Lecture 4 CIS 400
Popular in Human Computer Interaction
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Speer on Saturday October 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CIS 400 at Syracuse University taught by Dr. Frank Biocca in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see Human Computer Interaction in Computer Science and Engineering at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/17/15
October 7th class was canceled last week due to Dr Biocca being sick Interaction Types 9 Instructing 9 Exploring 9 Manipulating 9 Conversing Instructing 9 Where users instruct a system by telling it what to do eg tell the time print a file find a photo 9 Very common interacting type underlying a range of devices and systems 9 Ex Vending machines one type requires you enter a code in the keypad like D3 A8 etc the other requires you press a button with the image of the drink you want Which is easiest to use 0 Button with image machine is also using some direct manipulation Code vending machine gives operator the chance to change the items if they want which is why they are still around Conversin 9 As if you re having a conversation 9 Differs from instructing in that it s more like two way communication with the system acting like a partner rather than a machine that obeys orders 9 Ranges from simple voice recognition menudriven systems to more complex natural language dialogues 9 Ex search engines advicegiving systems 9 Pros and cons 0 Pros Allows users especially novices and technophobes to interact with the system in a way that is familiar makes them feel comfortable Cons Misunderstandings can arise when the system doesn t know how to parse what the user says Direct Manipulation 9 Exploits user knowledge of how they move and manipulate in the physical world 9 Virtual objects can be manipulated by moving selecting opening and closing them 9 Tagged physical objects eg bricks blocks that are manipulated in a physical world can result in other physical and digital events 9 Continuous representation of objects and actions of interest 9 Physical actions and button pressing instead of issuing commands with complex syntax 9 Rapid reversible actions with immediate feedback on object of interest 9 Multitouch o Novices can learn the basic functionality quickly 0 Experiened users can work extremely rapidly to carry out a wide range of tasks even defining new functions 0 Intermittent users can retain operational concepts over time 9 Disadvantages Some pe0ple take it too literally not all tasks can be described by objects Exploring 9 Users moving through virtual or physical environment 0 Ex 3D desktop virtual world CAVEs where users navigate by moving whole body arms and head 0 Physical context aware worlds embedded with sensors 9 Virtual reality 0 When you tilt your head and you re wearing a VR helmet the background doesn t tilt with you tries to mimic reality Head tracked to the user it makes sense to someone watching the user the VR environment doesn t make sense What we all pay attention to 9 Most people only pay attention to current consumer tech Google glass Windows 10 etc 9 More in the future we should look at emerging media VR is in current consumer tech now but 15 years ago was in emerging media and beyond that is conceptual media here is the general concept of how we can interact with more things Displays 9 New technologies for displaying information to one of the senses 9 Ex headmounted displays for VR and AR haptic displays spatial audio etc Sensors 9 Sensors New technologies for sensing the user s behavior body or psychological states eg body tracking braincomputer interface gesture recognition Interaction Techniques 9 Some unique methods of interactivity or interaction ex brain computer interface mobile gesture recognition video teleconferencing and various smaller techniques used everyday interfaces 9 Interface technology paradigms 9 Application areas mobile computing gaming collaborative computing 9 1960s Mainframe era one computer per many users 9 1980s Personal computer era one computer per user 9 2000s Multiple computers per user 9 Emerging media trends 9 Telepresence How to feel as if I m in a distant place telephone sound television vision now telepresence Tends to have a booming interest when planes fall out of the sky executives don t want to have to fly all the way to a location for a meeting True holograms would be considered this 9 Hyper connectivity Mobility and sensor diffusion 9 Ubiquitous computing 2020 and beyond thousands of computers for one user 9 Whole body interaction being able to track a whole body 9 Body as interface and display tracking the body and also using that as a potential display For ex items that go directly on the eye and that are directly attached to you Displays are things that give haptic information to your body Social Agents virtual 9 Talking walking interacting similar to Siri 9 Experience virtual agents in games the pe0ple who shoot at you You can t talk to them but they do shoot at you 9 Embodied Virtual agents sensors displays computational capabilities social agents you get robots The face is the display People will respond emotionally to these robots if they look human As a computational device starts to look more human people dislike it more because it feels like a zombie to us People want it to not look human because there is something in our minds that go oh it looks human but isn t acting like one and creeps us out Creative interaction 9 Augmented cognition senses what s going on in the brain and the body primarily to communicate to the computer your mental state 0 Ex the text and the way you clickmove the mouse can tell the computer something about your mental state 0 Ex2 face reader tells the computer how you re feeling The process of interaction design 9 Making new things applications that make people s lives easier 9 Ex someone trying to make cheap lights for people in other parts of the world who can t afford electricity gravity light like how grandfather clocks use gravity to turn the crank 9 Overview What s involved in interaction design Importance of involving users Degrees of user involvement What is a usercentered approach Taking something in the physical world and turning it into the virtual world 9 Process a goaldirected problem solving activity informed by intended use target domain materials cost and feasibility A creative activity a decisionmaking activity 9 Ex Surface computing for social interaction in public places Like a surface tablet Consider an application where interaction is brought to a bar or public place Anything can be an interface like the surface at a bar Whenever a glass is put down a light appears underneath the glass with webs connecting it to other glasses or hands that are touching the bar s surface It creates social interaction with a tangible interface glass hand phone etc 9 Four basic activities in interaction design 0 Identifying needs and establishing requirements 0 Developing alternative designs eg digital paper other 0 Building interactive versions of the designs eg rapid prototyping tool java other 9 Some practical issues 0 Who needs 0 Importance of involving users expectation management ownership 0 Degrees of user involvement member of the design team newsletters user forums and other dissemination devices 9 Usercentered approach Usually people design things that resemble what they would want they imagine someone like themselves as a customer You have to get out of this mindset what if you have to make an educational game for a 12 year old 0 Ex Store automation Not everyone wants to use it like my grandma Who are the usersstakeholders Not as obvious as you think Those who interact directly with the product those who manage direct users those who receive output from the product those who make the purchasing decision those who use competitors products Also similar to buying food for animals the dog isn t buying the product do we buy the product thinking like the dog thinks No we look at it and think oh this looks good for me I like the packaging 9 What are the users capabilities 8020 rule 80 of the users use 20 of the product Like alcohol alcoholics are 20 of the users and use 80 of the beer 0 Like computers size of hands may affect the size and positioning of input buttons Computers used to be much smaller but it was much more difficult to type Motor capabilities Where do alternatives come from 9 Humans stick to what they know works 9 Considering alternatives is important to break out of the box 9 Need an environment for ideas to spread 9 Usually the first idea isn t the right one need timespace to let it build create a hunch sometimes you need to combine that hunch with someone else s and voila you got a new idea 9 Quality thresholds Usability goals lead to usability criteria set early on and check regularly 0 Safety how safe 0 Utility which functions are superfluous 0 Effectiveness appropriate support Efficiency performance measurements