Chapter 7 notes
Chapter 7 notes PSY 260
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rose Notetaker on Saturday October 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 260 at Clarion University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Janina Jolley in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Clarion University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 10/17/15
Piaget39s Constructivist Approach A What is Intelligence 1 Intelligence is a basic life function that helps an organism adapt to its environment 2 Schemes a Cognitive structures The thought process or plot that is formed in a persons mind B How does Intelligence Develop 1 Organization a Combining existing ideas and making newer complex ones Ideas and manners that are ordered in a logical manner and are interrelated 2 Adaptation a The act of adjusting in a new and alien environment 3 Assimilation a How the mind interprets new experiences in regards to the terms of already existing schemes and cognitive structures 4 Accommodation a Modi cations to a scheme that best suits new experiences 5 Equilibration a The mental stability where all our thoughts mirror that of which we see and understand C Piaget s Contributions 1 Perspective is the way person views or sees something 2 Raised important questions 3 Children think differently than older people do 4 Largely right on his description of cognitive development D Challenges to Piaget 1 Underestimating young minds a Failed to distinguish between competence concept and performance a test designed to measure the concept b Focused more on the sequences that the mind changed rather than the age of the child or infant Even in adolescences and adults 2 Wrongy claiming that broad stages of development do exist a Each new stage of cognitive is a coherent mode of thinking applied across a range of problems b Growth in one domain may proceed faster than that in another C Individuals are inconsistent with their performances during different tasks that supposedly de ne a given stage 3 Failing to explain development adequatey a He better describes development rather than explains how it comes to 4 b Was not able to grasp how development came about c As the mind matures it accommodates new and old experiences and allows the brain to recognize cognitive structures of highly complex models of thought Giving limited attention to social in uences on cognitive development a Didn t pay enough attention to how children s minds developed b Not noticing how minds of children from different cultures developed c The mind of the child is formed by interactions with adults peers and siblings E Modern take on Constructivism 1 Neroconstructivism theory a New knowledge is constructed through changes in the neural structures of the brain in response to experiences 2 Reaction time a Interval between the presentation of a stimulus and a response to it ll Vygotsky39s Sociocultural Perspective A Culture and Thought 1 OU39 912 year olds were tested From different environments Tested with target words and asked to say the rst thing that popped into their heads When tested children from remote areas responded with similar responses whereas children from large cities gave more distinct and individual responses Rural children were not able to develop certain knowledge on their own therefore proving that knowledge depends on the social experiences Formaloperational thoughts are rarely used in most cultures by adolescents Wondered how children acquired their society s mental tools Expected cognitive development to vary in different societies depending solely on mental tools like the language that is valued and made available The mental tools are acquired by interactions with experienced members of their culture and by interacting with their parents B Social interaction and Thought 1 Helping a person understand a problem without solving it for them is known as social interaction This interaction fosters cognitive growth 2 Zone of proximal development a A gap between the accomplishments of a learner independently and what can be accomplished with the guidance of a more skilled partner 3 Neither a test nor score can determine or adequately re ect the range of a person s knowledge 4 The more a culture changes the more the mind works to grow 5 Development is based on pushing the mind toward the upper parts of the zone using the tools of society such as language and inventions 6 The upper part of the zone moves upward as a result of the cultural changes 7 In other cultures children learn not by going to school but through guided participation 8 Guided participation a Participating in relevant activities with the aid and support of knowledgeable adults 9 Scaffolding a Giving structured help to less skilled learners but gradually pulling out as they become more competent C Tools of Thought 1 2 8 9 Mental activity like physical activity is mediated by tools Spoken language is a most important tool but writing using numbers and using problem solving strategies also convey the information and causes the person to think The computer was a tool that changed the act and nature of problem solving and in uenced performance Argued that language shaped the way a person thinks and that thoughts change fundamentally when spoken Piaget doesn t believe that egocentric speech played any role in cognitive development Private speech a Speech to oneself that guides thoughts and behaviors Adults guide children s behavior with speech Eventually children adopt this concept and initially use it externally Turning this into regulatory speech which is internalized Private speech varies with age and task demands Fouryear olds will use private speech systematically As speaking becomes more familiar the children gain competence D Evaluation of Vygotsky 1 Assumed that all knowledge and understanding of the world is transmitted through social interaction Fischer39s Dynamic Skill Framework IV V 1 Behavior is not something a person has it emerges through interactions between person and context 2 You might perform well under pressure and need the increased stress that comes with a testing or a game situation to focus and demonstrate your best performance 3 Performing consistently over and over again gives a human a quality like a machine Unlike machines human performance is dynamic 4 Dynamic a changes in response to changes in context A Compare Piaget and Vygotsky 1 Fischer proposes that skill level changes and develop 2 Skill level a Person s ability to perform on a particular task in a speci c context The Infant A Development of Object permanence 1 Object Permanence a The fundamental understanding that objects continue to exist when they no longer visible or detected by the senses 2 Gradually developed over the sensorimotor period 3 AnotB error a Tendency of 812 month old infants to search for a hidden object in the place they last found it A rather in its new hiding place B B Emergence of Symbols 1 Symbolic capacity a Ability to use images words or gestures to represent or stand for objects and experience b Allows infantsyoung children to manipulate ideas mentally 2 Primary circular reactions a More interest in their own bodies moving tongue or ngers for entertainment 3 Secondary circular reactions a Derive pleasure from performing action suckingbanging on a toy b External environment 4 Coordination of secondary schemes a Infants combine secondary actions to achieve simple goals 5 Tertiary circular reactions a Infants experiment in varied ways with toys exploring them thoroughly and learning all about their properties The Child A Preschoolers Symbolic Thinking 1 Imaginary companions a Imaginative uses of the symbolic capacity are associated with advanced cognitive and social development high levels of creativity and imagery Preoperational a Not having logical mental operations Perceptual salience a Most obvious features of an object or situations Lack of Conservation a Conservation i ldea that certain properties of an object or substance do not change when its appearance is altered b Decentration i Ability to focus on two or more dimensions of a problem at once c Centration i Tendency to center attention on a single aspect of a problem d Reversibility i Process of mentally undoing or reversing an action e Transformational thought i Ability to conceptualize transformations of change from on state to anotherwhy preoperational thinkers fail to demonstrate conservation f Static thought i Thought that is xed on end states rather than the changes that transform one state to another Egocentrism a View the world solely from their own perspective and to have difficulty recognizing others points of view Class inclusion a Logical understanding that the parts are included within the whole Dynamic Approach a When children are given smaller numbers of objects they have a better understanding ElementaryAged Children Logical Thinking 1 2 3 Concrete operational stage involves mastering the logical operations missing in preoperational stage Conservation preop can focus on height or width of glasses concrete allows focuses on two dimensions at once Seriation a Enables them to arrange items mentally along a quanti able dimensions Transitivity a Which describes the necessary relations among elements in a series 5 Overcome egocentrism and classi cation improves VI The Adolescent A Emergence of Abstract Thought 1 Formal operations can mentally juggle and think logically about ideas more hypothetical and abstract 2 Permit systematic and scienti c thinking about problems 3 Hypothetical deductive reasoning a Form of problem solving in which a person starts with general or abstract ideas and deduces or traces their speci c implications quotifthenquot thinking B Progress towards formal operations 1 Decontextualize a To separate the demands of a task at hand from prior beliefs and knowledge 2 Progress towards formal operations is slow C Implications of Formal Thought 1 Advances in cognitive development 2 Think more independently raise questions questions can lead to rebellion against ideas that do not seem logical enough 3 Adolescent egocentrism a Dif culty differentiating one s own thoughts and feeling from those of other people 4 Imaginary Audience a Confusing your own thoughts with those of a hypothesized audience for your behavior 5 Personal fable a Tendency to think that you and your thoughts and feeling are unique VII The Adult A Limitations in Adult Cognitive Performance 1 Only have formal thought abilities in areas of expertise B Growth beyond formal operation 1 Post formal thought a Ways of thinking that are more complex than those of formal operational stage 2 Relativistic thinking a Understanding that knowledge depends on its context and the subjective perspective of the knower 3 Dialectical thinking a Detecting paradoxes and inconsistencies among ideas and trying to reconcile them 4 Common features a Understanding that knowledge is relative not absolute there are far more shades of grey then there are clear dichotomies of knowledge b Accepting that the world physical and mental is lled with contradictions inconsistent information can exist side by side c Attempting to integrate the contradictions into some larger understanding C Aging and Cognitive Skills 1 Many older people do not do as well on cognitive tests but that does not necessarily mean it is due to age could be caused by education or motivation 2 However providing older adults with a supportive context we can optimize their level of performance