PSY 335 Week 7 Notes
PSY 335 Week 7 Notes PSY 335
Popular in Psychology of Childhood
Popular in Psychlogy
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bria Harris on Saturday October 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 335 at Syracuse University taught by W. Wood in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Childhood in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/17/15
PSY 335 Psychology of Childhood Week 7 Lecture Notes October 13th and 15th Current Theoretical Issues in Language Development Nativist Interactionist Connectionist Nativist Claim have universal grammar language is innate Hypothesis Kids do not learn language it happens to the child placed in a n appropriate environment much as the child s body grows amp matures in predetermined way when provided with appropriate nutrition and environmental stimulation Modularity hypothesis For Against Kids learn language effortlessly Yet to find a language module in the Kids learn language quickly brain rather language lateralization amp Kids do not need to be taught to learn specialization happens with their mother language development no modularity hypothesis Language is species specific amp species Where did language evolve from universal Focus mostly on syntax but not on the Pidgin deaf kids in Nicaragua important role that communication plays developed their own sign language in language Interactionist Language development in uenced by communicative function which is social evidence for Language used for communication Use of pragmatic cues social context to learn Language a symbol used to communicate Infants accept gestures and nonwords as labels for things Evidence against Too complex to have evolved only from interactions Connectionist Language is like everything else Evolves out of basic learning mechanisms available to the infant statistical perceptual conditioning Not one module but several parts of the brain connections working together to build a brain network 0 Language development strengthening of connections in neural network BUT most aspects of language acquisition has yet to be modeled When you build a model you re in control of what you put in there researchers amp data dependent biased Nonlinguistic Symbols Using Symbols as Information Dual representation Eg Maps maps in general tell you direction map of SU represents how to get around this specific campus Scale Model Task Testing young children s ability to use a symbol as a source of information Watches experimenter hide mini doll under a pillow in a scale model of an adjacent room Child successfully searches for large doll hiding in corresponding place in the actual room 25 year olds done get this 3 year olds do Stephen Wiltshire video video of man with autism that ew over NYC amp drew extremely accurate version hours later Conceptual Development Organize these words into 3 groups Run Goal Hit Soccer Score Kick Baseball Throw Tennis May organize these words based on the sport the action that is being performed etc Idea of Concept Concept general ideas that organize objects events quantities or relations on the basis of some similarity Eg little boy with 4 cards 3 were animals one is a kite couldn t tell which card was different from the 4 make categories for the cards Perspectives on Concepts Nativists argue innate understandings of concepts plays a role in development Empiricists argue concepts arise from basic learning mechanisms How do Concepts Change Keil 1983 asked kids aged 57 an 9 two questions about the description of islands Idea of concept changes as age increases Younger kids focus on characteristics Older kids focus on defining features of what makes a thing a thing Understanding Who or What Infants amp Concept Three primary categories to begin with inanimate objects people amp other living things Before age 2 perceptual categorization After age 2 categorical hierarchies Testing category formation of infants Quinn amp Elmas 1996 pictures of cats shown to 35 month olds 0 Infants looked equally long at 2 pairs of cats 0 Showed picture of cat a dog together infants looked at dog way longer Categorical hierarchies categories that are related by subset relations Superordinate level most general level within a category Subordinate level most specific level within a category Basic level middle level and often the 1St level learned within a category hierarchy Eg animal dog French Bulldog Causal understanding amp categorization Understanding causal relations why objects are the way they are helps kids learn amp remember new categories Conceptual Development Part 11 Knowledge of Other People amp Oneself Na39139ve psychology common sense level of understanding of the other people amp oneself By age 3 you can understand this Desires amp beliefs Infants Na39139ve Psychology Infants think about other people in terms of invisible constructs by 1 year old Desires by 11 months In the 1St half of the 2rld year Intention Goal of acting in a certain way understanding the intention of another person Ioint attention 2 or more people focus deliberately on the same referent Intersubjectivity mutual understanding that people share during communication Theory of Mind Theory of mind how the mind works amp how it in uences behavior 2 years old understand the connection between other people s desires amp their specific actions 0 Goal directed behavior 3 years old understand that desires amp beliefs affect behavior but have difficulty with false belief problems 0 Broccoli task 0 False belief task Smarties amp SallyAnne video 5 years old Find false belief problems very easy Explaining Development of Theory of Mind Interactionist Kids that communicate with others more have greater theory of mind 0 Empiricist Nativist All 3 explanations have merit Starts off solitary 18 months pretend play and objects substitution 30 months sociodramatic play playhouse amp school Positive Correlation Children s social play amp their understanding of other people s thinking Knowledge of Living Things Immature beliefs amp types of reasoning about living things Until age 5 most children don t understand that plants are living things Understanding Where Why amp When and How Many Space Two Way of Viewing Egocentric representation relative to self the location of objects are coded relative to the infants position when they learned the location infants keep looking right even after you turn them Selflocomotion helps infants acquire a sense of space Relative to external environment navigation by landmarks starts at 6 months Culturally related Space in blind individuals based on auditory cues Daniel Kish video of blind man uses sound to see Time Order of events 3 moths able to understand a repetitive pattern of events overtime 10 months infants can remember the order of events for a substantial period of time 12 months infants see a pair of actions once amp then imitate them in a correct order 20 months infants have proficiency with sequences of 3 events they can represent what came first next and last Children can understand relative time increments with feedback Preschoolers able to tell which event occurred 1 only if the more recent event is very close in time amp much closer than the less recent one Middle childhood can reason about time Parent Corner Recommendation until kids are at least 6 they won t understand wait a minutequot don t understand that concept Save yourself trouble amp set a timer they ll understand when the timer goes off
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