making and using tools Making is such a big thing ii termite fishing c implications i if chimps are cultural humans cultural was our common ancestor cultural d fossil and archeological evidence i walking around on two legs is a human feature ii bipedalism sets us apart from chimps iii first stone tools 25 millions years ago iv modern anatomy 150000 years ago 1 already been cultural for millions of years v we have evolved biologically AS cultural creatures 2 the culture concept a intro definitions i four common allies to definitions of culture 1 culture is distinguished from society different terms a people live in human groups called societies not a group called culture b culture the meanings that we use to guide life 2 culture is distinguished from biology a differ from scientific racism b cultural differences between people around the world are NEVER due to the biological differences between us 3 culture is supraorganic a culture operates on a level above the individual b culture transcends individuals i we can t control culture individually c agency and subjectivity i agency our capacity for action innovative creative ac on ii we are NOT robots iii subjectivity an individual point of view d culture is contested we question it there are different opinions about culture 4 the way we see our world is shaped by culture a culture refers to meanings 3 images of other cultures a ethnocentrism not shaped by behavior unless the behavior is meaningful conveying particular meaning signs enabling communication language the way we dress rules and values what we should and shouldn t do and what is desirable but so much more b cultural constructs the meanings of culture are cultural constructs you construct it meanings aren t just there in nature as essences but rather these are creations of human interactions but never deliberately we don t hold meetings for what language to use examples food prepared for special cultural events for different kinds of meals i my way is the proper way ii problems for comparative analysis of culture 1 if you begin with assumption of what the people you study is wrong how do you try to understand how they live and how they work iii cultural relativism opposite of ethnocentrism 1 forms of behavior that are deeply cultural need to be understood in terms of their own cultural context 2 a methodological issue 9 ethical issues 4 right and wrong should be provisional not absolute 101415 WEEK THREE LEC TWO Social Organization and Techniques of Production 1 Social Organization a social organization i social organization ii how does society work iii culture b Institutions i social relations organized a particular theme or task ii church family c social structure i an identification of different social groups that make up society What are the different social groups that make up society and what are the relations between them 2 Production a interaction with environment to pull resources b always involves the deployment of human labor c labor i the deployment of labor is socially organized ii every society has to address this issue what are the tasks that need to be done Who s going to do them d techniques of production i foraging hunting and gathering collecting wild plants and animals ii preindustrial agriculture domestication intentional purposive human reproduction of plants and some animals 1 human and animal muscle power 2 extensive and intensive forms extensive puts little energy into field iii pastoralism herding animals iv industrialism uses mechanical energy fossil fuels nuclear energy hydroelectric power e techniques not social types i AMpeople mix techniques of production they don t just do one thing they do another thing so how can you define them as one type or the other 1 transhumence strategy where someone does different techniques in different seasons of the year 2 Nuer of South Sudan 3 Nuer1930 a tended cattle cattle pastoralists b marked seasonality rainy season and dry season c rainy season i landscape floods ii villages on higher ground iii during this period they agriculture horticulture grow millet iv they have their cattle but also agriculture d dry season i move to rivers with cattle and they go fishing ii change between techniques doesn t always follow unilinear evolutionary models iii San foragers of Kalahari Desert in Southern Africa they also mined copper worked for wages on Dutch and German farms things have gone all sorts of ways notjust unilinear foraging because he was laid off his job PFDN 3 Foraging a overview b marginal environments unwanted i not isolated pushed there by other people not isolated c Example san foragers in the Kalahari Desert i environment of the Kalahari 1 desert with some rainfall kind of like SoCal d implications for San Material conditions i small groups 2050 people comprising a Band ii mobility move seasonally iii dry season band members come together at permanent water hole iv rainy season band members split up into smaller groups that spread out over band s territory 4 Food Procurement 1960s and 70s a hunting males success 23 of ventures b gathering mostly females i 71 of calories in San foraging diet 5 Leisure a San spent 25 daysweek in all maintenance activities b 20 hoursweek in all maintenance activities c more leisure time than we have 6 Health States a low cardiovascular disease rates b diet high in fiber low in fats c even back in 60s and 70s 20 of population over 60 years old d Mean life expectancy i average of how old people they are when they die ii infant mortality brings down the mean life expectancy iii not a good measure misconception we don tjust kick the bucket when we re 30 e life span i how old are the oldest people ii hasn t changed much over the years age iii what s changed is MORE people are getting old 7 Sharing of resources a survival strategy a generalized reciprocity everyone eats the meat you hunt b response to material conditions in order to survive 101615 WEEK THREE LECTURE THREE 1 Prelndustrial Agriculture a Overview i domestication of plants maybe animals but certainly plants ii deliberate reproduction iii uses human and animal muscle power not mechanical power iv extensive horticulture v intensive Agriculture 1 extensive don t put too much energy in 2 intensive put a lot of energy in to put a lot out b Extensive Agriculture Horticulture i EG Swidden Slash and Burn Agriculture 1 go to field to hack things and burn it The ash goes down and becomes fertilizer for next crop ii common features of horticulture 1 intercropping a practice of growing a mix of different crops in the same garden field b industrial fields in America do monocropping just broccoli just strawberries maybe rotation across seasons but one crop c mimicking the natural ecosystem bump up yields 2 Iroquois The Three Sisters a corn beans squash planted together at the same field at the same time b minimizes erosion from rain c increases yield 3 need access to much land a possibly high yield from each garden b but few gardens are planted at one time leave field fallow nothing planted on it c if you overdo this by extensive agriculture plants suck all the energy out of the land so only one season d has to plant somewhere else next crop e give land time to recover restore the fertility of the land sustainable c Intensive Agriculture i overview 1 added energetic inputs help mother nature not just set things on fire 2 irrigation 3 plowing 4 weeding 5 compost and manure for fertilizer 6 terracing ii example wet rice farming 1 irrigated rice paddies 2 terraced 3 retaining walls 4 transplanting of seedlings everything hand planted into rice paddie 2 lntensification is a process a extensive and intensive on a continuum 3 Pastoralism a care of herd animals b goats reindeer etc c not pigs The ecology of pastoralism d pastoralists eat meat only rarely i it would kill resources cows make milk cheese blood puddings e pastoralists must mix pastoral activities with other economic activities to get by 4 lndustrialism a features i mechanical power nuclear power fossil fuels ii production is large scale notjust one radio millions in a short amount of time b energetic comparisons i industrialism harnessing immense amounts of energy ii the most productive of all techniques of production c but the most inefficient i san forager for every calorie the put into work 11 cal input 1 cal input ii industrial agriculture 1 1 cal output1O cal input 2 huge dependence upon limited supply of fossil fuels